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Neues Projekt: Economic Policies in Sudan after the Referendum of 2011



Sudan Expert Consultation on Development, Conflict and Peace at the Foreign Office in Berlin - Professor Karl Wohlmuth speaks about “International and regional economics and politics impacting on conflict and stability in the Sudan”

To prepare for the impacts of the escalating political and economic crisis in Sudan, the Foreign Office in Berlin has invited key international researchers on Sudan, representatives from German and UK ministries, representatives from thinktanks, and representatives from international NGOs to discuss under Chatham House rules about ways to address the Current Dynamics in Sudan, the Future of the International and Regional Interventions in Darfur, and the Regional Dynamics of Sudan. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation on Sudan’s economic problems and perspectives, highlighting the internal economic problems and the cross-border issues which are affecting the development of the country (see the Presentation on Sudan by Karl Wohlmuth). Main emphasis in the presentation was on the need to revise the national economic policy of Sudan towards stability, innovation and diversification and towards a more balanced and mutually beneficial cooperation with the seven neighbouring countries, especially so the South Sudan

Professor Wohlmuth referred to the challenges and opportunities of economic and political cooperation programmes of Sudan with South Sudan which would yield high returns for the people and the economy of both countries – because of the high interdependence of the countries on oil production and oil transport issues, the economic role of the states (provinces) along the international border of Sudan and South Sudan, and the necessity to end conflicts in Sudan and in South Sudan through negotiated peace and development programmes. The end of the regime of Omar al-Bashir in Sudan may now provide a window of opportunity to start a “development-friendly” cooperation between the governments in Khartoum and Juba, and to build an alliance for peace and development along the international border between regions in Sudan and South Sudan.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth also presented his blueprint for an economic reform programme for Sudan and South Sudan as based on publications in the SERG Discussion Papers (see the links: and Recently, Volume 20 (for 2018) of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has brought interesting articles towards a strategy on Sudan’s science, technology and innovation (STI) policies, and on Sudan’s industry and agriculture policies. This part of the Yearbook on Sudan (Unit 2) builds a frame for a strategic reorientation of the Sudanese economy towards structural transformation, economic revitalization and diversification (see on this volume the links:, and:, and:



A new research and strategy paper on “Sudan in the 21st Century: Seeking Pathways Forward” was published as the number 43 in the SUDAN ECONOMY RESEARCH GROUP (SERG) DISCUSSION PAPERS series at the University of Bremen (see the link to the SERG series: Author is  Dr. Mohamed al Murtada Mustafa, Former Undersecretary of Labour, Ministry of Labour, Sudan and Former Director of ILO Offices in Harare and Cairo. The paper argues that for a successful reconstruction of the Sudanese economy five pillars are needed: education, entrepreneurship, agriculture, industry and management. These five pillars represent the main sectors and functional areas which must interact for inclusive growth to occur. Interaction depends on institutional reform and on a developmental role of the civil service. The separation of South Sudan in 2011 has fundamentally changed the situation of Sudan, and it is no longer possible to pursue uncoordinated, short-term and small-scale policy changes. Much more is needed – long-term structural strategies and deep policy changes must be implemented in Sudan. Fundamental reforms are proposed in the study and policy recommendations are presented for these five pillars.

Source: Dr. Mohamed al Murtada Mustafa, Khartoum, Sudan
The Strategic Pillars for Sudan’s Development

The author emphasizes also the fact that the Sudanese government has seen a great number of advisory and consultancy reports on economic strategies since 1956 when the country became independent. All these proposals and suggestions from donors, think tanks and international organisations were well-minded and valuable but were repetitive in content and never were implemented (neither by democratic governments nor by military regimes). Therefore, a new approach is needed by focussing on a developmental civil service and a new leadership for the country which is based on a broader group of policy actors – coming from all regions of the Sudan, from representative political circles and from significant parts of the civil society.  Such an approach is formulated in the new SERG study. Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has peer-reviewed and re-edited the paper by Dr. Murtada. It will also be circulated in Arabic language by the author.

The new volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook – number 20 for the year 2018 – has also a strong strategic focus on Sudan; emphasis is on the strengthening of the National Innovation System (NIS) and the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies of Sudan (issue one), on developing new policies to support innovative industrial enterprises (issue two), on attracting foreign enterprises and stimulating the technology transfer to domestic firms (issue three), and on increasing the yield in agriculture through R&D and appropriate dissemination of research results to the farming sector (issue four). Over the years the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has published regularly on Sudan and South Sudan and so has participated actively to the discussion on new development strategies for these countries (see the link to the Yearbook editions: The research on Sudan by the SERG is summarized in the report on Sudan Studies in Bremen (see the link to number 38 on “Sudan Studies in Bremen 1979-2011”: Most of the papers published by  the SERG have a focus on strategies and policies to advance structural change in Sudan (and in South Sudan).


Sudan: From an oil-based economy to an agriculture-based and science-based economy?

Prominent Sudanese scientists from universities and research institutions in Sudan and at UNESCO Cairo and Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen are launching a new strategy for a transition of Sudan from an oil-based development path towards an agriculture-based and science-based development model. This is a part (Unit 2) of the forthcoming Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa. General Issues and Country Cases”. Professor Dr. Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour and Professor Karl Wohlmuth contributed an Introductory Essay to the theme under the title: “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Sudan’s Economic Revitalization - An Introduction”. The Unit 2 in Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title: “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Sudan’s Economic Revitalization”  has four additional essays. Professor Samia Satti Nour presents an analysis of the national innovation system (NIS) of Sudan, by focusing on three subsystems, the education institutions subsystem, the science & technology institutions subsystem, and the ICT institutions subsystem; the weaknesses of the NIS are highlighted and an agenda for action is proposed. She also presents in a second essay an analysis about innovative industrial firms in Sudan, focussing on two internationally active Sudanese conglomerates in the food industry, on two large-sized companies (belonging to the chemical and food industries) and on two medium-sized companies (belonging to the metal and textile industries). The purpose is to assess how innovative these companies really are and how they could improve their innovation performance. It is also measured by a new analytical approach how far away these companies are from the innovation frontier, and it is analysed what the government and the private sector can do to stimulate STI in the Sudanese companies.

Migdam E. Abdelgani, from the National Centre for Research (NCR), Environment, Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute (ENDRI), and Nazar Mohamed Hassan, from the UNESCO Cairo Office, provide an essay on the impact of agricultural research on the agriculture yields in Sudan. ENDRI has recently launched the Environment and Natural Resources International Journal (ENRIJ), with volume 1 and number 1 published in 2016 (link:; ENDRI is a key research institution in Sudan. This essay is analysing the factors which are impeding yield increases in Sudan, but this essay is also using the example of the national crops campaigns in Egypt (such as for rice production increases) as a model of large-scale testing of agricultural research results in the field.

Finally, the Unit 2 on Sudan in Volume 20 presents an analysis by Mohammed Elhaj Mustafa Ali from the University of Kassala and the Sudan International University (SIU) about knowledge spillovers from foreign investors in Sudan to local companies. Although the oil-based growth in Sudan has attracted mainly investment for the oil sector, foreign investment was also incoming to supply the growing Sudanese consumption market and to invest in agriculture and services sectors of Sudan. The essay on knowledge spillovers from foreign direct investors to domestic firms in Sudan gives also an agenda of how to stimulate technology transfers from foreign firms to domestic firms.

In the Introductory Essay by Professor Samia Satti Nour and by Professor Karl Wohlmuth also an Agenda for Reforms aimed at Economic Revitalization through STI Development is presented. The Strategy proposed has short-term to medium-term to long-term implications for reforming institutions and policies. Professor Samia Satti Nour is a prominent researcher on STI development. She recently has obtained a full professorship at Khartoum University (see the PDFs of the Inaugural Lecture/ICT Development in Sudan and the Inaugural Lecture/Academic Profile of and Awards to Professor Samia Satti Nour, as well as the PDF on the Abstract in English and in Arabic of her Springer Book ICT in Sudan). Professor Wohlmuth was invited to attend the inaugural meeting at the University of Khartoum. Professor Samia Satti Nour is adviser to the African Development Perspectives Yearbook programme for Volume 20 and Co-editor of Volume 20. Recently she has presented a Policy Note on the multiple Digital Divides in Africa for The Nordic Africa Institute (see the PDF: NAI Policy Note).

Dr. Hassan Mohamed Nazar is also Co-editor of the Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. He is Senior Science and Technology Specialist for the Arab States in UNESCO’s Cairo Office since 2009. He has massively contributed to the Introductory Unit 1 for Volume 20 (together with Professor Karl Wohlmuth), and he has participated as a speaker at the Launch Event for volumes 18 and 19 of the Yearbook in Kigali, Rwanda in October 2016 at the invitation of UNECA. In the Unit 2 on Sudan for Volume 20 he contributed with an essay on the role of agricultural research for increasing agricultural yields in Sudan, an essay which was written in cooperation with Migdam E. Abdelgani.  Dr. Hassan Mohamed Nazar has also established the Sudan Knowledge (SK) Platform  to make the intellectual capacities of the Sudanese researchers and other experts and policymakers known more widely and to allow for a broader use of these capacities for development. The SK Platform is a strong network of researchers, policy makers, educators, consultants and employers from all parts of the world to exchange knowledge and experience and to discuss current developments and challenges. This Directory of Capacities of the Sudanese can be used to help find, support and collaborate with experts from the SK network. The Sudan Knowledge Network aims also to bring together researchers and experts from the Diaspora (see the various links:, and:, and:

Migdam E. Abdelgani, from the National Centre for Research (NCR), is known for his study (in cooperation with other Sudanese researchers) about “Potential Production and Application of Biofertilizers in Sudan”, published in the Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (9), pp. 926-934, 2010 (link: These ideas are relevant for an agricultural transformation strategy which is part of the economic revitalization programme for Sudan.

Dr. Mohamed Elhaj Mustafa Ali, as the author on the essay about knowledge spillovers from foreign investors to domestic firms in Sudan, is lecturer at the University of Kassala and at the Sudan International University (link: He is expert on foreign direct investment in Sudan and has recently published a Policy Brief on the relevant issues of foreign investment in Sudan in Bremen at the SERG/IWIM platforms (see the PDF: Mustafa Ali -Policy Brief). He has also published a Policy Brief for the Economic Research Forum (ERF) in Cairo on “Measures to Protect Poor Sudanese Households from the Risks of Catastrophic Health Expenditures” (see the PDF: PB28-Mustafa Ali).

There are intentions to continue to cooperate in the future on the most important issues of STI development for Sudan. The Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) Discussion Paper Series is still open for researchers from Sudan to publish on these most important issues (see the links to the series:, and:


A New Development Strategy for Sudan: “Sudan in the 21st Century - Seeking Pathways Forward”

The outline of a new development strategy for Sudan was prepared by Dr. Mohamed al Murtada Mustafa. Dr. Murtada was the first permanent Undersecretary for Labour in the Sudan, the Director of the African Regional Labour Administration Centre (ARLAC) for the English-speaking African countries in Harare, Zimbabwe, and then the Director of the International Labour Office in Egypt before retiring to academic and philanthropic endeavours in Khartoum. He was educated at Addis Ababa University, Harvard University, the University of Wisconsin, Northeastern University, and the International Institute for Labour Studies in Geneva. Dr. Murtada was an early collaborator of the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) in Bremen. He has supported the research work on Sudan in Bremen tremendously. Now he pays again tribute to his country by presenting to key policymakers the contours of a new development strategy for Sudan which is based on decades of experience as a civil service official and member of the Government of Sudan and as an employee and head of offices of the  ILO with working times in Khartoum, Geneva, Harare, and Cairo. Dr. Murtada has published in IWIM publication series, such as in the SERG Discussion Paper Series, but also in the IWIM Book Series (see the link to the IWIM Homepage, Publications:

The frame and the basic ideas for a new development strategy for Sudan are summarised below in the words of Dr.  Murtada (taken from the Strategy Paper, which will be published as the number 43 in the SERG Discussion Paper Series, with the links: and

The earliest studies by the International Labour Office (ILO) in conjunction with the Sudanese Government (Ministry of Labour) and the University of Bremen (SERG) in 1976 up to today repeat almost the same recommendations to enhance and improve the Sudanese economy. The recommendations were, just to mention some key ones: Improve infrastructure; develop industry; link agriculture to manufacturing; increase vocational and technical training; reform taxes to encourage industry and exports; support small industries, the vulnerable people, and remote regions; institute rule of law; ensure contract enforcement and transparency to encourage foreign investment;  and provide for sustainable economic policies via effective institutions and a responsible macroeconomic policy formation. Whether from lack of political will, leadership, economic means, or external financial investment, the neglect of all these recommendations along with conflict, civil war and international sanctions has continued to disintegrate the development options in the Sudan. After decades of conflict and civil war, the government of Sudan now faces the burden of reconstructing the country, the society and its economy, of repatriating internally displaced persons (IDPs) and providing training and jobs for them in urban and rural areas, also to replace redundant cattle-herding livelihoods and to initiate agricultural projects for food security in depleted environments. While the discovery of oil brought revenue before the great country of the Sudan split into two republics, the oil money was not properly used to expand and to develop the economy. The agricultural sector, the industrial sector, the civil service, and the education sector deteriorated from the satisfactory state they were left in by the British at independence. Although the country since independence has presented a lot of plans and programmes, implementation was always weak or non-existent.

This strategy paper by Dr. Murtada outlines changes which are necessary to get the economy back on track in five major sectors stemming from and supporting institutional revisions: education, entrepreneurship, agriculture, industry, and management. While the short-term and the long-term solutions are outlined, the Sudanese people themselves need to pull together, to stop competing for power and land, to produce and support fresh leaders, and to begin to consider the long-term conditions of the country for the good of its own people. The Strategy Paper is structured as follows: After the Introduction (section 1) the section 2 is on Building Capacity, Growth, and Employment through Education, with Recommendations for Education. The section 3 is on Combatting Unemployment, Promoting Growth through Entrepreneurship, with Recommendations for Entrepreneurship. Section. Section 4 is on Improving Growth and Employment through Agriculture, with Recommendations for Agriculture. The section 5 is on. Growth and Employment through Industry, with Recommendations for Industry. The section 6 is on Management, by Improving Civil Service, People, Goods, and Resources, with Recommendations for Management. Section 7  is on. Results of Past Efforts and Lessons Learned. The Section 8 is Towards a New Strategy. And the final section 9 is on Conclusions, followed by References on the history of policymaking in Sudan.             

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has given advice to the author during the process of finalizing the Strategy Paper and has peer-reviewed the paper. The research on Sudan and South Sudan is continuing at the University of Bremen (see the links to the websites: and:


Sudanese Cooperation Partners present New Research Publications

Two Policy Briefs on the State of the Sudanese Economy

Mohammed Elhaj Mustafa Ali presented two Policy Briefs on the current economic situation of Sudan. Mohammed Elhaj Mustafa Ali is a Lecturer of Economics at the University of Kassala. He is author of an essay for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook, dealing with knowledge spillovers from multinational corporations' affiliates in Sudan. He has obtained his Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Gezira, Sudan. The two Policy Briefs were accepted by the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) as inputs to the current policy debate about new economic policies for Sudan.

Policy Brief One, April 2017: Battling Youth Unemployment: Measures to Secure Jobs for Sudanese Urban Youth

See the short Summary below:

In a nutshell

  • According to the available figures, a large proportion of labour force in Sudan is youth with a substantial part residing in urban centres. This reality makes urban youth more vulnerable to unemployment and severely harmed by its negative consequences. However, although urban youth from both genders are greatly exposed to unemployment, reports demonstrate that the exposure of females to this risk is quite higher compared to males.
  • These facts raise two important policy questions about: (1) What policymakers should do to provide Sudanese urban youth with more job opportunities? And, (2) What are the workable policy options which need to be implemented to give females a fairer share in job opportunities?
  • Various policy actions can be proposed to decrease the number of the unemployed among urban youth, especially the females. These actions include initiating programmes on technical and vocational education, conducting vocational training schemes, and adopting affirmative policy actions in the form of employment quota systems.

The full paper is available as a PDF (see: Ali-Policy Brief-Youth Unemployment)


Policy Brief Two, May 2017: Foreign Direct Investment in Sudan: The Measures to Increase Inflows and Getting Full Benefits

See the short Summary below:

In a nutshell

  • Sudan is one of the developing countries that is endowed with abundant resources. However, these resources, i.e. arable land, water, cheap labour, and favourable climatic conditions, cannot work in isolation from other essential factors of production, on the top of them being an adequate amount of capital. This is because the country's domestic savings are far less than necessary to cover the capital needed to put the economy on the track of sustainable economic growth and development.
  • The heavy reliance on low-productivity agriculture, the failure to channel domestic savings into domestic financial institutions, in addition to the customs that encourage luxurious consumption among the middle class, have greatly contributed to the widening of the gap between capital needed to initiate a real development process and the savings which are mobilized from domestic sources.
  • Therefore, in the light of the unfeasibility of other external sources of capital, such as borrowing, aid and portfolio investments, the only accessible channel to fill capital's gap in Sudan can be achieved by hosting larger amounts of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). However, the question arises to what extent Sudan can attract this FDI? In other words, what are the key factors in determining the ability of the country to be a favourable destination for FDI?
  • The flow of foreign capital in the form of FDI is not an end itself. It is a means to provide the country's economy with an adequate volume of capital that helps in accelerating the process of economic growth, elevating exports, promoting imports, as well as facilitating the reduction of the high unemployment rates.

The full paper is available as a PDF (see: Mustafa Ali-Policy Brief-Foreign Direct Investment)

The Africa Capacity Report 2017 with the title "Building Capacity in Science, Technology and Innovation for Africa's Transformation"

The Africa Capacity Report 2017 with the title "Building Capacity in Science, Technology and Innovation for Africa's Transformation" is the major annual publication of the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF). Professor Dr. Samia Satti Nour from the University of Khartoum is a leading international expert on Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) policies. She was invited by the ACBF to be a key consultant for this project. She has drafted major chapters of the Africa Capacity Report 2017 (ACR 2017). The ACR 2017 investigates in various chapters the capacity gaps in Africa and especially so in the STI systems of Africa. In the chapter one of the report the Africa Capacity Index 2016 is presented, mentioning the top performers and the low performers. An Overview section and a Summary and Policy Recommendations chapter give a balanced view of the capacity developments and gaps in Africa and especially in the STI sectors. The ACR 2017 is rounded up by STI Annexes, African Capacity Indicators, and a Compendium of Statistics.

Download of ACR 2017 and of former reports:

Professor Samia Satti Nour and the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen:

Professor Samia Satti Nour works as an author, editor and project adviser for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook, co-editing with Professor Karl Wohlmuth the Unit on "STI Policies in Sudan". She is also main author of a synopsis of the findings of the ACR 2017 for the Unit One of Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on "Basic Issues of STI Policies in Africa". The Volume 20 (2018) has the main title: "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa – Basic Issues and Country Cases Sub-Saharan Africa". The complementary Volume 21 (2019) has the title "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa – Issues of Human Resources Development and Country Cases North Africa".

See on the Yearbook Series:



Sudan Report: Governance and Fiscal Federalism in Sudan, 1989 – 2015

Atta El-Hassan El-Battahani and Hassan Ali Gadkarim are the authors of a study on "Governance and Fiscal Federalism in Sudan, 1989-2015: Exploring Political and Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in an Unstable Polity". Both researchers have working relations with the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) in Bremen and the Governance Sudan Project (GSP) of IWIM which was funded by the Volkswagen Foundation.

The Sudan Report | March 2017 with the title "Governance and Fiscal Federalism in Sudan, 1989–2015: Exploring Political and Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations in an Unstable Polity" by Atta El-Hassan El-Battahani and Hassan Ali Gadkarim was published in March 2017 in Bergen by the Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI Report no. SWP 2017:1).


From the Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI) about the Report:

This report analyses the implementation and impact of decentralisation in Sudan: To what extent have the efforts to implement decentralisation policies actually devolved power and fiscal resources to sub-national levels, for the benefit of the local populations? The present research confirms what other studies have concluded: that in Sudan the centre remains the ultimate arbiter when it comes to the distribution of economic and political resources between the centre and local states and regions. Economic control and fiscal transfers in Sudan remain relatively centralised. There is no systematic relationship between actual transfers to states and poverty reduction. Government expenditures for states have increased at the same time that state-generated revenues have decreased, and a fair and equitable system of fiscal equalisation and gap-filling is absent. Finally, there exists a mismatch between fiscal decentralisation and the political set-up. The prevailing features of governance in Sudan do therefore not embrace genuine political and fiscal decentralisation.


How The Military And Other Armed Groups Profit In The MENA Region, with a Case Study on Sudan

A new study edited by Elke Grawert and Zeinab Abul-Magd highlights the role of "Businessmen in Arms" for the MENA region (including countries such as Egypt, Pakistan, Turkey, Iran, Jordan, Sudan, Yemen, Libya, and Syria). The comparative study was published by Rowman & Littlefield (See Contents and Cover). The contribution on Sudan was done by Professor Atta El-Battahani, a long-term co-operator of IWIM during the years of IWIM's "Governance and Social Action in Sudan" project. The project lasted over five years and was supported by the Volkswagen Foundation; it was directed by Karl Wohlmuth and Elke Grawert. Elke Grawert is now Senior Researcher with BICC/Bonn International Center for Conversion in Bonn and Senior Lecturer at the University of Bonn (Link: ). In this book the role of military businesses, the economic interests of retired military officers, and the web of funding of non-state armed groups in these countries are analysed.

In the chapter on Sudan, a broad historical overview of the interactions between military and businesses is presented and the political consequences of the transformation of the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) are outlined. The role of the military in the various political regimes and phases of development in Sudan (up to the oil export economy since 1999 and the South Sudan separation in 2011) are presented. See the excerpts from the contribution by Professor Atta El-Battahani in the book (Link) and the related short study "The Sudan Armed Forces and Prospects of Change" which was worked out for CMI/Chr. Michelsen Institute in Bergen (Link: ). The "CMI Insight" concludes that the current regime has led to ambiguous effects with regard to SAF; it expanded SAF's role in the economy and in business, while at the same time it weakened it as a professional army. The consequence is that these features make predicting which role the military may take in political affairs of Sudan in the future very difficult.


Cooperation on “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Economic Transformation in Sudan” between University of Khartoum (Professor Dr. Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour) and University of Bremen (Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth)

Starting with researches for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa" (see the International Call for Papers: ) a cooperation is envisaged to study the role of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for the Structural Transformation in Sudan. After the loss of most of its oil reserves with the Independence of South Sudan the country needs other options to transform its economy. The country is also reviving the idea of a "Breadbasket Strategy" to exploit its agricultural resources for export development, but the experiences with such a strategy are not too favourable. By using the capabilities of its researchers and engineers and the talents of its human resources potential the country may also start a move towards an STI-focused development trajectory. After its Independence in 1956 the country has inherited some important science and research institutions.

Dr. Nour from the University of Khartoum is a leading international expert on STI development in Sudan and the Arab world (see her recent publications on Intellectual Property Rights in Sudan (PDF J-AJSTI-IPR), on Technological Change and Skill Development in Sudan, presenting a macro and micro level empirical investigation of skill development and technological change in Sudan with brand new primary data (see the information from Springer Publishers: ), and on Information and Communication Technology in Sudan, An Economic Analysis of Impact and Use in Universities, comparing the ICT impact on private versus public universities in Sudan (see the information from Springer Publishers: ). These two books by Dr. Nour on Sudan were reviewed by Professor Karl Wohlmuth in Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook which will appear in August 2016 at LIT Publishers.

Her contributions on STI systems and policies of Arab States (see PDF Palgrave and PDF UNESCO) give a comparative view of the Arab countries' Science, Technology and Innovation Systems. Her book "Economic Systems of Innovation in the Arab region" was published by Palgrave Macmillan, New York, USA, on 9 March 2016. Professor Karl Wohlmuth has endorsed the book for Palgrave Macmillan (see the PDF Palgrave); he has also reviewed the book in Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook which will appear in August 2016 at LIT Publishers.

See also the Links to the Publisher and to supporting institutions (UNU-MERIT) concerning the details of this important book:

In the first phase of the cooperation between the two research groups the work on a Unit for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on "STI Policies for Sudan's Economic Transformation" has already started. Professor Dr. Nour is advising the editors of volume 20 and is Co-Editor for the Unit on Sudan.


Sudan und Südsudan in der Presse: Beiträge von Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth

Im "Handelsblatt" (Online-Ausgabe) findet sich eine interessante Serie zu dem Produkt Gummi Arabicum, bei dem der Sudan Weltmarktführer ist. Professor Karl Wohlmuth hat als Interviewpartner mitgewirkt.
Aus dem Bericht: "In Süßigkeiten, Softdrinks oder Tabletten – Gummi Arabicum ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil vieler Produkte. Um den Import nicht zu gefährden, änderten die USA sogar ihre Gesetze. Die Weltwirtschaft ist abhängig vom Harz." (von Rebecca Ciesielski, 14. 3. 2015, 17:34 Uhr)

Titel des Gesamtberichtes:

Abhängig vom Krisenkleber (14. 3. 2015)

Handelsblatt, 5 Teile:

Teil 1: Abhängig vom Krisenkleber

Teil 2: Naturharz aus dem Krisengebiet

Teil 3: Gummi in der Coca-Cola

Teil 4: Wer das Gummi Arabicum verbannt hat

Teil 5: "Ein umweltpolitischer Ausverkauf"

In der Online-Zeitschrift der Friedrich-Ebert–Stiftung finden sich von Zeit zu Zeit Artikel zur Lage im Südsudan. Der Sudanexperte Professor Karl Wohlmuth hat Kommentare zu einigen dieser Berichte geschrieben:

Das Stellvertreter-Scheitern
Der Aufbau des jungen Staates Südsudan ist fehlgeschlagen. Der Westen hat frühe Anzeichen dafür beharrlich ignoriert.
Von: Bettina Rühl, veröffentlicht am 28.09.2015

Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen schrieb am 30.09.2015

"Zu früh für großen Optimismus"
Henrik Maihack über die geplante Rückkehr Riek Machars nach Juba und das Friedensabkommen im Südsudan.
Von: Henrik Maihack, veröffentlicht am 18.04.2016

Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen schrieb am 28.04.2016


Interdisziplinäre Fachtagung „Strukturentwicklung im Südsudan“ an der Universität Erfurt

An der Universität Erfurt fand im Januar 2016 die Fachtagung "Strukturentwicklung im Südsudan" statt. Experten analysierten aus interdisziplinärer Sicht die akuten Probleme des Landes und Auswege aus der Krise, die durch einen eskalierenden Bürgerkrieg und eine weitere Verarmung der Bevölkerung gekennzeichnet ist. Die kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen im Südsudan nehmen trotz beachtlicher internationaler und regionaler Vermittlungsbemühungen (von IGAD und AU) weiter zu. Auch Regionen im Südsudan, die bisher als weitgehend friedlich angesehen wurden, werden von den Auseinandersetzungen zunehmend erfasst (so im Westen und im Süden des Landes). Es ist daher sehr verdienstvoll, wenn Afrika-Initiativen an der Universität Erfurt diese Konferenz dazu nutzten, ein in der Presse fast vergessenes Thema aufzugreifen und zur Diskussion zu stellen. Bei der Tagung ging es daher auch um die Probleme, Hindernisse, Perspektiven und Möglichkeiten eines Wiederaufbaus im Südsudan. Es ist dabei insbesondere von Bedeutung, zu analysieren, welche Akteure im Südsudan an einem Wiederaufbau interessiert sind und wie ein solcher Neubeginn strategisch und operational bewältigt werden kann. Entgegen dem Wortlaut des IGAD-Friedensabkommens zwischen der Regierung des Südsudan und der südsudanesischen Rebellenbewegung hat die Regierung einseitig die Zahl der Bundesstaaten von zehn (10) auf achtundzwanzig (28) erhöht und auch schon die Ämter der Gouverneure besetzt. Diese "Divide et Impera"-Politik der Regierung führt zu neuen Verzögerungen bei der Etablierung einer tragfähigen Friedensordnung.

Die bisherige Aufteilung des Südsudan in zehn Bundesstaaten (gemäß Verfassung des Südsudan und IGAD-Abkommen)

Die neue und einseitige Aufteilung des Südsudan in achtundzwanzig Bundesstaaten (ohne Einverständnis der IGAD und ohne Zustimmung der Rebellenbewegung)

Die Fachtagung thematisierte die Strukturentwicklungen im Südsudan seit der Unabhängigkeit des Jahres 2011
(vgl. 2016 A4-Leporello). Im Rückblick zeigt sich, dass die großen Hoffnungen des südsudanesischen Volkes nicht erfüllt wurden. Die Experten bei der Tagung waren sich einig, dass vor allem die Stärkung des Sicherheitsapparates die prägende Strukturentwicklung dieser fünf Jahre war, nicht aber der ökonomische und soziale Aufbau des Landes. Zielsetzung der Veranstaltung war es nach den Intentionen der Veranstalter, eine Bilanz der ersten Jahre der Strukturentwicklungen im Südsudan zu ziehen und einen Ausblick auf Entwicklungsperspektiven zu geben. Die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit mit dem Südsudan sollten dabei mit Wissenschaftlern, Experten von NGOs, politischen Vertretern und der Botschafterin des Südsudans kritisch diskutiert werden. Die Veranstaltung ist Ergebnis einer Kooperation der Hochschulgruppe SOS-Darfur mit der Universität Erfurt und der Stadt Erfurt, der evangelischen Landeskirche, dem Studierendenrat, der Stiftung Nord-Süd-Brücken sowie der Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung und der Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.

Der Sudanexperte und Entwicklungsökonom Professor Karl Wohlmuth referierte über die ökonomischen Entwicklungen im Südsudan seit 2011 und zeigte auf, was getan werden müsste (im Sinne von strukturverändernden Strategien) und was aktuell angesichts der derzeitigen politischen Lage getan werden kann (wenn auch nur lokal und mit angepassten Ansätzen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit). Vgl. dazu die Präsentation (PDF: Wohlmuth-Südsudan-Erfurt) und die Synopse (PDF: Wohlmuth-Abstract-Erfurt) zum Vortrag von Professor Wohlmuth. Der Vortrag zeigt auf, dass die großen ökonomischen Chancen und Potentiale des Südsudan seit 2011 nicht genutzt wurden, dass aber dringend Wege gefunden werden müssen, um die Grundbedürfnisse der Bevölkerung zu realisieren, etwa durch lokale Ernährungs- und Beschäftigungsprogramme. Diesbezüglich werden auch konkrete Beispiele aus der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit betrachtet; diese zeigen, dass auf lokaler Ebene durchaus Handlungsmöglichkeiten bestehen.

Vgl. die folgenden Links mit Berichten zu der Tagung (Universität Erfurt, politische Stiftungen und Förderer, Tageszeitungen, etc.) :

An der Universität Erfurt hat Professor Karl Wohlmuth bereits an drei Sudan/Südsudan-Tagungen mitgewirkt (Vorträge gehalten bzw. auch schriftliche Beiträge zu Tagungen erarbeitet). Vgl. dazu die Einträge in: und

Es ist vorgesehen, die Beiträge der diesjährigen Südsudan-Tagung zu veröffentlichen, da sehr wenig Information über die Entwicklungen in diesem Staat und über die Lage der Bevölkerung vorliegt.


Der lange Weg zu einem "neuen" Sudan: Die Erfurter Protokolle

Soeben ist die Dokumentation der Fachtagung zum Sudan an der Universität Erfurt in 2014 erschienen. In dieser Studie sind ausgewählte Beiträge der Fachtagung veröffentlicht worden, darunter der Beitrag von Professor Fouad Ibrahim, warum die Menschen in Darfur hungern, ein Beitrag von Ulrich Delius über die marginalisierten Regionen im Sudan, ein Beitrag von Philipp Rock über den deutschen Beitrag zur wirtschaftlichen und politischen Entwicklung im Süd-Sudan und der Beitrag des Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessors und Sudanforschers Karl Wohlmuth zu den Programmen für nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan. Insgesamt werden fünf zentrale Programmbereiche analysiert.

Wenn auch die Lage im Augenblick alles andere als nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen in den beiden Staaten erwarten lässt, ist es doch notwendig, immer wieder darauf hinzuweisen, dass eine friedvolle Zukunft in den beiden Staaten und zwischen den beiden Staaten nur dann denkbar ist, wenn die zentralen Wirtschafts- und Sozialreformen angegangen werden (diese Studie ist als PDF verfügbar). Wie der Bremer Professor zeigt, liegen zu allen zentralen Reformbereichen Vorschläge für beide Länder vor, doch gilt es, diese endlich umzusetzen.


Fiskalische Dezentralisierung im Sudan am Beispiel des Bundesstaates Al Gadarif: Forschungsstipendiat aus dem Sudan in Bremen 

In einem Forschungsvorhaben zur „Fiskalischen Dezentralisierung im Sudan am Beispiel des Bundesstaates Al Gadarif“ wird in den kommenden Monaten (Juni bis September 2014) von einem Gastwissenschaftler aus dem Sudan, Sharif Ismail M. Bongo von der University of Gadarif, untersucht werden, welche Möglichkeiten es gibt, die vertikalen und horizontalen fiskalischen Ungleichgewichte im föderalen System des Sudan zu reduzieren. Sowohl die vertikalen Ungleichgewichte in der Finanzausstattung (zwischen der föderalen Regierung in Khartum, dem Staat Al Gadarif und den lokalen Verwaltungseinheiten des Staates) als auch die horizontalen Ungleichgewichte in der Finanzausstattung (zwischen den siebzehn Bundesstaaten des Sudan und zwischen den zwölf Provinzen des Staates Al Gadarif) werden in diesem Forschungsvorhaben untersucht. Diese Ungleichgewichte sind in höchstem Masse entwicklungshemmend und führen zu Konflikten zwischen den Bevölkerungsgruppen und zwischen den Teilstaaten und Verwaltungseinheiten.  

Der Aufenthalt des Gastwissenschaftlers an der Universität Bremen wird vom DAAD finanziert; die Betreuung und Beratung hat Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth übernommen, der seit den 80er Jahren Stipendiaten aus dem Sudan berät. Im Rahmen des viermonatigen Forschungsaufenthaltes werden von Herrn Sharif auch Vorträge und Seminare zu dem Thema abgehalten. Ein Bericht für die Sudan-Studienreihe SERG Discussion Papers Nummer 42 (Link: ) ist zum Thema Fiscal Decentralization in Gadarif State: Did it Realize the Promise?“ in Vorbereitung.

Herr Sharif hat kürzlich bei der 4th Annual Conference on „Structural Reform, Transformation, and Sustainable Development in Post-Secession Sudan: Economic, Political, and Social Perspectives” zum Thema „Restructuring Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations to Enhance Growth and Development in Post-Secession Sudan“ vorgetragen. Auch bei der vorhergehenden 3. Konferenz hat Herr Sharif einen Vortrag gehalten. Diese Konferenzen werden organisiert von der Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, University of Khartoum, dem Sudan Ministry of Finance and National Economy und der World Bank. Die Konferenz (April 21 - 22, 2014, Conference Venue: Shariqa Hall, University of Khartoum) wird jeweils auch mit einem Ergebnisbericht abgeschlossen, der für die Politikreform im Sudan wichtig ist (vgl. zur Konferenz Programme and Call for Papers in englischer und arabischer Sprache, mit den Links und ). Der Ergebnisbericht der 3rd Annual Conference mit den Empfehlungen für die Politik liegt in englischer und arabischer Sprache vor (Link: ).

Im Rahmen der Sudan-/Südsudan-Forschung in Bremen stehen Themen der Implementierung nachhaltiger Wirtschaftsreformen im Vordergrund (vgl. den Kurzbericht von Professor Wohlmuth mit dem Link: und die aktuelle Studie für die SERG-Reihe mit dem Link ).


Which Future for Sudan and South Sudan? - The forthcoming African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 17 has three chapters on Sudan and South Sudan

In Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – Country Cases the Editors took up the event of the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan on July 9, 2011 and the recent developments which have occurred since in Sudan and in South Sudan and between these two countries to publish a special Unit as part of the Yearbook. This Unit 1 on New Economic Policies for Sudan and South Sudan - The Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation has three chapters and highlights the need for new macroeconomic strategies and policies in Sudan and South Sudan embedded in a new political environment; there is also a focus on the many political and economic interdependencies between these two countries, especially in the border areas between Sudan and South Sudan.  

The Editors were enthusiastically supported in this endeavor by research groups from the two countries. The authors of this Unit 1 are convinced that new macroeconomic policies (supported by medium-term and long-term development strategies) and a strategic economic and political co-operation between the two countries (based on visions of sustainable growth in the border areas) are necessary. So far, the political processes and the attitudes of the elites in these two countries show that the lessons from the many decades of conflict between and within these two countries were not learned. The civil war inside the South Sudan since December 2013 and the continuing conflicts in major regions of Sudan make millions of people in both countries suffering. While the data from the most recent National Baseline Household Survey of 2009 revealed high levels of poverty in both countries (see Graph 1 and Graph 2), it can be expected that income poverty and other dimensions of poverty in both countries have further worsened in the last years. 


Graph 1: Poverty in the States of South Sudan (in % of the Population of these States)

Source: World Bank - Analysis of the Data of the National Baseline Household Survey/NBHS of 2009 by World Bank



Graph 2: Poverty in the States of Sudan (in % of the Population of these States)

Source: World Bank - Analysis of the Data of the National Baseline Household Survey/NBHS of 2009 by World Bank


Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook contains as well a Unit 2 on Macroeconomic Policies in West Africa. Researchers from academic institutions in Nigeria and Senegal, and from WAMA (West African Monetary Agency) and WAMI (West African Monetary Institute) have contributed to this important Unit with four chapters. In order to compare and to contrast the established CFA-based WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union) integration process with the newly established WAMZ (West African Monetary Zone) integration process, Senegal was included as a country case for the CFA Zone. In Unit 3 of Volume 17 a great number of book reviews and book notes is presented and so this Unit 3 is a valuable source of information on new books, journal issues, documents and research papers with a focus on macroeconomic policy formation in Africa. Volume 17 is complementary to Volume 16 on Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – General Issues which was published already in 2013.

Because of the great number of high-quality submissions of papers for Volume 18 on Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration the International Call for Papers for this volume is closed now (but submissions of papers on successfully and competitively exporting African companies and on global and regional value chains led by African firms are still accepted).


Neue Sudan-/Südsudan-Studie über umfassende und nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen ist soeben erschienen: SERG Bericht Nummer 41 

Die neue Studie von Professor Karl Wohlmuth über umfassende und nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan ist soeben in der Reihe SERG (Sudan Economy Research Group) Discussion Papers erschienen (vgl. den Link zu den SERG Discussion Papers).


New Study on Comprehensive and Sustainable Economic Reforms in Sudan and South Sudan has just appeared: SERG Paper Number 41 

The new study by Professor Karl Wohlmuth about comprehensive and sustainable economic reforms in Sudan and South Sudan has just been published in the SERG (Sudan Economy Research Group) Discussion Paper Series (see the link to the SERG Discussion Papers).


Programme für nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan: Welche Politiken führen aus den politischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Krisen heraus?

Welchen Beitrag können umfassende und nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen für die politische und ökonomische Stabilisierung im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan erbringen? Diese Fragen werden in einer neuen Studie von Professor Karl Wohlmuth mit dem Titel Sudan und Süd-Sudan – Programme für nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen untersucht. Die Studie erscheint in den SERG (Sudan Economy Research Group) Discussion Papers als Nummer 41 (vgl. dazu den Link zur: SERG Reihe). Der Beitrag von Professor Karl Wohlmuth geht von der zentralen These aus, dass zunehmende horizontale Ungleichheiten (zwischen den Regionen) und vertikale Ungleichheiten (zwischen den Einkommensschichten) kumulativ wirken und immer wieder neue Konflikte, Instabilitäten und Wachstums- und Entwicklungshemmnisse in den beiden Ländern hervorrufen. Die Wirtschaftsreformvorschläge des Professors in fünf zentralen Bereichen basieren auf diesen Einschätzungen und beziehen relevante Trends und Szenarien ein. Mehr über die Studie von Professor Karl Wohlmuth…


Meeting of African Junior Researchers in Hanover at Herrenhausen Palace, VolkswagenStiftung

A great event for the postdoctoral fellows who are supported by the VolkswagenStiftung.  180 junior researchers, representatives from African Universities and African Research Organizations and experts on African development met at the rebuilt Conference Center of the Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover. The VolkswagenStiftung started its Africa Initiative early in 2003 and so celebrated with this event in Hanover also 10 years of support for African researchers who work in cooperation with German research partners and their respective institutions. While in earlier years (2003 - 2008) research projects and fellowships were granted for research projects with graduate and doctoral students, since 2008 the VolkswagenStiftung is funding a programme for postdoctoral students.

At the Conference in Hanover the junior researchers presented their projects – in lectures, presentations and poster sessions. A broad spectrum of research issues was made visible. Research programmes and fellowships were financed for the subjects Natural Resources, Livelihood Management, Social Sciences, Humanities, Engineering Sciences, and Neglected Tropical Diseases. Among the African countries with a greater number of funded postdoctoral fellows were Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzani, South Africa, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Sudan and Burkina Faso.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen was invited as an expert on African Development. He was involved in a research project of the VolkswagenStiftung as director and cooperation partner for the project “Governance and Social Action in Sudan after the Comprehensive  Peace Agreement of January 9, 2005”, a project which started in 2005 and ended in 2012 (see Governance Project Link:


The Conference Participants in Front of the Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover


See more information about the Meeting (Link VolkswagenStiftung:, about the Programme (Link VolkswagenStiftung:, about the  Portraits of funded Researchers (Link VolkswagenStiftung:, and about the Research Funding Procedures (Link VolkswagenStiftung:


UNMISS in Juba and Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen agree to cooperate on assessing the developments in South Sudan:

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen and UNMISS (United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan) have agreed to cooperate in assessing the situation with regard of peace, security and development in South Sudan. UNMISS has a mandate since 9 July 2011 to consolidate peace and security and to establish conditions for development (see the link to UNMISS: Professor Karl Wohlmuth and a representative from UNMISS have recently agreed in Bremen to exchange information and to assess the situation in South Sudan. Professor Wohlmuth works since 1978 on development in Sudan, researching on economic development and the political economy of Sudan. Since 2005 the professor researches on the implications of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the North and the South, and since 2011 he works about the modalities of a strategic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan (see the link: Sudan Economy Research Group/SERG and the project Economic Policies in Sudan after the Referendum of 2011). Recently a documentary film by ARTE has shown the tremendous difficulties to establish the foundations for a viable state of South Sudan (see the link to the film by ARTE:, and see also the Documentary Film “South Sudan - Birth of a State”). Any progress will depend on a strategic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan as the border region between the two countries is so important for peace, security, growth  and development in both countries.


Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Sudan and South Sudan – The Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation

This is the title of Unit Three for the forthcoming volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa”. The Editors of the Yearbook took the event of South Sudan’s Independence on July 9, 2011 as an obligation to plan for a whole Unit on the Sudan and the South Sudan for the new volume of the Yearbook. As the separation of the South is of tremendous importance not only for the two countries Sudan and South Sudan but also for the whole continent of Africa, the Editors have invited leading researchers from the University of Khartoum, the University of Kassala (both in the North) and the University of Juba (in the South) to write on the macroeconomic policies and the macroeconomic policy formation processes of the two countries. Dr. Dirk Hansohm, Macroeconomic Advisory Services Nairobi, Kenya, currently working as a consultant in Khartoum, a former member and collaborator of the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) at the University of Bremen, also has contributed to the Unit Three. While the essay on the Sudan considers the macroeconomic consequences of the secession of the South, based on an analysis of the major economic problems and shocks of Sudan since the 1970s, the essay on the South Sudan concentrates on establishing fiscal planning and building fiscal management as cornerstones of macroeconomic stability. Macroeconomic aspects of the two countries are considered by all the authors with having a longer run view in mind (see the Synopsis of the new volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook). 

The Unit Three is also a contribution to the understanding of the economics of post-conflict countries in Africa. It came out from the two papers that despite of quite different endowments and initial conditions the two countries have to pursue similar economic policies so as to strengthen the weak economic policy institutions, to redirect production and exports towards diversification, to lay the foundations for macroeconomic stability and fiscal decentralization, and to establish basic social policy systems. As well the huge defense sector in both countries has to be scaled down because of the fiscal burden and the diversion of resources from productive activities, especially agriculture and manufacturing. The abundant natural resources in the two countries could be used more fully by appropriate strategies. New economic strategies and macroeconomic policies have to be based fully on a medium to long-term planning approach, and growth and employment diagnostics approaches are recommended to enhance local development. Professor Karl Wohlmuth introduced the Unit with an essay on New Economic Policies for Sudan and South Sudan and the Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation. Five elements of a new macroeconomic policy framework were outlined for the two countries, and the contours of a Border States Development Programme (BSDP) were discussed. Such a programme should guide the  development of the now eleven states in the North and in the South along the international border between Sudan and South Sudan. This programme would allow it to develop the abundant natural resources in the area to the benefit of the people in both countries.


Wissenschaftliche Kooperation der Universität Bremen mit Afrika: Das Sudanprojekt der Universität Bremen am IWIM

Im Rahmen der Vortragsreihe „Vom Sudan nach Namibia“, organisiert vom Rektorat und dem International Office der Universität Bremen in Verbindung mit Institutionen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit in Bremen, hielt Professor Karl Wohlmuth einen Vortrag über „Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation?. Frau Prof. Dr. Yasemin Karakasoglu, Konrektorin für Interkulturalität und Internationalität, eröffnete den Vortragsabend. Der Professor ging zunächst auf die Phasen des Sudanprojektes an der Universität Bremen (Sudanforschungsgruppe Bremen) seit den 70er Jahren bis zur Gegenwart ein und analysierte dann die Ursachen der Konflikte zwischen dem Sudan und dem Süd-Sudan. Auf Möglichkeiten und Chancen einer zukünftigen Kooperation der beiden Länder wurde eingegangen. 

Im Vortrag wurden fünf Themen behandelt: Erstens, die Konflikte im Sudan: Ursachen, Einflussfaktoren, Perioden; zweitens, das sudanesische Wachstumsmodell und die Konflikte; drittens, die Geographie, Intensität und Dynamik der Konflikte im Sudan/Süd-Sudan; viertens, Ansätze für eine Lösung der Konflikte durch eine grundlegend neue Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik; und fünftens, Ansätze für eine Lösung der Konflikte durch eine strategische ökonomische Kooperation zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Eine lebhafte Diskussion über die Thesen des Bremer Sudanforschers schloss sich an den Vortrag an. Die Präsentation wird auf Grund des bekundeten Interesses nun einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht (Link: PDF Präsentation). Ein Draft Paper zum Vortrag und Aufsätze des Referenten zu den behandelten Themen liegen vor (vgl. Publikationen von Karl Wohlmuth). Über diese Themen wird im Rahmen der Sudanforschungsgruppe der Universität Bremen in den kommenden Jahren weiter gearbeitet (Link: Sudanforschungsgruppe).


Vom Sudan nach Namibia: Eine Vortragsreihe der Universität Bremen in Verbindung mit zwei Ausstellungen

Die Universität Bremen dokumentiert ihre Zusammenarbeit mit afrikanischen universitären Partnern im Rahmen von Ausstellungen und einer Vortragsreihe vom 30. April – 28. Mai 2013 im DGB-Haus am Hauptbahnhof (vgl. den Flyer zu der Veranstaltung: ). 

Sowohl die Kooperation von Wissenschaftlern der Universität Bremen mit Namibia als auch jene mit dem Sudan währt nun schon über 35 Jahre. In der Zwischenzeit sind zahlreiche weitere Kooperationen mit Afrika dazugekommen und prägen Lehre und Forschung der Exzellenzuniversität.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth wird am 28. Mai 2013 zum Thema „Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation“ einen Vortrag halten (vgl. Synopse unter: Berichtet wird über die Projekte der Zusammenarbeit mit dem Sudan und über die aktuellen Forschungen zu den Entwicklungen nach der Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Süd-Sudan vom 9. Juli 2011 (vgl. dazu ausführlich: und ).

Die Veranstaltung wird am 30. April 2013 von Frau Prof. Dr. Yasemin Karakasoglu, Konrektorin für Interkulturalität und Internationalität, und von 

S. E. Neville Gertze, Botschafter der Republik Namibia, feierlich eröffnet. Prof. Dr. Manfred Hinz hält den Eröffnungsvortrag.


Neuer Forschungsbericht über die  ökonomische Kooperation von Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 ist erschienen

In dem neuen Forschungsbericht Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 analysiert Professor Karl Wohlmuth die zukünftigen Kooperationsmöglichkeiten und Kooperationsnotwendigkeiten zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Der Forschungsbericht basiert auf der Keynote Lecture, die  Professor Karl Wohlmuth bei der International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference 2012 an der Universität Bonn gehalten hat. Das dort vorgelegte Paper wurde für die SERG-Reihe überarbeitet und aktualisiert (Link: ).


New Research Report on Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan: Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Paper Number 40 is now published

In the new research report Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 Professor Karl Wohlmuth analyses the future of economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. The report is based on the Keynote Lecture at the International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference 2012 at the University of Bonn. The Report is an extension and update of the former paper presented at the conference (Link: ).


Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern/Social Policy in Developing Countries:

Nicht nur im „Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt“, sondern auch im Band „Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern“ ist der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth mit einem Beitrag über die Sozialpolitik in den Republiken Sudan und Süd-Sudan vertreten. Die besondere Bedeutung dieses Bandes ergibt sich aus der Tatsache, dass die Sozialpolitik zu einem wichtigen Prüfkriterium für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, insbesondere auch der Europäischen Union, geworden ist (vgl. Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth in ). 

Der zweite European Report on Development (ERD) für das Jahr 2010 hat den Titel “Social protection for inclusive development - a new perspective in EU co-operation with Africa” (vgl. Link: In der Zwischenzeit liegt der vierte ERD vor (vgl. Link: und thematisiert ebenfalls Fragen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, und zwar mit dem Fokus auf die Post-2015 Global Agenda

Zudem wird das Thema der Sozialpolitik für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und für die nationale Politik in Entwicklungsländern immer wichtiger, weil die Reaktion der Staaten auf die Weltfinanzkrise 2008/09 gezeigt hat, dass Entwicklungsländer mit einer aktiven Sozialpolitik Krisen schneller und besser überwinden können. Einkommens- und Beschäftigungsverluste sowie negative Folgen der Krise für Ernährung, Bildung und Gesundheit können eher bewältigt werden. Auch für die makroökonomische Steuerung ergeben sich Vorteile. Zudem wird die Politik der Armutsbekämpfung wesentlich effektiver, wenn grundlegende Elemente einer Sozialpolitik vorhanden sind und systematisch ausgebaut werden.


Sozialpolitik im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan, in:

Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern - ein Handbuch, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2013

(New Publication: Social Policies in Sudan and South Sudan, 

in: Social Policies in Developing Economies - A Handbook, Berlin 2013)


Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan:

This is the title of a paper proposed by Professor Karl Wohlmuth for the Annual Conference 2013 of the Graduate College and the Directorate of Scientific Research and Cultural Relations of the University of Khartoum, Republic of the Sudan. Professor Wohlmuth was invited to this event by the Graduate College and the Directorate of Scientific Research and Cultural Relations of the University of Khartoum. The theme of the conference is: “Towards a Confident Renaissance”. The conference is held at the Friendship Hall in Khartoum and at the University of Khartoum-Main Campus. 

The theme Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan as submitted to the conference is based on the recent research work by Professor Karl Wohlmuth on Strategic Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan (see about the research program and the research output the link:

Researches on the Sudan at the University of Bremen have a long history dating back to the year 1978 (see the list of selected publications of the Sudan Economy Research Group/SERG with the link: 


Sozialpolitik im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan: „Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt“ ist soeben erschienen

In einem Beitrag über die Sozialpolitik in der Republik Sudan und in der Republik Süd-Sudan analysiert Professor Karl Wohlmuth die historische Entwicklung und die aktuelle Bedeutung der Sozialpolitik im Kontext der ökonomischen Entwicklung in den beiden Ländern. Ausgehend vom UNESCWA (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia)-Ansatz zur Analyse von Sozialpolitiken in Entwicklungsländern werden drei konzentrische Kreise von Sozialpolitiken analysiert: erstens die direkten Programme und Maßnahmen der Sozialpolitik und der Armutsbekämpfung, zweitens die Programme und Maßnahmen im Bereich der Bildungs-, Gesundheits- und Arbeitsmarktpolitik mit dem Ziel der besseren Daseinsvorsorge, und dann drittens die Möglichkeiten, makroökonomische und sektorale Politiken so zu gestalten, dass sozialpolitische Ziele angemessen durchgesetzt werden können (vgl. die Details zur neuen Publikation unter

Eine englischsprachige Übersetzung des Beitrages von Professor Wohlmuth ist im Rahmen der Bremer Sudanforschung vorgesehen. Dieser Beitrag wurde im Rahmen des Projektes über die ökonomische Kooperation des Sudan und des Süd-Sudan seit 2011 erstellt (vgl. Link: 


Sudan und Süd-Sudan im

Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2013

(New Publication: Social Policies in Sudan and South Sudan, 

in: Handbook Social Policies of the World, Berlin 2013)


Sound economies, sustainable economic policies and strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan:

This was the title of the plenary lecture given by Professor Karl Wohlmuth at the Sudan/South Sudan conference in Hermannsburg which took place from October 31-November 2, 2012 (Link Final Conference Programme: ). Professor Wohlmuth presented in his lecture five criteria for sound economies and sustainable economic policies in Sudan and South Sudan:

First, macroeconomic stability has to be provided. Because of the stop of oil production in January 2012 by the government of South Sudan the macroeconomic instability problems were even aggravated in both countries and they are still severe. 

Second, a medium term public finance framework is needed for both countries, especially so because of the volatility of oil revenues and the low importance of non-oil exports. Such medium-term public finance frameworks are not in place, and there is no Permanent Fund/Permanent Income approach at work to smooth the expenditures from the oil revenues towards stabilization and long-term development objectives. 

Third, a redirection of exports towards non-oil products is needed in both countries. However, the time since January 9, 2005 (Comprehensive Peace Agreement) was not used in the two countries for generating non-oil exports. Despite of the huge agricultural resources and the agro-industrial opportunities, both countries are large-scale food importers. 

Fourth, effective social safety nets are needed to protect the poor and the poorest, but also the middle class which became impoverished in recent years, as the available rudimentary social safety systems have rather deteriorated. Public interventions in health and education sectors as well as towards the functioning of the labour market were highly inefficient and ineffective, and macroeconomic policies were not pro-poor.

Fifth, effective reductions of horizontal and vertical inequalities are requested but the reality in both states is that the regional imbalances and the income inequalities have rather increased. This has repercussions on political stability in both countries and on the perspectives of cooperation in the border-belt.


Professor Karl Wohlmuth at the opening of the Plenary Session on Economic Issues in Sudan and South Sudan


Professor Wohlmuth also commented on the Nine Agreements between the two countries from September 27, 2012 at Addis Ababa and on the future tasks to promote a strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. Five core programmes for a strategic economic cooperation were presented (see PDF Sudan-South Sudan-Conference Presentation: ). Other contributions to the Conference were made by the Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Commission in Juba, South Sudan on the fight against corruption in South Sudan, by the General Secretary of SPLM/N on the situation in Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Khartoum by highlighting the perspectives for peaceful solutions. The former head of UNMIS in Juba spoke on national and regional challenges for the two states and the role of outsiders. The current situation of Abyei area was considered by a Member of the South Sudan Parliament representing Abyei in Juba.


Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen, Justice John Gatwech Lul, Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Commission, Juba, South Sudan, and Marina Peter, Sudan Focal Point Europe and Conference Chair in a Plenary Discussion on Corruption in Sudan and South Sudan


The conference was attended by around 120 participants, among others by representatives of the civil society of Sudan and South Sudan, by regional and international church organizations and NGOs, by government organizations and ambassadors of Sudan and South Sudan, by media people and researchers on Sudan, by members of the German parliament, by the donor community, and by representatives from the SPLM/N speaking for ethnic and disadvantaged groups in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States. The Conference Communique (see Communique Hermannsburg Conference: ) presents a call for peace, reconciliation and good neighbourliness. The communique emphasizes also: “To avoid new conflicts and ensure sustainable peace, natural resource management and equitable sharing of resources should be a top priority at all levels in society – starting from the bottom-up. Oil is a key element, but a sound economy needs to be built on diversified sources of income. A strategic approach for economic relations between Sudan and South Sudan, with a special focus on the border areas, could help to safeguard peace and good neigbourliness. However, a prerequisite is to immediately address the needs of the people, and the end of armed conflicts.” 

This Sudan/South Sudan Conference was the 25th in Hermannsburg which was directed by Marina Peter and Hermann Hartmann (see the leaflet informing about these 25 conferences: Leaflet Hermannsburg Conferences: ). 


25 Years of Sudan Conferences in Hermannsburg, Lower Saxony:

The 25th Sudan /South Sudan Conference will be held October 31 - November 2, 2012. Leading personalities from Sudan and South Sudan will attend the conference to exchange views on the current situation and to discuss strategies to create conditions of lasting peace and to provide preconditions for economic development and mutually beneficial cooperation. 

Since 1987 every year an international Sudan Conference was held in Hermannsburg, organized by the Sudan Forum e. V. and the Sudan Focal Point Europa. The open exchange of views in Hermannsburg between Sudan Government representatives and SPLM representatives has since 1987 contributed to the process that ultimately led to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) of January 9, 2005. Now the new problems between Sudan and South Sudan have to be addressed – the still open separation issues and the unsolved CPA issues. Although nine agreements between the two countries were signed on September 27, 2012 in Addis Ababa, major issues are still open. Also the implementation of the nine agreements has to get started.

This year the conference is sponsored by Brot für die Welt and by Misereor. Main topics of the Sudan/South Sudan Conference 2012 are the preconditions of lasting peace and the recognition of the rights of the people, the moves towards sound economic policies in the two countries and a strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan, and the ways to overcome the conflicts in Abyei, Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and in other areas of the two countries (Link to Programme: )


Peace and Development in Sudan and South Sudan: Nine Agreements and the Prospects of Long-Term Economic and Political Cooperation

Various agreements were signed in Addis Ababa on September 27, 2012 concerning unsolved CPA/Comprehensive Peace Agreement Issues and Post-Secession Issues. Nine documents with Agreements emerged from the Sudan and South Sudan Addis Ababa Summit. Two further documents are of great relevance as they are on the unsolved Abyei Issue, one from the African Union (an AU Proposal on the status of Abyei submitted to the two parties in the conflict on 24 September 2012) and the other to the African Union (the Rejection Letter by President Bashir on 26 September 2012 to the AU). These documents are available as full texts ( Also other relevant documents can be looked at and downloaded at this website.

Implementation of these nine agreements can be better watched when the texts are looked at in full details and in the context of prior documents and the AU/UNSC Resolutions. 

The Cooperation Agreement is particularly weak and vague and does not cover the main issues for a sustainable long-term economic and political cooperation of the two countries (see on these issues the Strategic Framework for Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan with five core cooperation programmes and five supplementary cooperation programmes as outlined by Professor Karl Wohlmuth ( 


Is the Agreement between Sudan and South Sudan from August 3, 2012 on Oil a breakthrough in the negotiations?: There are severe doubts that the agreement which was negotiated by the mediator of the African Union (AU) will last for long. The agreement may only bring the resumption of oil production but not sustainable solutions to other open issues between the two countries. Professor Karl Wohlmuth has written a Report on the negotiation issues and on future development cooperation and has proposed a Strategic Framework for Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. According to his study four complex negotiation complexes have to be solved in a “package agreement” and five areas of economic cooperation matter for future development in the two countries (Links to Paper: and to Presentation:


Von: Pressestelle Universität Bremen []
Gesendet: Donnerstag, 2. August 2012 10:15
An: 'Pressestelle Universität Bremen'
Betreff: Bremer Ökonom: Sudan und Südsudan müssen kooperieren

Pressemitteilung der Universität Bremen

Nr. 271 / 2. August 2012 SC 

Bremer Wirtschaftswissenschaftler: Sudan und Südsudan müssen ökonomisch und politisch kooperieren

Der Bremer Sudanexperte Professor Karl Wohlmuth hat bei der Sudan-/Südsudan-Konferenz Ende Juli 2012 in Bonn ein umfassendes Programm für die ökonomische Kooperation der beiden Staaten vorgelegt

Bei der Sudan-/Südsudankonferenz in Bonn vom 23. - 25. Juli 2012 hat der Bremer Wirtschaftswissenschaftler Professor Karl Wohlmuth im Plenum den Hauptvortrag Wirtschaft gehalten und ein „Strategisches Rahmenprogramm“ für die ökonomische Kooperation der beiden Staaten Sudan und Südsudan vorgelegt. Der Hintergrund ist die Zunahme der Konflikte zwischen den beiden Staaten seit der Unabhängigkeit des Südsudan, insbesondere aber seit der Stilllegung der Ölproduktion im Südsudan Anfang des Jahres 2012 durch die Regierung in Juba, Südsudan. Für beide Länder sind die Öleinnahmen von herausragender Bedeutung für die Devisenbilanz und für das staatliche Budget. Die Auseinandersetzung um die Verteilung der Öl-Einnahmen nach der Unabhängigkeit des Süd-Sudan kommt zu vielen anderen Konflikten hinzu, die insbesondere die Grenzregionen zwischen den beiden Staaten betreffen.

Wesentliche ökonomische und politische Fragen nach der Teilung des Landes sind bis heute (2. August 2012) ungelöst geblieben – auch wenn der 2. August der Stichtag ist, bis zu dem die Probleme zwischen beiden Staaten unter Einschaltung eines Vermittlers von der Afrikanischen Union (AU) einvernehmlich gelöst werden sollten. Voraussichtlich wird es nun zu einer „endgültigen und bindenden“ Entscheidung des UN-Sicherheitsrates auf der Basis einer Empfehlung des Friedens- und Sicherheitsrates der Afrikanischen Union hinsichtlich wichtiger Streitfragen kommen.

Die wechselseitige Abhängigkeit macht eine Zusammenarbeit beider Länder unabdingbar

Professor Karl Wohlmuth hat in seinem „Strategischen Rahmenprogramm“ zunächst die wesentlichen Konfliktursachen analysiert. Er hat herausgearbeitet, dass die ökonomische und politische Interdependenz zwischen den beiden Staaten in vielen Bereichen (Ölproduktion und Verwendung der Öleinnahmen, Entwicklung der Bundesstaaten an der Grenze zwischen den beiden Staaten, Ressourcennutzung, Entwicklung von Landwirtschaft und Viehzucht, Umweltpolitik und Anpassung an den Klimawandel, Wirtschaftspolitik, etc.) überaus groß ist, so dass eine Kooperation zwingend notwendig ist, um Wachstum und Wohlfahrt in beiden Staaten zu sichern. Da viele Konflikte zwischen den beiden Ländern mit den großen Entwicklungsunterschieden zwischen den Bundesstaaten im Norden und im Süden und an der Grenze zusammenhängen, können neue kooperative Wirtschafts- und Wachstumsstrategien dazu beitragen, diese „horizontalen Ungleichheiten“ zu mindern. Konflikte hängen aber auch stark mit dem Ressourcenreichtum in den je fünf Bundesstaaten im Norden und im Süden entlang der etwa 2000 km langen internationalen Grenze zwischen Sudan und Südsudan zusammen.

Für direkte Verhandlungen

Das Strategische Rahmenprogramm von Karl Wohlmuth macht zunächst konkrete Vorschläge für die vier über Krieg und Frieden entscheidenden Konfliktbereiche:

1. „Grenzen, Öl und Wasserkraft“, da eine Einigung über die Nutzung der Ressourcen und die Bestimmung des Grenzverlaufes untrennbar miteinander verbunden sind;

2. „Staatsangehörigkeit, Flüchtlinge und Menschenrechte“, da die Lösung dieser Fragen nicht nur aus humanitären Gründen, sondern auch für eine dynamische Wirtschaftsentwicklung wichtig ist; 

3. „Aufteilung von Vermögen und Schulden und Abstimmung der Finanzsysteme“, da bisher keine Einigung über die Aufteilung von Auslandsschulden und über interne gegenseitigen Verpflichtungen der beiden Staaten erzielt wurde und auch die unterschiedlichen Finanzsysteme der beiden Länder (auf islamischer bzw. konventioneller Grundlage) für eine Kooperation überbrückt werden müssen; 

4. „Sicherheit, Entmilitarisierung und Stabilität“, da beide Länder über aufgeblähte Militär- und Sicherheitsapparate verfügen, die kaum finanziellen Spielraum für Entwicklungsinitiativen lassen, und zudem immer wieder für neue Konflikte instrumentalisiert werden. 

Diese vier Konfliktbereiche können nach Ansicht des Bremer Wissenschaftlers in ihrer Breite und Komplexität nur im Rahmen von direkten Verhandlungen zwischen den beiden Staaten gelöst werden. Die „endgültigen und bindenden“ Entscheidungen entlang der „Roadmap“ der Afrikanischen Union (AU) und des UN-Sicherheitsrates würden wichtige Fragen ausklammern, die für eine ökonomische und politische Kooperation der beiden Staaten wichtig sind. Zudem könnten sich neue Konflikte ergeben.

In einem weiteren Schritt werden im Programm von Professor Wohlmuth fünf Strategische Programmkomponenten vorgestellt, deren Umsetzung für beide Staaten gleichermaßen vorteilhaft wäre.

1. Ein Programm zur gemeinsamen Entwicklung der zehn Bundesstaaten an der internationalen Grenze zwischen Sudan und Südsudan, da in diesen Regionen großer Ressourcenreichtum und gravierende Entwicklungsunterschiede immer wieder zu Konflikten führen;

2. ein Programm für die Kooperation bei der Agro-Industrialisierung und Landwirtschaftsentwicklung, um die Abhängigkeit vom Öl mittel- bis langfristig zu reduzieren;

3. ein Programm zur Kooperation bei der mittel- und langfristigen Umsteuerung der staatlichen Finanzpolitik in den beiden Ländern, um die staatlichen Ölleinnahmen so zu bewirtschaften, dass auch nach dem Ende der Ölproduktion ausreichend Mittel aus den Öleinnahmen für Entwicklungsvorhaben verfügbar sind; 

4. ein Programm für die Kooperation in Bereichen von Wissenschaft, Technik und Innovation, um an jene Erfolge anzuknüpfen, die Ruanda mit einer Entwicklungspolitik auf der Basis von Wissenschaft, Technik und Innovation bereits erreicht hat; 

5. ein Programm für die Kooperation in den Bereichen Umwelt, Anpassung an den Klimawandel und Landnutzungspolitik, da sich durch eine nicht-nachhaltige Bodennutzung und auch durch den langen Bürgerkrieg zwischen Nord und Süd bzw. die Konflikte in Darfur die Umweltsituation in den beiden Staaten drastisch verschlechtert hat.

Die Konferenz in Bonn wurde von mehreren hundert Teilnehmern aus aller Welt besucht (Sudanexperten, Vertreter der beiden sudanesischen Staaten, Experten von internationalen Organisationen, Vertreter von Institutionen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und von Nichtregierungsorganisationen, etc.). Organisiert wurde die Konferenz von der Bonner Internationalen Friedens- und Entwicklungsforschungsinstitution BICC in Kooperation mit internationalen Sudan-Gesellschaften. Dr. Elke Grawert, Forschungskoordinatorin am BICC und ehemalige Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin am Institut für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management (IWIM) der Universität Bremen, hat die Konferenz geleitet. Die internationale Sudan-/Südsudan-Konferenz findet alle drei Jahre statt. In diesem Jahr wurden erstmals auch die Probleme der beiden Staaten Sudan und Südsudan seit der Unabhängigkeit des Südsudan am 9. Juli 2011 diskutiert.

Die Studie von Karl Wohlmuth „Ein Strategisches Rahmenprogramm für die ökonomische Kooperation von Sudan und Südsudan“ kann über die E-Mail: angefordert werden.

Weitere Informationen:


Universität Bremen

Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft

Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth

Arbeitsbereich Sudan- und Südsudanforschung 


Tel. 0421 218-66517

Aktuelle Informationen:


Universität Bremen 
Tel. 0421- 218 - 60150 
Fax  0421-218 - 60152 



A Strategic Framework for Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan: Professor Karl Wohlmuth presented a Strategic Framework for Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan in a Plenary Session at the International Sudan/South Sudan Studies Conference in Bonn (see the programme: ).  First, he analyzed the growth model of Sudan since Independence and presented the constraints and weaknesses. Second, he emphasized the need to look at the various forms and the levels of interdependence which are persisting between the two states. Beside of the interdependence with regard of the oil sector there are so many other forms, such as the interdependence of the border-states, policy interdependence and the interdependence in environment, climate change adaptation and land policies. Also the persisting causes of conflicts in the two Sudans were discussed, especially the horizontal inequalities between “identity groups” in states, regions, and counties; but also such causes of conflict as vertical inequalities, “creed” and “greed”, weak state institutions, lack of commitment and trust, and the duration of conflicts were analyzed and related to the two Sudans. The high degree of interdependence between the two Sudans and the high levels of horizontal inequality with cross-border effects request forms of economic cooperation between the two states. As well, the three basic concepts “strategy”, “framework” and “cooperation” were presented with regard of the current issues. Third, the feasibility of and the preconditions for the Strategic Framework were discussed, by looking first at the four major negotiation complexes (“border, oil and hydropower”; “citizenship, refugees, and human rights”, “debt, assets and finance”; and “security, demilitarization and stability”) and then at the feasibility conditions for such a Framework (when regarding key determinants such as interdependence, external instability, opportunities and options). The merits of such a fully negotiated programme are compared with the “Roadmap” of the African Union Peace and Security Council (AUPSC).  Fourth, five core cooperation programmes and five supplementary cooperation programmes were presented; while the core programmes aim at modifying the growth model of the two Sudans, the supplementary programmes support this turn towards a sustainable growth model. Cooperation potentials are outlined for all the ten programmes; there are huge opportunities which can be realized in the long-term. These programmes are based on bottom-up growth strategies and are needed prior to and in addition to the conventional top-down growth strategies; growth diagnostics at state levels is used to pursue the new approach. Fifth, the first steps towards initiating such a programme were also presented.

In a working group chaired by Professor Wohlmuth on the “Economic Development of the Border-States in Sudan and South Sudan ” the centrality of these ten states as a powerhouse and as a growth pole on the one side and as a region affected by conflicts and war(s) on the other side was discussed. Proposals for peace, reconstruction and development were presented by the panel speakers. Two experts from the Sudan and two experts from South Sudan were invited and presented their analyses. The growth diagnostics approach was applied to two states in the border-region ( Blue Nile State in Sudan and Western Bahr el Ghazal State in South Sudan ). Cross-border cooperation of indigenous population groups was outlined with regard of South Kordofan and North Bahr el Ghazal . The history of oil politics was discussed with regard of the political decisions for the location of refineries and oil installations. 

The presentation A Strategic Framework for Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan by Professor Wohlmuth at the International Sudan/South Sudan Conference in Bonn is available as a PDF (Presentation: ). 


The Programme of the 9th International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference in  Bonn , July 2012: The preliminary programme of the World Congress on Sudan Studies was just released (see details unter The programme is composed of plenary sessions and parallel panel sessions. Various important issues of the two Sudan will be discussed with an interdisciplinary focus, and especially so the current political and economic developments in the two states of Sudan will be given attention by a great number of international scholars. 

Some of the major issues discussed are: Economic Development of the Border States in Sudan and South Sudan; Border Politics; Old and New National Identities in the two Sudan; Language and Society; New Citizenship; Constitutions; Youth in the two Sudan; Peace and Peace-Building; Security Challenges; Land Issues; South Sudan in the Wider Region; Aid and Development; Economic Issues and Natural Resources; and Water Issues.

The conference is organised by leading researchers on the two Sudan from three research institutions/scientific societies: Dr. Elke Grawert, Bonn International Center for Conversion/BICC, Bonn for the German side, Douglas H. Johnson, Oxford University, for the Sudan Studies Society UK/ SSSUK, and Dr. Abdullahi A. Gallab, Arizona State University, for the Sudan Studies Association USA/SSA USA. 

The programme - as it is regularly updated - will be accessible at:

A great number of participants from Sudan and South Sudan is also expected to come to Bonn. Because of the dramatic current problems and tensions between Sudan and the newly independent state of South Sudan a great interest of the international press is also expected.


International Sudan Studies Conference in Bonn, July 2012:

Identity, Economy, Power Relations and External Interests: Old and New Challenges for Sudan and South Sudan

Venue: Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Reginal Pacis-Weg 3, HS 1,7,8,9, Bonn, Germany

Date: 23-25 July 2012

Submission of Abstracts for Papers and Proposals for Panels: The International Sudan Studies Conference will take place this year in Bonn, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, 23-25 July 2012, organized by Dr. Elke Grawert, a former IWIM staff and now working as a senior researcher at BICC in Bonn. The Call for Papers (Link: invites submissions in line with the general theme of the conference, but also other submissions of interest to researchers on Sudan and South Sudan are welcomed. The three-annual International Sudan Studies Conference of the Sudan Studies Association (SSA) USA and the Sudan Studies Society (SSS) UK will be held at the University of Bonn in Germany. Abstracts of proposed papers, panels and roundtables (please limit to 150-200 words) may be sent to: Dr. Abdullahi A. Gallab, African and African-American Studies, Religious Studies, Arizona State University, Email: A copy may be sent to Dr. Douglas H. Johnson, Email: and to Dr. Elke Grawert, Email: until 31st of March 2012.

Programme: The conference will open with an emphasis on identity, especially issues of gender, citizenship, integration, history, memory and the geographical challenges of the separation. Its second day will be devoted to economic issues, particularly economic development prospects, urbanization and social transformation in Sudanand South Sudan and issues regarding oil, water and other resources. The conference’s final day will examine both internal and external power relationships including Sudan-South Sudan relations, old and new conflicts, party formation and strategic and security issues. 

Vortrag über den Süd-Sudan an der Universität Erfurt: Professor Karl Wohlmuth hielt im November 2011 an der Universität Erfurt einen Vortrag zum Thema „Die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung der Republik Süd-Sudan“. Der Wirtschaftsprofessor ging auf folgende Aspekte des Themas ein: die aktuelle Lage des Süd-Sudan nach der Unabhängigkeitserklärung vom 9. Juli 2011; die großen Potentiale an natürlichen Ressourcen und die zahlreichen Konflikte an den Grenzen und im Süd-Sudan; die Bedingungen für den Aufbau einer funktionsfähigen Volkswirtschaft; die Notwendigkeit einer umfassenden Wachstums- und Armutsbekämpfungsstrategie für den Süd-Sudan; die Menschenrechte, die Regierungsführung und die ökonomischen Teile der Übergangs-Verfassung vom 7. Juli 2011 (Siehe die Präsentation über den Süd-Sudan von Professor Wohlmuth unter ).

Sozialpolitik im Sudan/Süd-Sudan: Professor Karl Wohlmuth hat die sozialen Sicherungssysteme im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan auf der Grundlage des ESCWA-Ansatzes untersucht (vgl. ESCWA/United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia, 2009, Integrated Social Policy, Visions And Strategies In The ESCWA Region, Report III, New York: United Nations 2009, Report 09-0427, 73 pages). Dieser Ansatz geht davon aus, dass die sozialen Sicherungssysteme in drei konzentrischen Kreisen analysiert werden können. Der innerste Kreis umfasst die sozialen Sicherungssysteme auf gesetzlicher Grundlage und die direkten Armutsbekämpfungsprogramme. Im nächsten Kreis geht es um Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung des Zugangs zu Gesundheits- und Bildungseinrichtungen und um Initiativen zur aktiven Arbeitsmarktpolitik. Im äußeren Kreis geht es um alle makroökonomischen und wirtschaftspolitischen Maßnahmen, die für die soziale Sicherung breiter Schichten der Bevölkerung wichtig sind (Landwirtschafts- Agroindustrieentwicklung, Unterstützung der Mikrounternehmen des informellen Sektors und Kleinindustrieförderung, Infrastrukturpolitik, Finanzierungspolitik durch Mikrofinanzinstitute, Regionalpolitik udn städtische Entwicklung, etc.). Im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan sind die sozialen Sicherungsnetze im innersten Kreis von sehr geringer Bedeutung. Daher sind die Maßnahmen in Bezug auf die anderen beiden Kreise von herausragender Bedeutung für die soziale Sicherung. Auch neue Initiativen (konditionierte bzw. nichtkonditionierte Barzahlungsprogramme und öffentliche Beschäftigungsprogramme) werden diskutiert. Der Beitrag wird in einem Kompendium zur globalen Sozialpolitik erscheinen (vgl. Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth unter ).


Economic Policies in the Republic of South Sudan (Press Release by the University of Bremen)

Pressemitteilung der Universität Bremen

Nr. 139 / 11. Mai 2011 SC

Süd-Sudan nach dem Bürgerkrieg: Wirtschaft wohin?

Wirtschaftsprogramme für den Süd-Sudan

Sudanforschungsgruppe der Universität Bremen veröffentlicht Studien zur Wirtschaftsreform nach zwei Jahrzehnten Bürgerkrieg

Die Sudanforschungsgruppe der Universität Bremen von Professor Karl Wohlmuth hat jetzt neue Studien vorgelegt, wie der Wiederaufbau der Wirtschaft des Süd-Sudan nach 21 Jahren Bürgerkrieg ermöglicht werden kann. Zwei neue Veröffentlichungen analysieren die Situationen und geben konkrete Handlungsanweisungen für die Gestaltung der Wirtschaftspolitik im Sudan/Süd-Sudan.

In wenigen Wochen – am 9. Juli 2011 - wird der Süd-Sudan als 54. afrikanischer Staat seine Unabhängigkeit erlangen. Die Republik Süd-Sudan steht vor gewaltigen politischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Herausforderungen. Viele Fragen im Zusammenhang mit der Abtrennung des Südens von der Republik Sudan sind noch ungeklärt (Fragen der Grenzziehung zwischen dem Norden und dem Süden, Fragen zur Staatsbürgerschaft, zur Verteilung der Öl-Einnahmen zwischen den beiden Staaten, zur Aufteilung der Auslandsschulden und Fragen zur Sicherheit). Insbesondere ist auch das Schicksal von hunderttausenden Binnenflüchtlingen aus der Bürgerkriegszeit zu klären, die im Norden des Sudan leben. Konflikte im Süden um Land und Wasser, auch zwischen Ethnien, destabilisieren den neuen Staat noch vor der demnächst erfolgenden Unabhängigkeitserklärung. 

Von ganz entscheidender Bedeutung für den Staatsaufbau wird die schnelle Verbesserung der wirtschaftlichen Lage im Süd-Sudan sein. Konzepte für ein neues Wachstums- und Entwicklungsmodell, die zu mehr Investitionen und zur Reform von zentralen ökonomischen Institutionen führen, sind daher gefragt. Insbesondere geht es darum, die reichlich vorhandenen Ölvorkommen und die natürlichen Ressourcen besser zu nutzen. Die großen Ölvorkommen des Sudan werden gegenwärtig zu 80 Prozent im Süden gefördert, doch der Transport erfolgt über den Norden nach Port Sudan. Auch die Potentiale für die Landwirtschaft, die Forstwirtschaft, die Viehwirtschaft und die Fischwirtschaft sind sehr groß, doch werden diese bisher kaum genutzt.

Die Sudanforschungsgruppe um Professor Karl Wohlmuth hat kürzlich zwei Publikationen fertig gestellt, die auch für die Wirtschaftspolitik im Süd-Sudan wichtig sind. Dr. Berhanu Denu aus Addis Abeba ist der Autor einer umfassenden Studie zur Institutionenreform und zur Investitionsförderung im Sudan. Diese Studie ist jetzt als Band 18 in der Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management (IWIM) im Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft der Universität Bremen erschienen. Die Studie wurde im Rahmen eines großen Drittmittelprojekts von der VolkswagenStiftung gefördert. In einer zweiten Studie geht Berhanu Denu. auf eine Agenda von dringend notwendigen Institutionen- und Wirtschaftsreformen für den Sudan/Süd-Sudan ein. Der Autor hat mehrere Feldforschungsaufenthalte im Süd-Sudan genutzt, um konkrete Vorschläge für die Verbesserung des Umfeldes für Investitionen zu erarbeiten. Investitionshemmnisse insbesondere institutioneller Art werden sehr detailliert untersucht. Diese Studien werden jetzt den relevanten Entscheidungsträgern im Süd-Sudan (Wirtschaftsexperten, Politiker, Ministerien, Universitäten, Entwicklungshilfeinstitutionen, regionale und internationale Organisationen, Nichtregierungsorganisationen und ökonomische Forschungsinstitute) zur Verfügung gestellt. 

In einem weiteren Forschungsvorhaben untersucht Professor Karl Wohlmuth mit Ökonomen aus seinem Netzwerk von Experten im Sudan die Orientierung der neuen Wirtschaftspolitik, die nach der Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Süd-Sudan in den beiden Staaten des Sudan verfolgt werden kann und implementiert werden soll. Dabei geht es insbesondere um Modelle der ökonomischen Kooperation zwischen den beiden Staaten, die zur Vermeidung von politischen Konflikten zwischen den beiden Staaten und innerhalb der beiden Staaten beitragen können.

Weitere Informationen:

Universität Bremen

Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft

Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth 


Telefon: 0421 218-66517



Beleg und Bezug der Publikationen:

Denu G. Berhanu, Institutions and Investment in Sudan. Socio-Economic and Institutional Foundations of Reconstruction and Development, Bd. 18, Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management, Lit-Verlag Berlin, 496 Seiten, 2011

Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) Discussion Papers, No. 39

An Agenda for Institutional Reforms in Sudan/South Sudan, By Berhanu Denu-G., Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG), University of Bremen and Faculty of Economics, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa/ Ethiopia/Bremen, Germany, April 2011, 57 pages


Universität Bremen


Tel. 0421- 218 - 60150

Fax  0421-218 - 60152




Das Projekt

Das Projekt wird die Grundlagen der Wirtschaftspolitik im Norden und im Süden des Sudan nach dem Referendum und nach der Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Süd-Sudan detailliert untersuchen. Viele Forschungsergebnisse der Sudanforschungsgruppe SERG in Bremen, die seit 1979 veröffentlicht wurden, können für dieses Projekt mitgenutzt werden. Da bisher weitgehend nur über politische, völkerrechtliche und ethnische Fragen der Teilung des Landes diskutiert wurde und Ökonomen an der Diskussion kaum beteiligt waren, geht es nun auch darum, die zentralen wirtschaftspolitischen Entscheidungen bei der Trennung des Landes und bei der zukünftigen Gestaltung der Wirtschaftspolitik in den beiden neuen Staaten wissenschaftlich zu untersuchen. In einem ersten Schritt werden Studien zu wichtigen Bereichen der ökonomischen Politikformulierung erarbeitet. In einem zweiten Schritt geht es um die Nutzung unseres Netzwerks von Ökonomen, die sich mit dem Sudan beschäftigen, um einen systematischen Diskussionsprozess über die erarbeiteten Studien in Gang zu bringen. In einem dritten Schritt geht es um den Dialog mit den Wirtschaftsministerien und mit an Entwicklungsplänen beteiligten Ökonomen im Norden und im Süden des Sudan. Anträge für Mittelgewährung an Stiftungen zur Durchführung von Workshops und zur Realisierung von Publikationsprojekten werden zeitnah gestellt werden. Die zunächst eingehenden Studien zum Thema werden in der neuen Serie der SERG Discussion Paper Series veröffentlicht werden In einem International Call for Papers werden die an dem Thema interessierten Ökonomen zur Mitarbeit eingeladen.


International Call for Papers: Economic Policies in Sudan after the Referendum of 2011

Interested scholars doing research work on Sudan’s economy are invited to submit research papers, commented documents and policy-oriented papers on the economic development perspectives of the two new states in Sudan after the Independence Declaration on July 9, 2011.Sixteen policy areas being of interest for such an exercise were identified (see below). So far the discussion on the Sudan separation issues is limited to political, social, ethnic, and legal considerations. These papers will be reviewed and then published in the New Series of the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) Discussion Papers at the University of Bremen. These studies are part of a new research project „Economic Policies in Sudan after the Referendum of 2011”.

The purpose of the new research project is to investigate into the new policies that are requested in Sudan after the Independence Declaration of the South Sudan. The economic issues of the separation agenda and of the reconstruction and development agenda in the North and in the South are of interest, but most important is it also to look at the cooperation requirements and opportunities between the North and the South after the Independence Declaration. All papers should therefore look carefully at these issues and at the cooperation agenda as both states will lose in terms of economic development if cooperation and coordination activities are not forthcoming.

In a first step the research papers and the policy-oriented papers will be discussed and published in the new edition of the SERG Discussion Paper Series. Invited are papers according to the list of sixteen areas that were identified as core issues being of particular interest for Sudan’s future (see below). In the second step a discussion process will be started on the policy implications of the papers to discuss the issues of the papers according to the main policy areas. The networks of the contributors will be used for this deep exchange of ideas. In the third step a dialogue with economic ministries, civil society institutions, and experts in the North and in the South of the Sudan will be started on these issues to compare and to contrast the insights from the papers with current government policy prescriptions and alternative views and plans on policy formation in Sudan. Applications for financial support were already started to finance the publication activity, the network establishment, and later on the dialogue forums in Khartoum and Juba.

Sixteen policy areas being of interest for such an exercise were identified. Apart from the separation agenda the reconstruction and development agenda is demanding as both the North and the South have to develop growth and development visions, and then on this basis new economic strategies and policies, but also action plans and implementation modalities that are broad-based, comprehensive, socially inclusive and which will reach also the remote regions in the two new states. The North and the South have also to learn from past policy failures, so that the policy failures of the past should be reflected in the papers. The list of issues on such an agenda for future-oriented policies in Sudan is long:

1. Development Strategy and Plan Context

2. Macroeconomic Policy Framework

3. Governance Structure and Administrative Reforms

4. Industrial Sector Development and Policy Reforms

5. Agricultural Sector Development and Policy Reforms

6. Agro-industrial and Agribusiness Development Strategies

7. Oil Sector and Natural Resources Development

8. Public and Private Services Sector Development

9. Labour Market and Migration Policy Reforms

10.Human Development Policies: Education and Health

11.Human Development Policies: Poverty Alleviation and MDGs

12.Infrastructure, ICT and STI Development Strategies

13.Development of Regions and of Urban Areas

14.Foreign Trade and Foreign Investment Policies

15.Regional Economic Integration of Sudan

16.Global Economic Integration of Sudan

In all these policy areas there is demand to base new approaches on visions, strategies and policies, and then to translate all this into action and implementation plans. Most important, for all these policy issues the cooperation agenda for the North and the South should be highlighted, as both new states in  Sudan will lose if cooperation is not forthcoming.



Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth 

University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany 




Link zur aktuellen Publikationsliste: 

Link zu den SERG Discussion Papers:



Major Essays on Productive Sector Development in Sudan by Professor Karl Wohlmuth

Wohlmuth, Karl, 1989, Sudan’s Industrialisation after Independence:

A Case of Africa’s Crisis of Industrialisation, pp. 357 - 379, in: Nurul

Islam (Ed.), The Balance between Industry and  Agriculture in

Economic Development, Volume 5, Factors Influencing Change,

Houndmills et al.: The Macmillan Press LTD in association with the

International Economic Association 1989



Wohlmuth, Karl, 1991, National Policies for Agriculture, pp. 436 -

454, in: G. M. Craig, The Agriculture of the Sudan, Oxford et al.:

Oxford University Press 1991



Wohlmuth, Karl, 1994, Alternative Economic Strategies for the

Sudan, pp. 204 - 247, in: Sharif  Harir/Terje Tvedt, Short-Cut To

Decay, The Case of the Sudan, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet



Books on Sudan edited by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen 

Wohlmuth, Karl/Peter Oesterdiekhoff, Eds., 1983, The Development Perspectives of the Democratic Republic of Sudan, The Limits of the Breadbasket Strategy, IFO-Institut Für Wirtschaftsforschung München, Abteilung Entwicklungsländer, Afrika-Studien 109, München/Köln/London: Weltforum Verlag



Wohlmuth, Karl/Rainer Tetzlaff, Hrsg., 1980, Der Sudan, Probleme und Perspektiven der Entwicklung, Darstellungen zur internationalen Politik und Entwicklungspolitik 4, Institut für Internationale Angelegenheiten der Universität Hamburg, Frankfurt am Main: Alfred Metzner Verlag GmbH



Wohlmuth, Karl /Wauschkuhn, Markus (Hrsg.), 1995, "Die Sudanforschung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland", Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management, Bd. 2, Lit-Verlag, Münster und Hamburg 1995



Professor Karl Wohlmuth as a Member of the ILO Mission to Sudan 1986: Acting as International Consultant for ILO, Geneva

ILO (International Labour Office), 1987, Employment and economic reform: Towards a strategy for the Sudan, Report to the Prime Minister of a mission financed by the United Nations Development Programme and organised by the International Labour Office/Jobs and Skills Programme for Africa, August-September 1986, Geneva: International Labour Office, 172 pages




Professor Karl Wohlmuth as a Consultant to the World Bank: Economic Policy in Sudan


Link zum Bericht: 



Professor Karl Wohlmuth as a Consultant to the World Bank: Sudan‘s Structural Adjustment Policies


Link zum Bericht: 



Professor Karl Wohlmuth as International Consultant to UNDP, ILO and the Government of Sudan: First Human Development Report Sudan

Source: MOSP/Ministry of Social Planning, Khartoum, Sudan/UNDP/United Nations Development Programme, Khartoum, Sudan, 1998, Sudan 1st National Human Development Report (NHDR), Final Draft, October 1998, Prepared under SHD (SUD/95/003), 249 pages

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