STI Policies Tunisia

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25.05.2020
The African Development Perspectives Yearbook celebrates an Anniversary after Thirty Years (1989 – 2019) of Impact - A new volume was recently published for 2019 with the title “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth In Africa - Human Skills Development And Country Cases”

When the Yearbook Series started in 1989 with a volume on “Human Dimensions of Adjustment” no one of the founders thought that this project would exist for thirty years and more. But now we can say that the demand for this Yearbook was continuously on the increase. The volumes became over time important additions to the literature on African Development Perspectives. We are proud to say that the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is now the leading English-language annual in Germany on Africa. The volumes are still organized around Units, comprising three to five essays, and each Unit is introduced by editors through a presentation of issues and strategies that follow from the messages of the essays. Each volume has a specific theme which is of utmost importance in the discussion about development policies for Africa. The editors still preserve this way of grouping the material, when presenting the analytical essays, the field studies, the documents, the reviews, the briefs and the notes.

We observe that some of the volumes which appeared in the 1990s and in the 2000s are again at the centre of policy discussions about Africa, just to mention “Good Governance and Economic Development” or “Industrialization based on Agricultural Development” or “Africa - Escaping the Primary Commodities Dilemma” or “Active Labour and Employment Policies in Africa”. It is interesting to see how relevant some of the proposals mentioned there still are in the policy discussion, and so they are cited again and again. These volumes are still sold and read, and the impact on the policymakers in Africa and at the global level encourages us to continue with the work for the Yearbook Project. The strong interest about the Yearbook themes follows the discussion about development strategies for Africa at global and regional levels. So, the launch of the Yearbook volume for 2015/16 on “Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration” by UNECA in Kigali, Rwanda had a great effect; the messages and the lessons were taken up Africa-wide with great interest and recognition.

The new volumes for 2018 and 2019 are unique as they highlight a Science, Technology and Innovation (STI)-led development strategy for Africa (see the Cover of each volume below). The strategies developed are taking up African positions and proposals, but these are critically analysed and confronted with the “state of the art” analyses about global achievements with regard of STI and Inclusive Growth policies. Country cases play in all the volumes a great role. In these two volumes we have taken up country cases for Nigeria, Sudan, Cameroon, Tunisia, Mauritania, and Egypt. Some country cases are considered in a full Unit, like for Sudan, Nigeria, Egypt and Tunisia, others in the form of one or two essays (such as for Mauritania and Cameroon). The specific theme for a volume is also enriched by a full Unit on Book Reviews and Book Notes. All the relevant literature on global, regional, national and local issues is considered by reviewers who are working in the area of STI and Inclusive Growth policies.

Contributors, Editors, and Supporters of the Project will work on an Anniversary Festschrift on “Thirty Years (1989-2019) of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook” to highlight the achievements and main outcomes, the messages and lessons for policymakers, and to make proposals and plans to prepare for the future perspectives of the Yearbook project. The University of Bremen has supported the project now over more than three decades. A press report was prepared and issued by the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies and the University of Bremen (see it as a PDF FB 7 - Info Jahrbuch/Yearbook, and as a Link https://www.uni-bremen.de/wiwi/news/detailansicht/ein-projekt-der-afrikaforschung-an-der-universitaet-bremen). The volume for 2020/21 with the title “Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Infrastructure, Industrialization, Innovation) and African Development – Challenges and Opportunities” is now finalized by research teams. There are already concrete plans for the 2022 volume with the theme “Business Opportunities, Growth of Innovative Start-ups, and Digital Transformation in Africa”. An International Call for Papers for the 2022 volume will be made available in the next few months.

Information about the Yearbook Project is made available under:
https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/
http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/index.php?content=345&lng=de
http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-adpy.htm

The LIT Verlag is the partner of the Yearbook project:
https://www.lit-verlag.de/publikationen/reihen/african-development-perspectives-yearbook/?p=1

Under a WIKIPEDIA entry you see a short description:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Development_Perspectives_Yearbook

 

Bibliographic Information:
African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019
Science, Technology And Innovation Policies For Inclusive Growth In Africa - Human Skills Development And Country Cases,
Edited by Achim Gutowski, Nazar Mohamed Hassan, Tobias Knedlik, Chantal Marie Ngo Tong, Karl Wohlmuth,
LIT Verlag Wien, Zürich 2020
ISBN 978-3-643-91173-5 (pb)
ISBN 978-3-643-96173-0 (PDF)
i-xxxvi und 527 Seiten und i-x

Bibliographic Information:
African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2018
Science, Technology And Innovation Policies For Inclusive Growth In Africa – General Issues And Country Cases,
Edited by Reuben A. Alabi, Achim Gutowski, Nazar Mohamed Hassan, Tobias Knedlik, Samia Satti Mohamed Nour, Karl Wohlmuth,
LIT Verlag Wien, Zürich 2018
ISBN 978-3-643-91042-4 (pb)
ISBN 978-3-643-96042-9 (PDF)
i-xxx und 555 Seiten und i-v

Related to the publishing activity for the Yearbook is the research activity of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (see about the Research Group the PDF ADPY Research Group, and the links to follow-up the research activity related to the themes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook:
http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/afrikanische_entwicklungsperspektiven_research_group_/, and:
http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/index.php?content=340&lng=de, and:
http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/index.php?content=341&lng=de, and:
https://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/afrikanische_entwicklungsperspektiven/).
Guest researchers, currently from Nigeria, are participating in the researches of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (see: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/environment_and_development_management_nigeria_germany/). They also serve as editors and co-editors of Units/Volumes.

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25.05.2020
30 Jahre „African Development Perspectives Yearbook” – Ein Projekt der Afrikaforschung an der Universität Bremen

Von Fragen der Industrialisierung, der Agrarentwicklung und der Armutsbekämpfung bis hin zu Wissenschaft, Technologie und Innovation als Voraussetzungen für inklusives Wachstum in Afrika reichen die Themen, die im Jahrbuch abgehandelt werden. Drei Jahrzehnte afrikanischer Entwicklungen und Politikreformen sind im Fokus dieses Publikationsprojektes der Bremer Universität gewesen, und das Projekt wird weitergeführt. Die Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven Bremen unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth und das Institut für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management (IWIM) am Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft der Universität Bremen haben dieses Bremer Entwicklungsprojekt für Afrika begründet. Vor wenigen Wochen ist nun der Band für 2019 des „African Development Perspectives Yearbook“ erschienen (siehe das Cover unten). Der Titel des englischsprachigen Bandes lautet „Science, Technology And Innovation Policies For Inclusive Growth In Africa – Human Skills Development And Country Cases” („Wissenschafts-, Technologie- und Innovationspolitiken für inklusives Wachstum in Afrika – Entwicklung der menschlichen Fähigkeiten und Länderstudien“).


Die Forschungsgruppe unter der Leitung von Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth startete mit ihrer Arbeit bereits 1988 und gab seinerzeit den Band 1 des Afrika-Jahrbuchs mit dem Titel „Human Dimensions of Adjustment“ („Menschliche Dimensionen der Anpassung“) im Jahr 1989 heraus (siehe das Cover unten). Dieser Band fand sehr großes Interesse, weil eine neue und kritische Sicht auf die Vorschläge von internationalen Finanzorganisationen für Wirtschaftsreformen in Afrika präsentiert wurde. In den 30 Jahren von 1989 bis 2019 wurden immer wieder zentrale Fragen der afrikanischen Entwicklung unter dem Gesichtspunkt der notwendigen Politikreformen aufgegriffen und tiefschürfend abgehandelt. Wichtige Themen waren etwa: Industrialisierung auf der Basis landwirtschaftlicher Entwicklung; Energie für Afrikas Entwicklung; Aktive Arbeitsmarktpolitiken für Afrika; Regionale Chancen und Perspektiven der Beschäftigung; Governance und ökonomische Entwicklung; Economic Empowerment von kleinen Produzenten in Afrika; Afrikas Reintegration in die Weltwirtschaft; Privatsektorenentwicklung und Entrepreneurship Development in Afrika; Öffentliche und private Wirtschaftssektoren in Afrika im Gleichgewicht; Auswege aus dem Dilemma der Primärgüterexporte; Rohstoffabhängigkeit und Exportdiversifizierung in Afrika; Neue Wachstums- und Armutsbekämpfungsstrategien für Afrika; Internationale, regionale, institutionelle und lokale Strategien der Armutsbekämpfung in Afrika; die Auswirkungen der globalen Finanzkrise auf die Wirtschaftsreformen in Afrika; die Formierung und Implementierung makroökonomischer Politiken in Afrika; Regionale Integration und makroökonomische Politik in Afrika; Afrikas Fortschritte bei der regionalen und globalen Wirtschaftsintegration, und nun in zwei Bänden für 2018 und 2019 die Thematik der Wissenschafts-, Technologie- und Innovationspolitik als Hebel für eine inklusive Wachstumspolitik in Afrika. Alles Themen, die jeweils im Mittelpunkt der Entwicklungspolitik für Afrika standen bzw. noch immer stehen.

Über dieses Jubiläum wurde eine Presseerklärung verfasst (vgl. die PDF Info 30 Jahre Jahrbuch). Vgl. dazu auch die Mitteilungen auf der Homepage des Fachbereichs Wirtschaftswissenschaft der Universität Bremen: https://www.uni-bremen.de/wiwi/news/detailansicht/ein-projekt-der-afrikaforschung-an-der-universitaet-bremen. Es ist auch geplant, eine Online-Festschrift „30 Jahre African Development Perspectives Yearbook – Reformimpulse für Afrika“ zu veröffentlichen. Wichtige Unterstützer, Herausgeber, Autoren wollen sich zu dem Projekt äußern.

Bibliographische Information über die neue Publikation:

African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019

Science, Technology And Innovation Policies For Inclusive Growth In Africa - Human Skills Development And Country Cases,

Edited by Achim Gutowski, Nazar Mohamed Hassan, Tobias Knedlik, Chantal Marie Ngo Tong, Karl Wohlmuth,
LIT Verlag Wien, Zürich 2020
ISBN 978-3-643-91173-5 (pb)
ISBN 978-3-643-96173-0 (PDF)
i-xxxvi und 527 Seiten und i-x

Infos über die Publikationsreihe: 1989-2019

http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/index.php?content=345&lng=de
http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy


Der nächste Band des Jahrbuchs für 2020/21 ist in Vorbereitung und wird dem Thema “Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Infrastructure, Industrialization, Innovation) and African Development – Challenges and Opportunities” gewidmet sein. Vgl. den International Call for Papers zur Übersicht der Inhalte (PDF International Call for Papers Volume 22). Für das Jahr 2022 ist das Thema „Business Opportunities, Growth of Start-Ups, and Digital Transformation in Africa” in Planung.

Durch Forschungsprojekte wird die Herausgabe dieser Bände unterstützt. Ein aktuelles Forschungsprojekt der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven Bremen thematisiert die Frage, ob die Tendenzen der De-Industrialisierung in Afrika durch die globalen technologischen Entwicklungen und durch die globale digitale Transformation eher verstärkt oder aber abgeschwächt werden. Das neue Thema ist von hoher Politikrelevanz, weil vielfach nicht nur der Industriesektor in Afrika vor großen Problemen steht, sondern auch der Landwirtschaftssektor unter strukturellen Problemen leidet. Ziel der Forschungsarbeit ist es daher, die Grundlagen einer neuen Industrie- und Landwirtschaftspolitik für Afrika zu erarbeiten, die auf kohärenten Wissenschafts-, Technologie- und Innovationspolitiken beruhen. Vgl. dazu die neue Veröffentlichung über technologische Kompetenzen, Strukturwandel und digitale Transformation in Afrika (Veröffentlichung als Discussion Paper in der Blauen Reihe des IWIM mit dem Titel: „Technological Development, Structural Change and Digital Transformation in Africa“, Nummer 128, 2019); Access: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/blaue_reihe/).

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25.05.2020
New economic policies are proposed for Tunisia - There is a need for a more coherent development strategy

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has recently published various studies on economic reform policies for Tunisia. Such reforms are overdue in a country which has initiated the Arab Spring events in 2011 and since enjoys substantial international support and goodwill from so many developed countries. A summary article is published to give an overview of the key findings of these studies (see the PDF with the synopsis). The analyses are related to vital branches of economic policy, especially on deindustrialization, reindustrialization and employment policies in Tunisia, and also on innovation, regional development and health sector policies for Tunisia.

Most recent is the new volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019 with four studies on Tunisia; the volume was published in early 2020 by the LIT Verlag. Two studies (on innovation and on health sector policies) were done by research groups in Tunisia, the third study on regional development and cluster policies was contributed by an independent researcher on Tunisia, and the fourth study with a focus on development strategies was prepared by two editors of this volume of the Yearbook (see the cover of the Yearbook volume 2019 below). Although Tunisia has quite interesting and sophisticated approaches towards sector policies, the authors found out that there is a need to update the policies and strategies and to synchronize these policies so that the overall development framework becomes more sustainable in Tunisia.

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06.06.2019
New Studies on Implementing Economic Reforms in Tunisia – New Approaches towards Employment Generation, Industrial Development and Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Promotion

Two new studies came out from the Bremen Tunisia Project – first, a study on De-Industrialization, Reindustrialization and Employment. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia and second, a whole Unit of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019 containing a set of studies on Innovation Policies, Industrial Cluster Policies and Health Sector Reform Policies in Tunisia. A Synopsis on the proposed strategies for the policymakers was written by Professor Karl Wohlmuth (see the PDF Tunisia-Employment, Industry and STI Policies 2019).

The first study is on implementing economic reforms through a) labour market transformations and laying the institutional foundations for a National Employment Strategy, b) managing de-industrialization through pro-active industrial development policies, c) exploiting multiple paths of reindustrialization via promotion of all productive sectors, regional industry development, supporting viable regional and global value chains and mobilizing green growth potentials in the country, and d) involving new partners and actors in the implementation process of economic reforms, also at regional and global levels. These issues were discussed at a conference on reindustrialization in Tunisia (see about the Reindustrialization Conference in Tunisia and the Bremen Tunisia Project: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/).

In the second study three key areas of STI policies were discussed, first, the role of obstacles to innovation in and among Tunisian firms; second, the role of industrial clusters smart specialization policies for innovations; and third, the role of innovation policies in the health sector comprising all relevant sub-sectors and value chains. These essays are part of a strategy to promote STI policies in North Africa with a focus on Egypt and Tunisia. Two volumes of the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook (Volume 20 for 2018 and Volume 21 for 2019) were devoted to the issue of Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa. These essays are in Volume 21.

The Bremen Tunisia Project is running since 5 years. A short report was presented by Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass from the  University of Applied Sciences Bremen at a jubilee meeting in 2018 for an international study programme on Applied Economic Languages (AWS/Angewandte Wirtschaftssprachen) Arabic, Japanese and Chinese running for 30 years (see Bass Presentation AWS). Volume 21 for 2019 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is also part of a jubilee event in 2019 as this Yearbook Project is now running for 30 (thirty) years, as the number one issue on Human Dimensions of Adjustment in Africa was published in 1989 (see the link to the various issues of the Yearbook Project: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/ and: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm).

Bibliographic Information on the New Publications:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2018, De-Industrialisierung, Reindustrialisierung und Beschäftigung. Elemente einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and Employment. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia), Seiten 33-90, in: Zeitschrift "Berichte", 2018/II, 28. Jg., Nr. 213, ISSN 1022-3258, Thema des Heftes (Theme of the Issue of the Journal): Gegensätze - Westbalkan, Tunesien und Karl Marx, Berlin, Forschungsinstitut der Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik (IWVWW) e. V.

African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019, Volume 21, Theme: Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa – Human Skills Development and Country Cases, Edited by Achim Gutowski, Nazar Mohamed Hassan, Tobias Knedlik, Chantal Marie Ngo Tong and Karl Wohlmuth, LIT Publishers Wien-Zürich, 2019, with contributions on Tunisia in Unit 2: Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Economic Transformation in North Africa by: Nazar Mohamed Hassan and Karl Wohlmuth; Zouhour Karray and Wiem Ben Ghorbel Abed; Maximilian Benner; and by Mondher Khanfir and Sana Ayari-Riabi.

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12.02.2018
Alternative Economy and Social Justice: Workshop at the Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES) in Tunis

Professors Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert  Kappel and Karl Wohlmuth were invited by the FES Tunis to speak at the workshop “Alternative Economy and Social Justice”, 14-15 September 2017, about the future of labour in the MENA region.  The focus on the first day was on Employment and Alternative Sectors: Green Economy, Digital Economy, as well as Social and Solidarity Economy. It was expected by the organizers that the experts give concrete recommendations and suggestions on the role of the civil society – more precisely the trade unions - in order to preserve labour rights and to warrant the sustainability of jobs within these new sectors of an alternative economy. The second day was reserved for a common meeting with the regional projects “Climate and Energy”, “For Socially Just Development” and the “Regional Trade Union Project”.

It was planned for the first day to have an expert debate on the subject of new opportunities and challenges of the transformation of the labour market in the context of the newly emerging three sectors in the MENA Region. In particular, the labour market implications of the Green Economy, the Digital Economy, and the Social and Solidarity Economy were discussed. The three German economists were invited because of their collaboration with the FES on a study to analyse the starting points for an employment strategy for Tunisia (see the PDF of the study: library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/13336.pdf, and for a download of the versions in German, Arabic, French and English languages see: https://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien). A short report about the meeting summarizes the main points of discussion (see the link: http://www.fes-mena.org/events/e/alternative-economy-and-employment/). The event was part of a larger programme of the FES for the MENA region (see on the programme “Economic Policies for Social Justice”: http://www.fes-mena.org/topics/economic-policies-for-social-justice/, and on the book as a final report with the title “Towards Socially Juist Development in the MENA Region”, to be accessed for download via PDF: library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/tunesien/13871.pdf).

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15.08.2017
Starting Points for a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia

Professor Karl Wohlmuth is co-author of a new study on employment creation in Tunisia. This is a reworked version of the study which was published in 2016 in German, Arabic and French languages. Main issue is how to develop a new employment strategy for Tunisia amidst dangers of increasing unemployment and spreading political instability. The authors provide a frame for employment policies consisting of three strategic elements. Element One considers the long overdue need for a pro-active policy towards small and medium enterprises in Tunisia. Element Two addresses the need to integrate Tunisian enterprises in a more effective way into global and regional value chains. Element Three focuses on the need to start a broad-based reindustrialization process in Tunisia and to manage in a better way the deindustrialization process in the field of old industries. Also the trade policy and implementation issues of the proposed strategy are discussed. There is a great interest of Tunisian policymakers in this strategic approach towards employment creation. Governmental and non-governmental institutions in Tunisia and various donor agencies are working now on solid foundations for a an operational employment strategy and policy for Tunisia. The Council of Economic Advisers of Tunisia has established a working group on these issues. Despite of the importance of the employment issue not too many studies were done so far on employment policies for Tunisia.

 
Photo: More Jobs, Higher Wages Essential for Tunisian Growth, Middle East Institute, May 20, 2016

The National Dialogue on Employment of March 2016 raised the issue of employment creation again and presented an Eleven-Point Plan, and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon emphasized during the meeting the necessity to keep the theme of job creation at the centre of policymaking to preserve Tunisia’s democratic gains (see the report by Mabrouka M’Barek: More Jobs, Higher Wages Essential for Tunisian Growth, Middle East Institute, May 20, 2016, Web Access: http://www.mei.edu/content/article/more-jobs-higher-wages-essential-tunisian-growth).


The four versions of the study by the three development economists:

 
Download:
https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien


The Study:
Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl

Starting points for a national employment strategy for Tunisia / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Dep. for Middle East and North Africa, April 2017. - 17 Seiten = 250 KB, PDF-File. - (Study / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2017
ISBN 978-3-95861-753-7
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/13336.pdf

 

 
Download: https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
[Approches relatives à une stratégie nationale pour l'emploi en Tunisie / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth]. - [Tunis : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Projet Regional "Politiques Economiques pour la justice sociale", Décembre 2016]. - 16 Seiten = 340 KB, PDF-File. -
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Tunis : FES, 2017. - Arabic text and script
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/tunesien/13338.pdf

 

 
Download: https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
Approches relatives à une stratégie nationale pour l'emploi en Tunisie / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Tunis : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Projet Regional "Politiques Economiques pour la justice sociale", Décembre 2016. - 16 Seiten = 125 KB, PDF-File. - (Étude / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Einheitssacht.: Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien . -
Electronic ed.: Tunis : FES, 2017
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/tunesien/13337.pdf

 

 

 

 
Download:
https://www.fes.de/de/partner-der-friedrich-ebert-stiftung-erhalten-den-friedensnobelpreis/fes-publikationen-zu-tunesien/ and
http://www.fes.de/t3php/publ_int.php?&f_ABC=tunis&f_RSW=tunesien&logik=or&t_listen=x&sortierung=jab&t3titel=Tunesien

 

The Study:

Bass, Hans-Heinrich; Kappel, Robert; Wohlmuth, Karl
Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Naher / Mittlerer Osten und Nordafrika, November 2016. - 17 Seiten = 215 KB, PDF-File. - (Studie / Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung)
Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2016
ISBN 978-3-95861-599-1
http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf

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15.08.2017
Advising on African and Global Studies: Research Projects, International Guest Researchers, Global Conferences, Evaluations, Publications

Professor Karl Wohlmuth was in recent months active as an adviser to research projects, conferences and publications (see some projects below):

Professor Wohlmuth was invited by the President of the UN Economic and Social Council to participate at the Global ECOSOC Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe as a speaker on “Industrialization based on Agricultural Development”. Global Meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City emphasize the role of Sustainable Development Goal Nine (SDG 9) on Sustainable Industrialization, Infrastructure Development and Innovation. This will be an  ongoing task of ECOSOC. ECOSOC has the lead in implementing the 17 SDGs.

Guest researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi extends his research stay in Bremen for three more years. The new Research Programme for 2018-2020 was recently presented as a Letter of Intentions and discussed with Professor Wohlmuth.  It has three major components, comprising major policy issues of agroindustry development in Nigeria (Crop productivity, Public expenditure for agriculture at state level, and Combatting youth unemployment through agriculture development).

Professor Alabi was appointed in March 2017 as a Full Professor of Agricultural Economics at Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies of the  University of Bremen, Professor Jochen Zimmermann, had extended the invitation. Professor Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior project adviser in these projects.

Preparations are ongoing for the research visit of Professor Chunji Yun, Faculty of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University, Fukuoka-City, Japan. He will work for a year in Bremen on the research topic of “Production Integration and Labour Market Interdependencies in the European Union.” This is his second research visit at IWIM for a period of one year. The Dean has extended an invitation to him for a year.

Further on, Professor Wohlmuth has advised the research project of Yves Bagna who has constructed a new “Porter Competitiveness Index”, based on Porter’s Diamond Theory. Throughout the research period Professor Wohlmuth was the main adviser to the project. The book is now published by the Research Institute of IWVWW e. V. at Berlin, and further essays on the methodology are forthcoming. Yves Bagna has also compared the new “Porter Competitiveness Index” with the long-established “Global Competitiveness Index” of the Word Economic Forum. Yves Bagna, an engineer and economist from Cameroon, has during his research also visited the Institute of Professor Michael Porter at the Harvard Business School.

Also, Professor Wohlmuth was active to review a chapter for a new UNIDO book about Industrialization in Africa, in his function as the lead author of the chapter. He has also revised and extended a background paper on the issues for UNIDO.

In addition, Professor Wohlmuth has peer-reviewed articles for international and African journals, such as the prestigious journal Comparative Economic Studies. As the number of African refereed journals increases, the demand for evaluations rises. Members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen are invited to support such activities.

Work on the volumes 20 and 21 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is progressing. On Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies in Sudan, a cooperation is under way with Professor Samia Satti Nour from the University of Khartoum, a leading international expert on STI policies. The Cooperation, which is targeting on issues of “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Sudan”, is advancing towards a separate Unit (a collection of papers) in Volume 20. A Unit on “STI Frameworks for Africa” is prepared in Cooperation with Patrick N. Osakwe, UNCTAD, Geneva and Nazar Hassan, UNESCO, Cairo. A Unit on STI Policies in Nigeria is done in cooperation with Professor Alabi. Other Units will be prepared on issues of Human Resources Development and STI, on STI Policies in North Africa, and on Publications on STI Policies: Book Reviews and Book Notes.

The Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES) Tunisia has published four language versions (English, French, Arabic, German) of a study on “Elements of an Employment Strategy for Tunisia”. Professor Wohlmuth is one of the three authors, a joint work of three development economists working on Africa since decades.

Various publications were released by Professor Wohlmuth on the middle class in Africa, on deindustrialization and reindustrialization in Tunisia, on transformative regional integration in Africa, and on guidelines for policymakers in Africa to promote global and regional value chains.

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16.12.2016
Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien

Die drei Entwicklungsökonomen Hans-Heinrich Bass (Bremen), Robert Kappel (Hamburg/Berlin) und Karl Wohlmuth (Bremen) haben im Auftrag der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) Tunesien eine Studie zu den Ansatzpunkten einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien verfasst. Angesichts der wachsenden Arbeitslosigkeit und der Ineffektivität der nationalen Beschäftigungspolitik in Tunesien sind Impulse für eine Neuorientierung in der derzeitigen Entwicklungsphase des Landes besonders wichtig (vgl. dazu die Links zur FES Tunesien: http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf und zur digitalen Bibliothek der FES: http://www.fes.de/cgi-bin/gbv.cgi?id=12921&ty=pdf ).

Aus der Studie zitiert:

„Wirtschaftliche Probleme und soziale Ungerechtigkeiten lösten im Jahr 2011 die Revolution in Tunesien aus. Seither hat sich viel in Tunesien getan; die demokratische Entwicklung des Landes wird international gelobt. Doch wirtschaftliche Reformen wurden bislang kaum unternommen. Insbesondere junge Tunesier_innen und Bewohner_innen des Landesinneren warten noch immer auf eine wirtschaftliche und soziale »Dividende« der Revolution. Ohne neue Impulse in der Beschäftigungspolitik gerät der politische Prozess in Tunesien in Gefahr.

Die beste Form, um langfristige soziale Gerechtigkeit und gesellschaftliche Stabilität zu erreichen, ist durch gute, würdige und fair entlohnte Arbeit. In Tunesien herrscht jedoch schon seit langem Unterbeschäftigung und der Anteil prekärer Jobs nimmt rasch zu. Viele Hochschul- und Berufsschulabsolvent_innen finden keine adäquaten Jobs, wohingegen viele andere im stetig wachsenden informellen Sektor tätig sind. Aus diesem Grund braucht Tunesien dringend eine neue Industriepolitik und eine umfassende Beschäftigungsstrategie.

Auswege aus der Beschäftigungskrise Tunesiens sind möglich. Eine effektive Beschäftigungspolitik setzt jedoch die Stärkung des Unternehmenssektors voraus, insbesondere durch die Förderung kleinerer und mittlerer Unternehmen. Darüber hinaus sind neue Formen der Integration der tunesischen Wirtschaft in regionale und globale Wertschöpfungsketten durchzusetzen. Nur durch eine breit angelegte Reindustrialisierung können die nötigen Jobs geschaffen und nachhaltig gesichert werden.“

Erstens werden in der Studie Grundlagen einer kohärenten, inklusiven und nachhaltigen Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik für Tunesien vorgestellt. Dabei kommen der Privatsektor-Entwicklung und dem inklusiven Wachstum besondere Bedeutung zu. Die Dynamik in urbanen Zentren ist für die Beschäftigungsschaffung und für ein inklusives Wachstum stärker zu nutzen. Eine neue Industriepolitik kann inklusives Wachstum und Beschäftigungsschaffung unterstützen. Kleine und mittlere Unternehmen müssen anders als bisher offensiv gefördert werden.

Zweitens legt die Studie dar, dass die Integration Tunesiens in globale und regionale Wertschöpfungsketten durch wirtschafts- und handelspolitische Maßnahmen deutlich verbessert werden kann. Ein großes Beschäftigungspotential einer vertieften Integration ist erkennbar. Allerdings sind industriepolitische Voraussetzungen für eine erfolgreiche globale und regionale Integration erst noch zu schaffen. Die einseitige und enge Konzentration in sektoraler und geographischer Hinsicht ist zu überwinden.

Drittens zeigt die Studie, dass Auswege aus der Beschäftigungskrise möglich sind, wenn durch eine nationale Beschäftigungsstrategie die fehlende Dynamik der Arbeitsmärkte korrigiert wird. Aber auch ein neues Management der De-Industrialisierung ist notwendig, weil in den letzten Jahren viele Jobs im Sektor der verarbeitenden Industrie verloren gegangen sind. Die Beschäftigungskrise kann überwunden werden, wenn eine neue Industriepolitik die Möglichkeiten der Reindustrialisierung ausschöpft. Die Beschäftigungsschaffung in Tunesien kann durch vier Pfade der Reindustrialisierung voran gebracht werden. Schließlich sind aber Ausrichtung und Umsetzung der Beschäftigungsstrategie als gesamtgesellschaftliche Aufgabe zu verstehen; alle Stakeholder des Beschäftigungssystems müssen beteiligt werden, um einen Erfolg zu ermöglichen.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bibliographische Angaben zur Studie:

Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Naher / Mittlerer Osten und Nordafrika, November 2016. - 17 Seiten = 215 KB, PDF-File. - Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2016, ISBN 978-3-95861-599-1 http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf

Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung/FES International Naher/Mittlerer Osten Nordafrika: https://www.fes.de/international/nahost/inhalt/publ_tunis.php

Die Studie wird derzeit ins Französische und ins Arabische übersetzt.

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14.12.2016
New Research Report on Employment Policies in Tunisia: Managing Deindustrialization and Initiating Reindustrialization
In a new Research Report Professor Karl Wohlmuth outlines Elements of a New Employment Strategy for Tunisia. The Report is a Background Paper for a Consultancy Study on Approaches to initiate a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia.

Tunisia is five years after the Arab Spring Revolution in the process of reforming its development model and especially so its employment policy and the related institutions. High overall unemployment rates and high unemployment rates among the graduates of tertiary and vocational education institutions reveal that the economy is not absorbing adequately its skilled labour force. In demand  is in Tunisia unskilled labour and low skilled labour as these groups of the labour force have much smaller unemployment rates. The production system is since decades biased towards sectors, activities and processes which require low skilled and cheap labour. The reasons are that Tunisia has managed rather badly its deindustrialization process, the decline of the manufacturing share in GDP and the decline of the manufacturing share in overall employment. Improving the management of deindustrialization would require that the labour market and investment laws and regulations are adapted, that the STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) system is adjusted, that the tertiary and vocational education systems are reformed, and that the social security system is streamlined.

 

 Source: North Country Public Radio/ northcountrypublicradio.org (Arab Spring Anniversary)

Intentions to reform the development model and its institutions are there, but the political process prevents concrete actions. Also, in order to increase the demand for skilled people who are unemployed or working under precarious conditions, the country needs to initiate a reindustrialization process. In the Research Report four paths of reindustrialization are discussed and contrasted: First, reindustrialization via the promotion of competitive value chains in other economic sectors than manufacturing (agriculture, services, mining, etc.) is a promising route which could create a great number of jobs. Obviously, the sector policies are not employment-promoting. Second, reindustrialization via exploiting the potential for manufacturing in remote regions of the country (as manufacturing is largely concentrated in some coastal regions) is another viable option. Regional development incentives have obviously not worked towards creating employment in manufacturing sectors through a new inter-regional division of labour. Third, reindustrialization via new forms of integration into global value chains is a further important option. Tunisia has a large number of scientists and researchers and around 700 science, research & development institutions, but does not exploit this potential for global value chains which put to use the skills base and the research potential of the country. Fourth, Tunisia has great opportunities to reindustrialize via the development of “green growth industries” as the protection of its natural resources is important for sustainable development. In various environment-sensitive sectors employment can be generated through “green growth initiatives”. Examples are areas such as organic agriculture, ecotourism and sustainable tourism, sustainable construction, and a better management of solid waste. All these areas offer a lot of opportunities up to new value chains and an increase in the demand for skills.

The Research Report is a Background Study, being part of a Joint Consultancy Contract. It is expected that short and long versions of the study can be published soon. The study relates also to the ongoing work on economic reforms in Tunisia by Karl Wohlmuth (see Publications Wohlmuth and STI Policies Tunisia: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/ ).

Reference to the Study:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (Orientations for a New Employment Strategy for Tunisia), Teil 1 (Part 1): Management von De-Industrialisierung und Initiierung von Politiken der Reindustrialisierung (Management of Deindustrialization and Initiation of Policies at Reindustrialization), Forschungsbericht im Ökonomische Reformen in Tunesien-Projekt (Research Report in the Project Economic Reforms in Tunisia), diverse Lang- und Kurzfassungen des Forschungsberichts werden veröffentlicht (various long and short versions of the Research Report will be published soon), Manuskript (Manuscript), 45 Seiten (pages), unveröffentlichter Text (unpublished text), erscheint im Dezember 2016 als Nummer 127 der Blauen Discussion Papers Reihe des IWIM der Universität Bremen (forthcoming as Number 127 of the Blue Series Discussion Papers, IWIM, University of Bremen, 45 pages,  December 2016), unter dem Titel/under the title: Das Management der De-Industrialisierung und die Initiierung von Politiken der Reindustrialisierung. Elemente einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (The Management of De-Industrialization and the Initiation of Policies for Reindustrialization. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia).

Link zu den Publikationen/ Link to the Publications (vgl./see: Publications Wohlmuth) und/and Link zum Tunesien-Projekt/ Link to the Tunisia Project (vgl./see: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/ )

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06.07.2016
Reindustrialization of Tunisia: Towards equitable and sustainable development, and further democracy, Conference in Hammamet, 12-13 February 2016
The Conference on “Reindustrialization of Tunisia” in Hammamet, which was organized by our Tunisian partners ENIT and TAASTI in Tunis, was a success (see the Programme PDF ReindusConf-Booklet and the Abstracts PDF Wohlmuth-Abstracts). The DAAD has financed the participation of eight researchers from Bremen, mainly from the University of Bremen. The theme of “Reindustrialization of Tunisia” was discussed by Tunisian and German economists. Also representatives of Tunisian Ministries, Employers Federations, Private Businesses and NGOs were invited as speakers. The whole conference was  recorded by the TAASTI team so as to have lecture material for the ETP Master course at ENIT in Tunis. As the employment situation is quite serious in Tunisia, especially so the situation of the youth and of the academic and vocational training graduates, the discussion about reindustrialization and employment generation options was timely.

 


The Conference Delegates Met at the Sentido Phenicia Hotel  in Hammamet, Tunisia

 

The Conference started with a panel discussion. The panellists, among them Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen and Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen, discussed about the “Role of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) for Reindustrialization in Tunisia”. Professor Karl Wohlmuth emphasized ten key global industrial megatrends, as industrial development is shaped by strong global driving forces, such as digitalization, miniaturization, multi-faceted globalization, deeper forms of global value chain networking, intelligent (smart) specialization, use and spread of green technologies, industrial production through new technologies for saving resources, recycling and reusing materials, adapting to diversified and rapidly changing consumer preferences, and new forms of flexible production and labour use.

 



The Panellists discuss about the “Role of STI for Reindustrialization in Tunisia”

 

A representative from the Ministry of Industry spoke about new industrial policy initiatives in Tunisia. Although the Ministry of Industry has in some industrial policy areas a lead role, many other Ministries and Agencies have a say on industrial development. Therefore, Policy Forums were considered as important so as to address the inter-sectoral issues of Reindustrialization in Tunisia.

 



A presentation about the “Industrial Development Initiatives of the Tunisian Ministry of Industry”

 

The professors from the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen gave presentations on key Reindustrialization issues. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave two presentations. In the first presentation he discussed the causes of deindustrialization in Tunisia and the various options for reindustrialization; a new strategy for industrial development has to be based on pro-active STI policies (see the PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2). In the second presentation Professor Wohlmuth made proposals for the establishment of STI Policy Forums for guiding the reindustrialization process in Tunisia (see the PDF Wohlmuth-STI Policy Forum).

 


Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation about “Deindustrialization and Reindustrialization in Tunisia”

 



Professor Karl Wohlmuth during his presentation about the “Role of STI Policy Forums in Tunisia”

 

Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass gave a presentation on “Strengthening the Role of Global Value Chains for a Successful Reindustrialization Process in Tunisia”; as Tunisia has lost in economic complexity in recent years; new approaches are needed to reverse this trend. Professor Achim Gutowski, ISS Hamburg/IWIM Bremen, spoke about “Financing Innovations in Tunisia and Germany”; as Tunisia has a financing gap in industrial innovations of the private sector, there is great interest in the modes how Germany is promoting innovation financing.

 


Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass spoke about the “Strategies to Strengthen the Integration of Tunisia into Global Industry Value Chains”

 

 

Professor Gutowski gave a presentation about “Financing Innovations in Germany and Tunisia”


All over the conference sessions there was a lively discussion. For the Master students of the ETP programme at ENIT in Tunis a Foresight Analysis course was held as a closing session of the conference (financed by DAAD). New instruments of foresight analyses were presented as well as results from foresight studies concerning future global industrial development patterns.


Towards a New Development Model for Tunisia – A Precondition for Reindustrialization

A major outcome of the conference in Hammamet was the insight that Tunisia has to overcome the development model inherited form Ben Ali so as to solve the major economic and social problems. Five years after the Revolution this task is not achieved. The Conference Lectures started with a speech by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Director of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives, IWIM, University of Bremen, Germany. He introduced in his presentation the theme “Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and the Contribution of Coherent Industry and STI Policies: What are the Tasks ahead for Tunisia?”. In his presentation he considered key issues of Tunisia’s economic transformation process. The Tunisian Government is on the way to design a new development model so as to overcome the pre-revolution economic structures and modalities of policy-making (“Ben Ali legacy”). Based on the HRV (Hausmann/Rodrik/Velasco) decision tree to find out the most binding constraints to growth, the Tunisian government and international experts acknowledge that the “low appropriability” of the returns to private business activity is still the most important barrier causing low levels of investment and employment generation in the country.

As “low appropriability” of the returns to investment is caused by many factors (corruption, incoherent economic policies, confiscatory high levels of total tax rates, arbitrary administrative decision-making, lack of competition, advantages of political connectivity, privileges of state-owned enterprises, delays in implementing reforms, and excessive costs of regulation due to oversized bureaucratic structures, etc.), the task of establishing a new development model is extremely complex. Other factors retarding growth are also considered, such as human capital, infrastructure, innovation, finance, macro and micro risks, but these factors are not considered as binding as the “low appropriability” of private returns to investment factor is. On this basis Professor Karl Wohlmuth discussed the deindustrialization process of Tunisia and the options for reindustrialization, reflecting also on the role of pro-active STI policies for Tunisia  (see the full text of synopsis in PDF Wohlmuth-Abstracts and Presentation PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2). Although there is an ongoing debate on economic reforms in Tunisia, it is necessary to shorten drastically the extremely long implementation cycle of reform laws from Ministries to Cabinet and Parliament and then back to the Ministries and Implementation Agencies. While the reforms of the Investment Code have started already in 2009 (before the Revolution), up to now only drafts are ready at Ministerial Level, but no decision was made in Cabinet and no parliamentary debate has taken place about an approved draft. Old laws, regulations and procedures prevail.
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