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Institute for World Economics and International Management
(IWIM)

The Institute for World Economics and International Management is an institute of the University of Bremen, Germany. The IWIM focuses on teaching and research activities in both, business administration and economics, and tries to overcome the traditional de-tachment of these scientific fields with regard to international economic issues. Thereupon it represents the core of the University´s economic competence in the analysis of global economic development processes and international management affairs.

The mandate of the IWIM is ...

to carry out research on issues and conditions relating to the latest development processes (a) in the world´s developed and developing countries and regions, and (b) concerning international business and management affairs;
in doing so, to collaborate with other national and international institutions;
to base teaching at the university upon the most recent research results on international issues;
to organize and supervise its university study focus "International Economic Relations and International Management" and the corresponding annual post-graduate study programme;
to arrange management seminars, workshops, and annual economic meetings in order to facilitate the transfer and the exchange of scientific knowledge with national and international researchers, administrators and entrepreneurs.

Some facts about the IWIM

Established in1987 as an institute of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies at the University of Bremen
Directors:
Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth (Email: wohlmuth@uni-bremen.de)
Prof. Dr. Axel Sell (Email: sell@uni-bremen.de)
Recent Information about IWIM Research Programmes and Publications
Research projects of Prof. Dr. Axel Sell
Research projects of Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth
Cooperative Research Project "Governance and Social Action in Sudan after the Peace Agreement of January 9, 2005: Local, National and Regional Dimensions
The Research Group on African Development Perspectives and the African
Development Perspectives Yearbook
Publications
News

Contact

For further information, please do not hesitate to contact us.

IWIM - Institute for World Economics and International Management
University of Bremen / Faculty of Economics and Business Studies
P.O. Box 33 04 40
D-28334 Bremen
GERMANY

Phone: +49-421-218-66517
Fax: +49-421-218-4550
e-mail:
iwimsek@uni-bremen.de

 

 

News 

 

New Studies on Implementing Economic Reforms in Tunisia – New Approaches towards Employment Generation, Industrial Development and Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Promotion

Two new studies came out from the Bremen Tunisia Project – first, a study on De-Industrialization, Reindustrialization and Employment. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia and second, a whole Unit of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019 containing a set of studies on Innovation Policies, Industrial Cluster Policies and Health Sector Reform Policies in Tunisia. A Synopsis on the proposed strategies for the policymakers was written by Professor Karl Wohlmuth (see the PDF Tunisia-Employment, Industry and STI Policies 2019).

The first study is on implementing economic reforms through a) labour market transformations and laying the institutional foundations for a National Employment Strategy, b) managing de-industrialization through pro-active industrial development policies, c) exploiting multiple paths of reindustrialization via promotion of all productive sectors, regional industry development, supporting viable regional and global value chains and mobilizing green growth potentials in the country, and d) involving new partners and actors in the implementation process of economic reforms, also at regional and global levels. These issues were discussed at a conference on reindustrialization in Tunisia (see about the Reindustrialization Conference in Tunisia and the Bremen Tunisia Project: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/).

In the second study three key areas of STI policies were discussed, first, the role of obstacles to innovation in and among Tunisian firms; second, the role of industrial clusters smart specialization policies for innovations; and third, the role of innovation policies in the health sector comprising all relevant sub-sectors and value chains. These essays are part of a strategy to promote STI policies in North Africa with a focus on Egypt and Tunisia. Two volumes of the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook (Volume 20 for 2018 and Volume 21 for 2019) were devoted to the issue of Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa. These essays are in Volume 21.

The Bremen Tunisia Project is running since 5 years. A short report was presented by Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass from the  University of Applied Sciences Bremen at a jubilee meeting in 2018 for an international study programme on Applied Economic Languages (AWS/Angewandte Wirtschaftssprachen) Arabic, Japanese and Chinese running for 30 years (see Bass Presentation AWS). Volume 21 for 2019 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is also part of a jubilee event in 2019 as this Yearbook Project is now running for 30 (thirty) years, as the number one issue on Human Dimensions of Adjustment in Africa was published in 1989 (see the link to the various issues of the Yearbook Project: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/ and: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm).

Bibliographic Information on the New Publications:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2018, De-Industrialisierung, Reindustrialisierung und Beschäftigung. Elemente einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and Employment. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia), Seiten 33-90, in: Zeitschrift "Berichte", 2018/II, 28. Jg., Nr. 213, ISSN 1022-3258, Thema des Heftes (Theme of the Issue of the Journal): Gegensätze - Westbalkan, Tunesien und Karl Marx, Berlin, Forschungsinstitut der Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik (IWVWW) e. V.

African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2019, Volume 21, Theme: Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa – Human Skills Development and Country Cases, Edited by Achim Gutowski, Nazar Mohamed Hassan, Tobias Knedlik, Chantal Marie Ngo Tong and Karl Wohlmuth, LIT Publishers Wien-Zürich, 2019, with contributions on Tunisia in Unit 2: Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Economic Transformation in North Africa by: Nazar Mohamed Hassan and Karl Wohlmuth; Zouhour Karray and Wiem Ben Ghorbel Abed; Maximilian Benner; and by Mondher Khanfir and Sana Ayari-Riabi.

 

A New Study on Sustainable Waste Management in Nigeria and in Germany was released and is published in IWIM’s Globalization in the World Economy Series

This study was written by Guest Researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi from the Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Nigeria and by Professor Emeritus Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen, Germany. It investigates in a comparative form the progress of waste management policies in Nigeria and in Germany, with special emphasis on the conditions in the Lagos State of Nigeria and in the Country State of Bremen in Germany. Also, the move from conventional waste management in the linear economic model to integrated resource and waste management in the circular economic model is discussed. While waste management in the linear economic model focusses in Nigeria and in Germany on a distinct hierarchy of objectives, the resource and waste management in the circular model incorporates the whole life cycle of the products and the societal relevance of the products in view of its objectives. Focus is in the study on the country state of Lagos in Nigeria and on the country state of Bremen in Germany. Both country states have a great role as harbour and logistic towns, as industrial towns and as towns with scientific and technological infrastructure. There are also differences as Lagos is an important financial services hub while Bremen is famous for its aircraft and space industry. The study compares the progress of waste management and resource conservation policies but reflects also on the different institutional and logistical structures of waste management in the two country states, being the result of specific economic sectors and factors. Factors such as the importance of formal and informal private enterprises, the role of public institutions and of private actors in the waste management business, and the relevance of public waste management policies, laws, plans and balance sheets play a role in the study. Also, the role of new equipment and new communication technologies for the further development of the waste industry in the two countries/country states is considered.

The Necessity of A Move Towards Sustainable Waste Management in Nigeria
Source: Towards a sustainable waste management (The Guardian, 16 May 2016; Link: https://guardian.ng/opinion/towards-a-sustainable-waste-management/)

The study is based on relevant literature which is available for the two countries/states and on meetings/interviews with experts on waste management in the two countries/states. Based on questionnaires the authors have investigated the specific frameworks of waste management policies. A major result is that Germany (and Bremen) and Nigeria (and Lagos) can cooperate in a mutually beneficial way on waste management – in policymaking and planning, on developing and selecting equipment and new technologies, on services provision and training, but also on guiding the transformation process towards a circular economy. Nigeria can learn from the German and European way of implementing coherent policies, while Germany and Europe can learn from Nigeria’s way to solve problems which arise at the local level. The study brought to attention that the waste industry in Germany and in Bremen is embedded into a complex web of directives, laws and regulations; this is a strict policy framework from the EU level downwards and to the EU level upwards. In Nigeria, there is no coherent waste governance system down from the federation, but at local and state levels there are some binding rules (of formal and/or informal origin). This quite different way of organizing waste management has consequences for the development of the waste industry in the two countries. It impacts also on the selection of options used in waste management in regard of the six (6) objectives discussed in the hierarchy of actions chosen (see below).

Most Favoured and Least Favoured Options in Waste Management

Source:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste_hierarchy

For Nigeria, this situation means that local informal producers, local informal organizations, and local informal waste management actors play a great role. Important is it that informal actors in the waste management business are rediscovered as partners of public agencies, public firms and formal sector private firms. Informal sector firms can also be partners in the transformation from waste management in the linear economy model towards resource management within the circular economy model. Informal enterprises can ably prepare end-of-life products for re-use or they can make them the basis for large-scale recycling and recovery. Privatization versus re-communalization is another issue of relevance for the waste industry as experiences in Lagos and in Bremen show. For Germany, the decision criterion should be the ability to innovate for a circular economy; this should be the basic criterion for privatization versus re-communalization. In Nigeria, a larger role of informal enterprises in the waste industry can contribute to the circular economy. Such firms can redesign the products and can remanufacture them for low-income social groups; waste can then be reduced or even prevented. Waste prevention is an issue for both countries/country states/municipalities. Bremen as a country state and Bremen as a municipality can support initiatives for a deep cooperation in a waste management partnership with Lagos and Nigeria. Lagos can be the first address for such a cooperation, although the population and the industry size of Lagos State are so much bigger compared to Bremen.

Waste Management Facilities as used in Germany are exported globally to developed and emerging economies

Source: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/topics/waste-resources/waste-management

Policy Focus and Dissemination of the Study

There is great interest from the side of waste management authorities in Nigeria in the policy recommendations presented in the study. Professor Alabi is discussing the possibility of workshops in Nigeria to inform the public about the major results. Also, waste management and resource conservation companies show interest in the investigation of the two authors. Because of the rate of population growth, the speed of urbanization and the need to scale up industrial, agricultural and agro-industrial development in Nigeria, there is urgency in regard of implementing such policy recommendations.

Bibliographic Details on the New Study on Waste Management in Nigeria and Germany:

Wohlmuth, Karl/Reuben A. Alabi, 2019, The Case of Sustainable Management of Waste in Germany (and Bremen) and Practical Lessons for Nigeria (and Lagos), pages i-xxx and 147 pages and i-vii pages, Materialien des Wissenschaftsschwerpunktes „Globalisierung der Weltwirtschaft“ (ehemals: Materialien des Universitätsschwerpunktes „Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen und Internationales Management“), Bd. 44, April 2019, ISSN 0948-3837, Access Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-white.htm and: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/weisse_reihe/.

 

Professor R. A. Alabi extends his Research Programme at the University of Bremen until end of 2020 and cooperates with World Bank, IFPRI and AERC

Since 2015 Professor Alabi is researching in Bremen at the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies of the  University of Bremen. This is part of the activities of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen, directed by Professor Wohlmuth. Professor Wohlmuth is supervising the research activities and is advising this particular research programme. For the years 2019 and 2020 Professor Alabi has proposed four new research projects, after having finalized four others in recent years (see the detailed Research Report of Professor Alabi). Among the finalized research projects are: Cassava Production, Processing, Fortification and Acceptability in Nigeria (for the Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook, Volume 20); The Pro-poorness of the Fertilizer Subsidy and its Implication on Food Security in Nigeria (for the Africa Research Department of IMF); The Case of Sustainable Management of Waste in Germany and Practical Lessons for Nigeria (in joint authorship with Professor Wohlmuth and addressed to waste management authorities in Nigeria); and The Causes and Economic Consequences of Political Conflicts in Nigeria (for the Community of Students from Nigeria in Germany).

Among the new research projects are: Impact of State Government Public Expenditure on Yam Productivity and Its Implications for Food Security in Nigeria (for AERC, Nairobi); Addressing Youth Unemployment in Nigeria Using Agricultural and Business Technologies (in cooperation with staff from World Bank and IFPRI); Impact of the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund on the Productivity of Food Crops and Its Implications on Food Security in Nigeria (in cooperation with agencies of Nigerian States and the Nigerian Federation); and Financial Inclusion, Innovation and Agricultural Development in Africa (in cooperation with the editors of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook).

To pursue these research programmes, Professor Alabi is cooperating with international organizations  (IMF, World Bank) and with international and regional African research organizations (IFPRI, AERC).  The research commitment at the IMF Headquarters in Washington D. C. was an excellent opportunity to present his research findings on innovative agricultural policies of Nigeria (see the picture from the event below). A short report on the project is presented here (Alabi IMF Activity – E-Wallet-Fertilizer Subsidy).

Lecture at IMF Headquarters in Washington D. C. by Professor Alabi (third person from right) about:
THE PRO-POORNESS OF The FERTILIZER SUBSIDY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA

Source: Seminar at IMF Headquarters in Washington D. C./Presentation by Professor Alabi

Professor Alabi has recently launched a global research and publication initiative (see the link to the project: https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/10096/labor-requirements-of-alternative-land-use-systems-and-the-impacts-on-livelihoods). The research programme - in cooperation with staff from World Bank and IFPRI - is titled “Labour Requirements of Alternative Land Use Systems, and the Impacts on Livelihoods”. It has the following research interest (taken from the overview): “Projections indicate that food production may need to increase by 60% by 2050 to meet the food requirements of a growing global population. However, conventional forms of agriculture are often unsustainable and global croplands are increasingly impacted by soil erosion, reduced fertility, and/or overgrazing. As populations grow and food demand increases, pressure on land resources is expected to rise and make lands more vulnerable to degradation. Namely, further increases in the use of fertilizers and pesticides for expanding food production may cause excessive nutrient loading in soils, leading to eutrophication and declining soil fertility.” As the programme is of great relevance for Africa, submission of original research from African research teams are expected.

Applications to support researches and to publish original research are invited from the three partners of the project which form the core editorial team.

Research Topic:
Labour Requirements of Alternative Land Use Systems, and the Impacts on Livelihoods

Source:
https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/10096/labor-requirements-of-alternative-land-use-systems-and-the-impacts-on-livelihoods

About Frontiers Research Topics (as requested from the editors): “With their unique mixes of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author.”

Professor Alabi was invited to participate at the June 2019 meeting of the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC) at Cape Town, South Africa. He will give a presentation about the research programme “Impact of public expenditure on yam productivity and its implications on food security in Nigeria”. This is a follow-up to a high-level meeting of AERC in Nairobi, Kenya in December 2018.  The research programme has a great importance for the agricultural transformation policy in Nigeria (see the Abstract of the research programme for AERC by Professor Alabi - Yam Productivity in Nigeria). Professor Alabi cooperates intensively since years with AERC; he has participated at various high-level meetings and has received valuable research grants from the institution. Research output from these research programmes are published in issues of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Professor Alabi is one of the co-editors of the Yearbook.

 

Journal of European Economy: Professor Karl Wohlmuth publishes two essays on “J. M. Keynes, Market Transparency and the Regulation of International Commodity Markets”

Development Economist Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has contributed two versions of a paper on “J. M. Keynes, Market Transparency and the Regulation of International Commodity Markets” to the Journal of European Economy, published by the Ternopil National Economic University (TNEU) in the Ukraine (see the link: http://www.tneu.edu.ua/en/). The TNEU is a cooperation partner for our Central and Eastern Europe activities.

First Essay (English Version), Journal of European Economy, Volume 17, Number 4, October - December 2018: BACK TO J. M. KEYNES IN REGULATING INTERNATIONAL COMMODITY MARKETS: AN EXTENDED NOTE ON THE "TRANSPARENCY AGENDA" (Access Links: http://jee.tneu.edu.ua/en/archive-en/2018-en/vol-17-no-4-december-2018-en/ and: http://jee.tneu.edu.ua/en/archive-en/2018-en/1133-journal-of-european-economy-vol-17-number-4-december-2018-pp.html (PDF: English Essay - Wohlmuth-Ternopil-pages 351-397)

Second Essay (Ukrainian Version), Journal of European Economy, Volume 17, Number 4, October - December 2018: МІЖНАРОДНІ ТОВАРНІ РИНКИ: ЛІБЕРАЛІЗМ ПРОТИ ДИРИЖИЗМУ (АКТУАЛІЗАЦІЯ ПОГЛЯДІВ ДЖ. М. КЕЙНСА)/ Internationale Warenmärkte: Liberalismus gegen Dirigismus (Aktualisierung der Äußerungen von J. M. Keynes) (Access Links: http://jee.tneu.edu.ua/en/archive-en/2018-en/vol-17-no-4-december-2018-en/ and: http://jee.tneu.edu.ua/en/archive-en/2018-en/1133-journal-of-european-economy-vol-17-number-4-december-2018-pp.html (PDF: Essay in Ukrainian Language - Wohlmuth-Ternopil-Ukrainische Version-4-20119)

Abstract: In this paper weak and strong forms of global governance of raw materials markets are compared. This is done by comparing the «transparency agenda» with the «structural reform agenda». John Maynard Keynes has worked for decades academically on commodity markets, on speculation and storage, on forward markets and buffer stocks etc., but he has also practiced commercial trading activity on various commodity markets; and he has written and/or influenced the Post-World War Two ICU/ITO (International Clearing Union/International Trade Organization) agendas which are containing detailed provisions for establishing

a world order on commodity markets. He was very much interested in the relation between price volatility of raw materials and its impacts on global macroeconomics, but he was also convinced that appropriate regulations of commodity markets and sectors impact positively on peace and development. He was convinced that strong global governance must be based on simple, stable, effective,

consensual and binding rules. Now the «transparency agenda» with regard of raw materials is so much debated but it is a rather weak form of global governance, while the «structural reform agenda» represents a rather strong form of global governance of the resources sectors. The «transparency agenda» is discussed in great detail in this paper while the «structural reform agenda» is considered in the Conclusions and Outlook section but needs further elaboration in a follow-up paper.

Key issues of this debate are increasingly relevant now as new supply and demand factors impact on the global commodity markets, on prices and quantities; and, strategic, technological, protectionist and military considerations affect more and more the global commodity markets. The markets are on the way of becoming less transparent despite of so many international organizations watching the commodity markets and caring for data and oversight. In the IWIM publications there are many studies dealing with the structure and the functioning of the commodity markets (see the links to Publications of IWIM: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/index.html and: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/publikationen/).

 

Chinesische Experten informieren sich über die Innovations- und Industriepolitik des Landes Bremen: Strategien zu Industrie 4.0 im Fokus

Professor Karl Wohlmuth von der Universität Bremen hielt Vorträge über Die Innovationspolitik in Deutschland und Bremen. Impulse für die Industrie 4.0 für chinesische Wirtschafts- und Industrieexperten aus der Autonomen Region Guangxi, VR China und aus der Provinz Hubei, VR China (vgl. die Präsentationen des Professors für die Teilnehmer aus Guangxi und Hubei). Das Interesse der Experten war groß hinsichtlich der Bremer Strategie einer Innovations- und Wirtschaftsförderung mit dem Fokus auf Industrie 4.0. Professor Wohlmuth betonte in seinen Vorträgen drei Themen: Erstens, Deutschland im globalen Innovationswettbewerb und die Perspektiven von Industrie 4.0; zweitens, Nationale und Regionale Innovationssysteme: Die Bedeutung für die Industrie 4.0; und drittens, Die Förderpolitik für die Industrie 4.0 im Rahmen der Innovationspolitik: Beispiele aus Bremen. Das Interesse der Experten aus China richtete sich schwerpunktmäßig auf die Organisation der Wirtschafts- und Innovationsförderung im Land Bremen, dem kleinsten deutschen Bundesland, da auch in China nun verstärkt versucht wird, lokale Innovations- und Wirtschaftsförderungsstrategien für mittelgroße Städte und kleinere innovative Regionen zu entwickeln. Der Fokus in China liegt dabei zunehmend auf Strategien der Entwicklung von Konzepten für die Förderung von Industrie 4.0.

Das Land Bremen findet bei den chinesischen Experten auf Grund  der kurzen Wege bei der Entscheidungsbildung großes Interesse, da alle wichtigen Stakeholder für die Förderung von Industrie 4.0 lokal konzentriert und vernetzt sind. Besonders wichtig waren für die Experten aus China Beispiele für die Gestaltung einer Politik zur Förderung von Industrie 4.0 im Bremer Raum; die zentrale Rolle der Behörden, der Interessenvertretungen, der Weiterbildungsträger, der Unternehmen und der Universitäten in Bremen wurde in der Diskussion stark thematisiert. Die Wirtschaftsförderung Bremen berät zu Fragen von Industrie 4.0 und die chinesischen Experten wollten an konkreten Beispielen für Förderungsmaßnahmen sehen, wie die Bremer Institution dabei vorgeht. Die Rolle der Interessenvertretungen im Land Bremen, wie die Arbeitnehmerkammer und die Gewerkschaften, aber auch die Handels- und Handwerkskammern und die Arbeitgeberverbände, wurde von Professor Wohlmuth ebenfalls ausführlich an Beispielen dargestellt. An Aktivitäten von zwei bedeutenden bremischen High Tech-Unternehmen (BEGO und OHB) wurde auf die Implementierung von Maßnahmen der Industrie 4.0 eingegangen; deren Initiativen für die bremische Region wurden ebenfalls dargestellt. Die von der Universität Bremen geführte „Forschungsallianz“ von hochkarätigen Forschungsinstituten am Technologiepark Bremen ist mit dem Thema „Digitale Transformation“ an den Forschungen zu Industrie 4.0 stark beteiligt; auch der Auftrag der „Forschungsallianz“ im Rahmen der industriellen Transformation Bremens wurde erläutert. Das Gesamtsystem der bremischen Förderpolitik für Industrie 4.0 wurde an sechs interagierenden Polen des bremischen Innovationssystems abschließend erläutert.

Die Experten aus der Autonomen Region Guangxi, VR China (Fläche 237.000 km² und 48 Millionen Einwohner; Wirtschaftsbasis: Landwirtschaft, insbesondere Zuckerrohr, Energie, Metalle, Tourismus, etc.) und aus der Provinz Hubei, VR China (Fläche 186.000 km² und 57 Millionen Einwohner; Wirtschaftsbasis: Eisen- und Stahlindustrie; Metall- und Textilindustrie; Automobil- und Elektronikindustrie, Maschinenbau, Tourismus, etc.) sind mit der industriellen Transformation in ihren Gebieten/Regionen federführend befasst; der Fokus liegt immer stärker auf Industrie 4.0. Seit mehreren Jahren ist der Bremer Professor im Rahmen dieses Besuchsprogramms an Workshops als Referent beteiligt. Der Fokus der Vorträge von Professor Wohlmuth liegt auf den Strukturen des bremischen Innovationssystems, das als integraler Bestandteil des Nationalen und des Europäischen Innovationssystems analysiert wird. Weitere Einladungen im Jahr 2018 kamen zu Vorträgen für Delegationen aus Tianjin, eine der vier regierungsunmittelbaren Städte der VR China, und von der University of Xuchang. Provinz Henan.

 

Sudan Expert Consultation on Development, Conflict and Peace at the Foreign Office in Berlin - Professor Karl Wohlmuth speaks about “International and regional economics and politics impacting on conflict and stability in the Sudan”

To prepare for the impacts of the escalating political and economic crisis in Sudan, the Foreign Office in Berlin has invited key international researchers on Sudan, representatives from German and UK ministries, representatives from thinktanks, and representatives from international NGOs to discuss under Chatham House rules about ways to address the Current Dynamics in Sudan, the Future of the International and Regional Interventions in Darfur, and the Regional Dynamics of Sudan. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation on Sudan’s economic problems and perspectives, highlighting the internal economic problems and the cross-border issues which are affecting the development of the country (see the Presentation on Sudan by Karl Wohlmuth). Main emphasis in the presentation was on the need to revise the national economic policy of Sudan towards stability, innovation and diversification and towards a more balanced and mutually beneficial cooperation with the seven neighbouring countries, especially so the South Sudan

Professor Wohlmuth referred to the challenges and opportunities of economic and political cooperation programmes of Sudan with South Sudan which would yield high returns for the people and the economy of both countries – because of the high interdependence of the countries on oil production and oil transport issues, the economic role of the states (provinces) along the international border of Sudan and South Sudan, and the necessity to end conflicts in Sudan and in South Sudan through negotiated peace and development programmes. The end of the regime of Omar al-Bashir in Sudan may now provide a window of opportunity to start a “development-friendly” cooperation between the governments in Khartoum and Juba, and to build an alliance for peace and development along the international border between regions in Sudan and South Sudan.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth also presented his blueprint for an economic reform programme for Sudan and South Sudan as based on publications in the SERG Discussion Papers (see the links: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/serg_sudan_discussion_papers/ and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm). Recently, Volume 20 (for 2018) of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has brought interesting articles towards a strategy on Sudan’s science, technology and innovation (STI) policies, and on Sudan’s industry and agriculture policies. This part of the Yearbook on Sudan (Unit 2) builds a frame for a strategic reorientation of the Sudanese economy towards structural transformation, economic revitalization and diversification (see on this volume the links: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm, and: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/, and: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy).

 

African Development Perspectives Yearbook: Volume 20 on “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies For Inclusive Growth In Africa – General Issues And Country Cases” just published


In volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa - General Issues and Country Cases” major strategic and policy issues are analysed. The guiding issue is how to make Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies relevant for inclusive growth strategies in Africa so that socio-economic transformation strategies will take off. Although STI polices are considered as indispensable for sustainable growth in Africa, the steps towards such policies and strategies are not yet streamlined enough. Therefore, it is necessary to learn from the successful cases of STI development in Africa and in other emerging countries.


African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2018:
On Science, Technology And Innovation Policies For Inclusive Growth In Africa

In this volume a new approach is envisaged. Based on Africa’s deep-routed structural problems, the STI policies are related to Africa’s economic transformation agenda. In a first part of Volume 20 the general issues of introducing effective STI policies are presented, based on visions, strategic plans and the requirements of functioning national innovation systems. In a second part, country case studies highlight the new approach. Specific case studies, such as for Sudan and Nigeria, are presented, as these two countries have a long history of STI development. Strategies and policies for more coherent STI policies are presented (see the Cover of volume 20: PDF 91042-4 Alabi).

Complementary to this volume is Volume 21 with the title “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa - Human Skills Development and Country Cases”. In the first part of Volume 21 the role of human skills development for capacity building in STI systems is discussed. This is based on examples from Cameroon, Nigeria and Mauritania. In the second part the national innovation systems and STI policies of North African countries (Egypt and Tunisia) are evaluated, to assess how they can be directed towards economic transformation and inclusive growth.

With Volume 21 the African Development Perspectives Yearbook project is approaching 30 years of activity as the first volume was published in 1989 under the title “Human Dimensions of Adjustment”. In these 30 years the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has become the major annual publication in English language on Africa in Germany. Guiding principle is the inclusion of authors and editors from Africa, the publication of essays which are also readable by media people, development actors and policymakers, and the presentation of successful policies, projects and programmes which highlight that Africa can succeed in regard of its ambitions and that it can rise in growth and development.

The Research Group on African Development Perspectives has just released the International Call for Papers for Volume 22 (2020) and invites Abstracts and nominations for the position of Guest Editors (see International Call for Papers Volume 22, for the year 2020).

 

International Call for Papers for: Volume 22 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on “Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Infrastructure, Industrialization, Innovation) and African Development – Challenges and Opportunities”

Invited are contributions for Volume 22 (2020) of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Infrastructure, Industrialization, Innovation) and African Development – Challenges and Opportunities”. See the International Call for Papers for Volume 22 (for the calendar year 2020). The contributions should be evidence-based and policy-oriented. High academic standards are requested and will be checked by referees. Non-technical papers with deep analysis, which are readable by practitioners in development cooperation and by media people, have a high priority in the selection process. The concept of the contribution and the methodological framework of analysis should be outlined in the Abstract which is submitted to the Editors, Professor Karl Wohlmuth (Bremen) and Professor Tobias Knedlik (Fulda).


Source: United Nations
Sustainable Development Goal Nine (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure) and African Development

Upon acceptance of the paper, the Contributors will receive Editorial Guidelines and a Template. Accepted papers will be grouped into Thematic Units, and the respective Unit Editors will contact the contributors quite regularly during the process of finalization of the paper to discuss the various drafts. The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is published since 1989 (see the link to the website of the Yearbook project: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm). The volumes 20 and 21 (for the years 2018 and 2019) were on the theme “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa”. In 2019, the Research Group celebrates the event of 30 years of publishing the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Each of the volumes 20 and 21 had three Thematic Units. Volume 22 will be related to the year 2020; in case of many high-quality submissions a Volume 23 for the year 2021 can be added. Guest Editors for various Thematic Units are also invited to apply. Editors of Thematic Units are also becoming automatically the status of Volume Editors. Guest Editors are responsible for a Thematic Unit with 3 – 5 contributions and an Introduction. For specific themes see the Main Issues proposed by the Editors for Volume 22 as presented in the International Call for Papers Volume 22 (2020). These proposals for themes are only examples. The Editors are open to further suggestions in the context of SDG 9..

The theme for volume 22 on “Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Infrastructure, Industrialization, Innovation) and African Development – Challenges and Opportunities” is related to the importance of Goal Nine in the context of the SDG Agenda 2030. SDG 9 is comprehensive and is focussing on “Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation”. The targets and indicators related to Sustainable Development Goal Nine focus on:

  1. a) developing quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure;
    b) promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization and raising significantly industry’s share of employment;
    c) increasing the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises to financial services, and facilitating their integration into value chains and markets;
    d) upgrading infrastructure and retrofitting industries to make them sustainable in terms of resource-use efficiency and adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies; and
    e) enhancing scientific research, upgrading the technological capabilities of industrial sectors, and encouraging innovation.

Focus in SDG 9 is also on facilitating sustainable and resilient infrastructural development, on supporting domestic technology development, research and innovation, and on increasing access to information and communication technologies.

The contributions will add to the knowledge about the role of SDG 9 for sustainable development and inclusive growth in Africa. Understanding the links to the other 16 SDGs of the Agenda 2030 is of great importance when drafting contributions for volume 22 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. The contributors should consider the links to, the spillovers from and the interactions with the other SDGs.

 

SUDAN ECONOMY RESEARCH GROUP (SERG) DISCUSSION PAPERS Number 43: A Vision and a Strategy for Sudan

A new research and strategy paper on “Sudan in the 21st Century: Seeking Pathways Forward” was published as the number 43 in the SUDAN ECONOMY RESEARCH GROUP (SERG) DISCUSSION PAPERS series at the University of Bremen (see the link to the SERG series: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm). Author is  Dr. Mohamed al Murtada Mustafa, Former Undersecretary of Labour, Ministry of Labour, Sudan and Former Director of ILO Offices in Harare and Cairo. The paper argues that for a successful reconstruction of the Sudanese economy five pillars are needed: education, entrepreneurship, agriculture, industry and management. These five pillars represent the main sectors and functional areas which must interact for inclusive growth to occur. Interaction depends on institutional reform and on a developmental role of the civil service. The separation of South Sudan in 2011 has fundamentally changed the situation of Sudan, and it is no longer possible to pursue uncoordinated, short-term and small-scale policy changes. Much more is needed – long-term structural strategies and deep policy changes must be implemented in Sudan. Fundamental reforms are proposed in the study and policy recommendations are presented for these five pillars.


Source: Dr. Mohamed al Murtada Mustafa, Khartoum, Sudan
The Strategic Pillars for Sudan’s Development

The author emphasizes also the fact that the Sudanese government has seen a great number of advisory and consultancy reports on economic strategies since 1956 when the country became independent. All these proposals and suggestions from donors, think tanks and international organisations were well-minded and valuable but were repetitive in content and never were implemented (neither by democratic governments nor by military regimes). Therefore, a new approach is needed by focussing on a developmental civil service and a new leadership for the country which is based on a broader group of policy actors – coming from all regions of the Sudan, from representative political circles and from significant parts of the civil society.  Such an approach is formulated in the new SERG study. Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has peer-reviewed and re-edited the paper by Dr. Murtada. It will also be circulated in Arabic language by the author.

The new volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook – number 20 for the year 2018 – has also a strong strategic focus on Sudan; emphasis is on the strengthening of the National Innovation System (NIS) and the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies of Sudan (issue one), on developing new policies to support innovative industrial enterprises (issue two), on attracting foreign enterprises and stimulating the technology transfer to domestic firms (issue three), and on increasing the yield in agriculture through R&D and appropriate dissemination of research results to the farming sector (issue four). Over the years the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has published regularly on Sudan and South Sudan and so has participated actively to the discussion on new development strategies for these countries (see the link to the Yearbook editions: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm). The research on Sudan by the SERG is summarized in the report on Sudan Studies in Bremen (see the link to number 38 on “Sudan Studies in Bremen 1979-2011”: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm). Most of the papers published by  the SERG have a focus on strategies and policies to advance structural change in Sudan (and in South Sudan).

 

“Aviation in Africa” International Workshop in Bremen, June 2018: The Role of a More Balanced Transport Infrastructure in Africa was emphasized by University of Bremen’s development economist Professor Karl Wohlmuth in his Keynote Lecture



Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a Keynote Lecture on Transport Infrastructure and Regional Integration in Africa – A Neglected Link at the second “Aviation in Africa” International Workshop which was organized in June 2018 by the Institute for Transport and Development (ITD) of the Hochschule Bremen (City University of Applied Sciences Bremen) on behalf of  the international scientific organization GARS (German Aviation Research Society). Professor Wohlmuth emphasized in his lecture the following themes: Scoping the neglected link of transport infrastructure and regional integration; New Initiatives to link Infrastructure, Continental and Regional Development in Africa; Transformative Regional Integration and Infrastructure Development in Africa; The “Infrastructure State”, Regional Integration and Aviation Development in Africa; and Conclusions –Way Forward in Africa. More than hundred experts on aviation and development participated at the three days meeting in Bremen (see the PDF Programme and the PDF Power Point Presentation).

 
Professor Karl Wohlmuth speaks about “Transport Infrastructure and Regional Integration in Africa”

 

 
Professor Deusdedit Rwehumbiza from the University of Dar es Salaam speaks about “Perspectives of regional integration in East Africa”

 
Participants (left Conference Organizer Professor Hans-Martin Niemeier from the ITD) listen to the lecture of Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass about “Monetary Integration in East Africa”

Professor Wohlmuth argued in his lecture that a new approach towards transformative regional integration is needed for Africa to overcome the bottleneck factors which impede structural change in Africa. Not trade liberalisation is the key priority issue of regional integration, but structural transformation between and within economic sectors. This “transformative regional integration approach” contrasts with the “linear regional integration model” which was inherited in Africa from the European integration process. Also, it was strongly emphasized that transport infrastructure development is biased in Africa as roads construction (within the countries and at cross-border level) is still the key transport sector development business. Other transport modes, like railways, aviation, waterways and rivers, and ocean shipping, are still neglected. But most seriously, the mobility concepts are not clarified in Africa; it is not made clear how the transport modes are really used (by producers and consumers). Huge investment projects are agreed upon in the context of national, regional and continental transport development programmes, but financing, implementation and maintenance levels are weak, and the social, commercial and economic benefits of the projects are not always made clear. The map of PIDA’s Priority Action Plan (see below) shows how neglected other transport modes than roads (along the Corridors and the Trans African Highways routes) are and will be until 2040.

 

From: Export-Import Bank of India, Connecting Africa: Role of Transport Infrastructure, March 2018, p.42

Note: PIDA/Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa

Aviation has huge developmental advantages for Africa, but this transport sub-sector is still neglected in all decision-making processes, at national, regional and continental African political and governance levels. The observed progress of Africa in terms of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) and STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) development indicators gives hope and will facilitate the build-up of an aviation infrastructure. Aviation has huge effects in Africa on employment, industrialization, technological development, skills and human resources development, regional development, export development, mobility of people, goods and ideas, and especially on the opening of economies for trade, investment, technological innovation and skilled migration. The proposed publication project for volume 22 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on “Sustainable Development Goal 9 (Infrastructure, Industrialization and Innovation) and African Development – Challenges and Opportunities” will consider the issues of a more balanced transport infrastructure in Africa as a base for a broad industrialization advance and the speeding-up of innovation processes in African firms (see PDF International Call for Papers for Volume 22, 2020). Members of GARS and other experts on aviation in Africa are invited to submit their Abstracts to the Editors of the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook (see the link to the Yearbook programme: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm).

 

 

“Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa" – this is the title of two forthcoming volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook

"Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa" – this is the title of two forthcoming volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook which are prepared now by a group of international experts. The Editorial Committee of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has decided to split the scheduled volume 20 (for 2018) into two volumes, the volume 20 (for 2018) and the volume 21 (for 2019). This was considered as advisable because of the great number of high quality submissions of manuscripts to the Editors. While Volume 20 will consider Basic Issues of STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) policies in Africa and Country Cases for Sub-Saharan Africa, the Volume 21 will present Issues of Human Resources Development in the Digital Age, Country Cases for North Africa, and Book Reviews and Book Notes.

In Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook essays on the linkages of inclusive growth, sustainable development and STI policies will be presented in the Introductory Unit. Also successful cases of STI development in Africa and STI systemic issues will be analysed. Focus countries are Sudan and Nigeria. Professor Samia Satti Nour, Khartoum University, Sudan and Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria and currently Guest Researcher at IWIM/University of Bremen, were nominated as co-editors of the Units on Sudan and Nigeria and as Volume Editors; both have accepted the invitation. UNESCO Regional Science Policy Adviser Hassan Nazar, UNESCO Cairo Office, Egypt will be the co-editor of the Unit on Basic Issues of STI policies in Africa.

For Volume 21 (2019) essays are prepared for a Unit on Human Resources Development in Africa in the Digital Age, based on case studies for Cameroon and Nigeria. Country cases in North Africa are Egypt, Tunisia and Algeria. As usual, a strong Unit on Book Reviews and Book Notes rounds up the Volume 21. Again, UNESCO Regional Science Policy Adviser Hassan Nazar, UNESCO Office Cairo, Egypt will be the co-editor of the Unit on North Africa. Professor Achim Gutowski is again responsible for the Unit with Book Reviews and Book Notes. Professor Tobias Knedlik as the Managing Editor and Professor Karl Wohlmuth as the Scientific Co-ordinator are the other volume editors for the two forthcoming issues.

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook has over the decades - the first volume has appeared in 1989 – become the major English-language publication on Africa in Germany. The response to the annual International Calls for Papers is huge, with an increasing interest on the side of African experts and experts from international and regional African organisations. UNCTAD/ Geneva, UNESCO/ Cairo, and the African Capacity Building Foundation (ACBF)/Nairobi, Kenya are the institutional cooperation partners for these two volumes. UNECA in Kigali, Rwanda has organized the book launch for the volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook in October 2016. This was a great event, with TV appearances in 48 African countries. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen, which is editing the Yearbook, is also involved in researches, advisory work, and training activities. In 2019 the Research Group will celebrate the "30 years birthday ceremony" of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook.

 

Advising on African and Global Studies: Research Projects, International Guest Researchers, Global Conferences, Evaluations, Publications

Professor Karl Wohlmuth was in recent months active as an adviser to research projects, conferences and publications (see some projects below):

Professor Wohlmuth was invited by the President of the UN Economic and Social Council to participate at the Global ECOSOC Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe as a speaker on "Industrialization based on Agricultural Development". Global Meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City emphasize the role of Sustainable Development Goal Nine (SDG 9) on Sustainable Industrialization, Infrastructure Development and Innovation. This will be an ongoing task of ECOSOC. ECOSOC has the lead in implementing the 17 SDGs.

Guest researcher Professor Reuben A. Alabi extends his research stay in Bremen for three more years. The new Research Programme for 2018-2020 was recently presented as a Letter of Intentions and discussed with Professor Wohlmuth. It has three major components, comprising major policy issues of agroindustry development in Nigeria (Crop productivity, Public expenditure for agriculture at state level, and Combatting youth unemployment through agriculture development).

Professor Alabi was appointed in March 2017 as a Full Professor of Agricultural Economics at Ambrose Alli University in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies of the University of Bremen, Professor Jochen Zimmermann, had extended the invitation. Professor Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior project adviser in these projects.

Preparations are ongoing for the research visit of Professor Chunji Yun, Faculty of Economics, Seinan Gakuin University, Fukuoka-City, Japan. He will work for a year in Bremen on the research topic of "Production Integration and Labour Market Interdependencies in the European Union." This is his second research visit at IWIM for a period of one year. The Dean has extended an invitation to him for a year.

Further on, Professor Wohlmuth has advised the research project of Yves Bagna who has constructed a new "Porter Competitiveness Index", based on Porter's Diamond Theory. Throughout the research period Professor Wohlmuth was the main adviser to the project. The book is now published by the Research Institute of IWVWW e. V. at Berlin, and further essays on the methodology are forthcoming. Yves Bagna has also compared the new "Porter Competitiveness Index" with the long-established "Global Competitiveness Index" of the Word Economic Forum. Yves Bagna, an engineer and economist from Cameroon, has during his research also visited the Institute of Professor Michael Porter at the Harvard Business School.

Also, Professor Wohlmuth was active to review a chapter for a new UNIDO book about Industrialization in Africa, in his function as the lead author of the chapter. He has also revised and extended a background paper on the issues for UNIDO.

In addition, Professor Wohlmuth has peer-reviewed articles for international and African journals, such as the prestigious journal Comparative Economic Studies. As the number of African refereed journals increases, the demand for evaluations rises. Members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen are invited to support such activities.

Work on the volumes 20 and 21 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is progressing. On Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies in Sudan, a cooperation is under way with Professor Samia Satti Nour from the University of Khartoum, a leading international expert on STI policies. The Cooperation, which is targeting on issues of "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Sudan", is advancing towards a separate Unit (a collection of papers) in Volume 20. A Unit on "STI Frameworks for Africa" is prepared in Cooperation with Patrick N. Osakwe, UNCTAD, Geneva and Nazar Hassan, UNESCO, Cairo. A Unit on STI Policies in Nigeria is done in cooperation with Professor Alabi. Other Units will be prepared on issues of Human Resources Development and STI, on STI Policies in North Africa, and on Publications on STI Policies: Book Reviews and Book Notes.

The Friedrich Ebert Foundation (FES) Tunisia has published four language versions (English, French, Arabic, German) of a study on "Elements of an Employment Strategy for Tunisia". Professor Wohlmuth is one of the three authors, a joint work of three development economists working on Africa since decades.

Various publications were released by Professor Wohlmuth on the middle class in Africa, on deindustrialization and reindustrialization in Tunisia, on transformative regional integration in Africa, and on guidelines for policymakers in Africa to promote global and regional value chains.

 

Global Value Chains in African Development – A Guide for Policymakers

The debate about the role of global value chains (GVCs) in African development is still ongoing. All international and regional development organizations have something to say on these issues, and there are proposals and demands addressed to African policymakers how they could use the integration into GVCs for income growth, productivity growth, employment creation, poverty reduction, and trade diversification. GVCs are now considered as a major tool to reach inclusive growth in Africa. World Bank and OECD refer to inclusive GVCs; the African Economic Outlook for 2014 (by OECD, African Development Bank, and UNDP) links GVCs with successful industrialization in Africa; the World Economic Forum refers to policies which allow for tapping the potential of GVCs for African development; ILO investigates the employment opportunities being associated with a deeper integration into GVCs; OECD, WTO and World Bank analyse the challenges, opportunities, and policy implications of GVCs; OECD addresses those instruments which may help policymakers in developing countries to pursue their GVC agenda; UNCTAD outlines policies to integrate developing countries' SMEs (small and medium enterprises) into GVCs; WTO addresses the tasks of policymakers to manage GVCs in a changing world economy; UN's Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN-ESA) looks at ways to strengthen capacities of policymakers to develop competitive value chains; the African Development Bank considers the options of policymakers for climbing value chains; UNIDO relates GVCs to agroindustry development; and UNECA looks at policy implications for promoting global value chains (GVCs) and regional value chains (RVCs).The list could be continued, as there is a rich collection of guidelines available now for promoting integration of local enterprises into GVCs.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has published a report in the journal "Berichte" to synthesize some of these views. The report is done in the form of a Guide for Policymakers enabling them to exploit by coherent policies the opportunities for African Development of integrating local enterprises into GVCs. The report draws on recommendations of international organizations and on lessons from case studies which were written for the volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook.

Bibliographic Information:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, Global Value Chains and African Development – Key Issues addressed to Policymakers, pages 4-30, "Berichte", 2016, Volume 26, Number 210, ISSN 1022-3258, Berlin, IWVWW e. V.

The report has two parts. In part one basic issues of global value chains (GVCs) when interacting with African local economies are discussed. Major questions are: How can Africa develop capabilities and preconditions for a beneficial integration of its producers into global value chains? What do we know about the depth and the forms of Africa's integration into regional and global value chains? Are the sub-regional and local development impacts of Africa's participation in regional and global value chains gainful? In order to guide the policymakers on GVCs it is necessary to collect information on these issues first.

In part two some strategic implications of the analysis are presented, with the purpose to formulate the core elements of the guideline. Five priority areas for action emerge and have to be considered by policymakers so that the African country and its enterprises can gain from global value chains (GVCs): First priority is, Developing the Key Capabilities for GVC Participation; second priority is, Identifying the Power Structures within the GVCs; third priority is, Assessing the Relevance of the Various Transmission Channels; fourth priority is, Using more fully the GVC Anchors and GVC Hubs in Africa; and fifth priority is, Making Regional Integration work for deeper GVC Participation. Important is the way how these five elements are bundled together in a comprehensive strategy by the policymakers.

All these five strategic imperatives have high cost in terms of administrative burden, manpower needs, leadership, and visionary power. So, it can be envisaged that for many African countries integration into global value chains (GVCs) will remain a dream, not becoming reality in the next few years. Other countries are developing and exploiting such potentials to integrate their enterprises into GVCs, like some North African and South African countries, and some few West African and East African countries, but this will be a select list of countries. However, even the successful countries in Africa will make progress in regard of GVCs only with regard of some product niches, some tasks, specific sectors and sub-regions, and a select group of enterprises. It will be necessary for all of them to learn from small successes and not to be discouraged.

Volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with case studies on Global Value Chains:




The report benefitted from the lessons of several case studies in volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook (see above, and see the link to the Publisher and to the Editor of the Yearbook volumes: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy and http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/). Country cases for Sudan, The Gambia, Ghana, Tunisia, and Botswana highlight the preconditions for a successful integration into GVCs, in terms of macroeconomic policy formation, human resources development, trade and industry policy formation, spatial development policies, and technology and innovation policy formation.

 

2017 South Africa Edition of: The Rise of Africa’s Middle Class - Myths, Realities and Critical Engagements

Because of the great international interest in the topic WITS UNIVERSITY PRESS at UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND, JOHANNESBURG has published a South Africa edition in 2017. The University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg has an outstanding reputation as a leading university in Africa.

Professor Oluyele Akinkugbe, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen have contributed to this book with a chapter on "Africa's Middle Class, Africa's Entrepreneurs and the Missing Middle". This study is based on researches about the growth of Africa's Middle Class and the impacts on the development of Africa's Entrepreneurship. Specifically, the chapter investigates the role of Africa's Middle Class for closing the "Missing Middle", the gap between the few large and the many small and informal enterprises in Africa. The question is raised if the growth of Africa's Middle Class will contribute to the growth of African enterprises so that the "Missing Middle" development trap can be overcome. An analysis of African enterprises and entrepreneurs is presented, by type of economic characteristics (survival versus growth-oriented enterprises) and by type of economic motivation (necessity-driven versus opportunity-driven entrepreneurs). The purpose of the analysis is to assess if the growth of Africa's Middle Class will create a viable entrepreneurship sector and a dynamic class of entrepreneurs. Also the role of development policy is investigated in this context; it is asked if and how public development policies can support the growth of African enterprises and of a dynamic African entrepreneurial class. It is also asked to what extent these new African enterprises and African entrepreneurs are rooted in the growing African middle class.

The book, which was edited by Professor Henning Melber, a lead expert on Southern Africa, with the title "The Rise of Africa's Middle Class – Myths, Realities and Critical Engagements" was first published 2016 at Zed Publishers: https://www.zedbooks.net/shop/book/the-rise-of-africas-middle-class/ and is distributed by The University of Chicago Press Books: http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/R/bo25073345.html. The book is a critical analysis of the Africa Rising/Rise of Africa's Middle Class Paradigm.

First book reviews are coming in (see: http://witspress.bookslive.co.za/blog/2017/04/26/roger-southall-reviews-the-rise-of-africa%E2%80%99s-middle-classes-myths-realities-and-critical-engagements/ and https://www.pambazuka.org/economics/understanding-africa%E2%80%99s-middle-classes-book-review and http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2017/04/07/book-review-the-rise-of-africas-middle-class-myths-realities-and-critical-engagements-by-henning-melbered/).

See also the related report by Editor Henning Melber on Africa's rising middle class: time to sort out fact from fiction in The Conversation (of May 24, 2016). The report (Link: https://theconversation.com/africas-rising-middle-class-time-to-sort-out-fact-from-fiction-59797) gives an assessment of the issues, but also outlines the interdisciplinary approaches needed to analyse the subject properly..

Bibliographic Details of the South Africa Edition (see the Link: http://witspress.co.za/catalogue/the-rise-of-africas-middle-class/):

Editor(s): Henning Melber
Publication Date: March 2017
Dimensions and Pages: 234 x 156 mm; 288 pp; Softcover
Paperback EAN: 978-1-77614-082-4
Rights: Southern Africa
Recommended Price (ZAR): 350.00

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has presented in 2014 the study "African Lions, African Tigers, and Emerging African Middle Classes – A Very Sceptical Note Extended" (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/African_Lions_Sceptical.pdf). In this study the "Africa Rising" story is critically examined and is also related to the debate about the growth of Africa's Middle Class. The study was published in the journal "Berichte" of the Research Institute of the IWVWW in Berlin in the Number 205, October-December 2014, Volume 24. See the bibliographic details below:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2014, African Lions, African Tigers, and Emerging African Middle Classes – A Very Sceptical Note Extended, pp. 4-32, in: Berichte, Oktober - Dezember 2014, 24. Jahrgang, Nr. 205, Schwerpunktthema des Heftes: Diskussionswert: sich differenzierendes Afrika, Geopolitik und Menschenrechte, internationales Krisenmanagement und das wesentlich Unsichtbare, Berlin: Forschungsinstitut der IWVWW e. V.

An extended version of the essay "Africa's Middle Class, Africa's Entrepreneurs and the Missing Middle" was published in November 2016 in an IWIM Publication Series (see for bibliographic details): Wohlmuth, Karl/ Oluyele Akinkugbe, 2016, Middle Class Growth and Entrepreneurship Development in Africa – Measurement, Causality, Interactions and Policy Implications, November 2016, 36 S., "Weiße Reihe" des IWIM, Andreas Knorr, Alfons Lemper, Axel Sell, Karl Wohlmuth (Hrsg.): Materialien des Wissenschaftsschwerpunktes "Globalisierung der Weltwirtschaft", Bd. 43, November 2016, ISSN 0948-3837 (ehemals: Materialien des Universitätsschwerpunktes "Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen und Internationales Management"). PDF and Download are available at: PDF and Link to the IWIM Publication Series: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/weisse_reihe/.

This extended contribution is accepted for publication in the journal "Berichte" for Number 1, 2017. It is a forthcoming publication.

 

Professor Reuben A. Alabi continues his Research Programme at the University of Bremen until 2020: Cooperation with Professor Karl Wohlmuth on Economic Developments in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Nigeria

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Full Professor of Agricultural Economics since March 2017 at the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria, will continue his researches in Bremen for three more years (2018 - 2020). He is already in Bremen since 2015, at the invitation of Professor Karl Wohlmuth who is also consultant and senior project adviser to these research projects. He will undertake in the coming years researches on various issues of development in Nigeria:

Research Project One: 'Cassava Production, Processing, Fortification and Acceptability in Nigeria', a publication for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. He is also one of the Volume Editors and Unit Co-Editor for the Unit on Nigeria in Volume 20. Volume 20 will appear for 2018, while Volume 21 will be ready for 2019. Professor Alabi will also assist in the work for Volume 21.

Research Project Two: He will conduct researches on 'Impact of State Government Public Expenditures on Yam Productivity and its Implications on Food Security in Nigeria'. In this context he will also organize a Policy Workshop in Nigeria. The intention is to inform the policymakers, the civil society, and academia about the policy implications of these researches. Focus is on the role of state level public finances in contrast to analyses of the federal level public expenditures.

Research Project Three: He will also conduct researches on 'How to Address Youth Unemployment in Nigeria by Using Agricultural and Business Technologies'. Also this project will lead to a Policy Workshop in Nigeria. The intention is to inform the policymakers, the civil society and academia about these researches. As growth has not contributed to employment creation in Nigeria, this project will link directly employment policies for the youth and agricultural development policies to enable young entrepreneurs.

Recent researches by Professor Alabi in Bremen have led to important international publications (a full list of publications is contained in the Letter of Intentions submitted for the Research Programme 2018-2020):

International Publication One: AGRODEP

No. 0036 - Does an Inorganic Fertilizer Subsidy Promote the Use of Organic Fertilizers in Nigeria?

AGRODEP Author:
Alabi, Reuben Adeolu
Abu, Godwin Anjeinu
Authors:
Reuben Adeolu Alabi, Oshobugie Ojor Adams, Godwin Abu
Publisher:
AGRODEP

Abstract:
This study examines the crowding-out or -in effect of organic fertilizers as a result of the inorganic fertilizer subsidy program in Nigeria. The study made use of the Nigeria General Household Survey (GHS) dataset from 2010-2011, which contains 5,000 farmers. We estimate the probability and intensity of organic and inorganic fertilizer use conditioned on the amount of fertilizer subsidy accessed by the farmers using Probit and Tobit IV methodologies. The results reveal that organic fertilizer is being used as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer and that the farmers who are not able to access the fertilizer subsidy rely on organic fertilizer. Apart from revealing the crowding-out effect of the fertilizer subsidy on the use of organic fertilizers, our findings also bring to the fore the role that transportation and regional constraints play in stimulating inorganic fertilizer application among farmers outside the fertilizer subsidy scheme. We conclude with some recommendations on how to increase organic fertilizer use and promote integrated soil fertility management among farmers in Nigeria.

The full paper is available at:

http://www.agrodep.org/resource/no-0036-does-inorganic-fertilizer-subsidy-promote-use-organic-fertilizers-nigeria

 

International Publication Two: AFRICAN ECONOMIC RESEARCH CONSORTIUM (AERC), NAIROBI, KENYA

Title: THE PRO-POORNESS OF FERTILIZER SUBSIDY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON FOOD SECURITY IN NIGERIA Authors: ALABI, Reuben Adeolu Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria, e-mail: bayobimb@yahoo.com and
ADAMS, Oshobugie Ojor Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria, e-mail: bugieadams@yahoo.com
FINAL REPORT SUBMITTED TO The AFRICAN ECONOMIC RESEARCH CONSORTIUM (AERC), NAIROBI, KENYA

Abstract:

We examined the pro-poorness of the newly introduced e-wallet fertilizer scheme in Nigeria. The study made use of the Nigeria General Household Survey (GHS)-Panel Datasets of 2010/2011 and 2012/2013 which contain 5000 farmers in each the panel and supplemented it with Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (FMARD) data on fertilizer subsidy. We determined the pro-poorness of the scheme by estimating its benefit incidence and concentration index, and estimated the impact of the scheme on fertilizer use, output and yield of the participating farmers using the propensity score matching (PSM) methodology. We found that the e-wallet scheme was able to register about 70% of the expected number of registered farmers, while the roll-out and redemption rates stood at 79% and 69% respectively. The proportion of farmers who used fertilizer in Nigeria declined from about 39% in the pre-wallet scheme to 38% during the e-wallet scheme. The percentage of farmers that used subsidized fertilizer also decreased from 13% in the pre-wallet era to 12% during the e-wallet scheme. We indicated that the concentration indices of fertilizer subsidy before and during the e-wallet schemes were 0.0328 and 0.0168 respectively. Since they were positive, it means that their distributions are not pro-poor, but fertilizer subsidy with the e-wallet scheme is more pro-poor than the pre e-wallet scheme because it has a lower concentration index. While the largest-scale farmers shared 23% in the fertilizer subsidy before and during the e-wallet schemes, the share of the smallest-scale farmers were 18% and 19% in the fertilizer subsidy before and during the e-wallet scheme respectively.

This may explain the relative pro-poorness of e-wallet over the pre-e-wallet scheme. However, the e-wallet scheme was not pro-poor in absolute terms because the share of the largest farm size group of farmers was higher than the share of the smallest farm size group during the e-wallet scheme. The study showed further that the share of the rural area in the fertilizer subsidy was about 39% and 41% before and during the e-wallet scheme respectively. The study demonstrated that the fertilizer subsidy distribution is not pro-poor in the rural area and in the South-South, North-West and North-Central regions of Nigeria. The study revealed further that the participating farmers in the e-wallet fertilizer scheme used more fertilizer than non-participating farmers in the range of 278kg to 293kg per farmer. The output of the participating farmers was significantly higher by 827kg but there were not significant differences in their farm productivities. The study revealed that the small and the smallest farm holders who contributed about 70% of the total yield of all the farmers shared only 39% of the subsidized fertilizer during the e-wallet fertilizer scheme. This non-pro-poor distribution of subsidized fertilizer has been implicated for non-significant differences in the farm productivities of participating and non-participating farmers in the scheme. The study concluded that, though the e-wallet scheme is more innovative and transparent than the previous fertilizer subsidy scheme, some factors that limited the pro-poorness of the past fertilizer subsidy scheme are still inherent in the e-wallet scheme. In order to improve the impact of the scheme on food crop productivity and on food security, the study recommended how the pro-poorness of the e-wallet scheme can be addressed with special reference to the rural area, the South-South, the North-West and the North-Central regions.

See the Final Report to AERC by the Authors: PDF AERC Contribution

Competing Successfully for International Research Awards
Professor Alabi holds various research awards and international scholarships: Research Grant from Bilateral Cooperation in Education and Research (Internationales Büro des BMBF, Bonn, Germany; Georg Forster Research Fellowship Award of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation (AvH Foundation), Bonn, Germany; Innovative Research Grant from African Growth & Development Policy Modelling Consortium (AGRODEP-IFPRI), Washington D. C., USA; Research Grant from the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), Nairobi, Kenya; Research Grant by the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP) Research Network, Quebec Canada; and Excellence in Publication Grant from African Growth & Development Policy Modelling Consortium (AGRODEP-IFPRI), Washington D. C., USA). He also has applied for funding for the projects in the new research period in Bremen (2018 – 2020). Professor Karl Wohlmuth is advising the research activities of Professor Alabi now since 2004. In this year the cooperation started between the universities in Ekpoma, Nigeria and in Bremen, Germany at the occasion of a Research Workshop on African Development.

Professor Alabi has published in most of the publication series of IWIM (Book Series, African Development Perspectives Yearbook Series, Blue Discussion Paper Series, and White Discussion Paper Series).

 

ECOSOC and Sustainable Development Goal 9: „Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation“

Professor Karl Wohlmuth is invited as a speaker to the Victoria Falls Global Conference of ECOSOC in preparation of the 2017 Special Meeting to be held at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. ECOSOC is intensively working now on the global implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). As SDG 9 has great relevance for poverty eradication, the complex issues are discussed in various Global Conferences. Professor Karl Wohlmuth is one of the speakers at the Global Conference in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe.

The 2017 Special Meeting of ECOSOC on "Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization" will highlight the following issues (see the link: https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting):

WHAT? The 2017 Special Meeting of ECOSOC will address the theme "Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization", putting the spotlight on the relevance of Sustainable Development Goal 9 (SDG-9) and its inter-linkages with other Goals and targets. Two preparatory events – in Dakar, Senegal (26 March) and in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe (24-26 April) – were organised in the lead-up to the Special Meeting.

WHEN? The 2017 Special Meeting will be held on 31 May 2017, in the ECOSOC Chamber at UN Headquarters, New York.

WHY? Resilient infrastructure and sustainable industrialization are key enablers of poverty eradication and can promote inclusion, connectivity and equality within societies. However, these sectors can be complex and expensive to develop, especially in countries in Africa and countries in special situations. The Special Meeting will aim to bring the challenges involved to the attention of national, regional and international actors, and to forge solutions to bridge the gaps in infrastructure, industrialization and innovation across countries.

WHO? The 2017 Special Meeting will bring together high-level representatives of Member States, representatives of the United Nations system, international organizations, civil society and other non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector. The overall initiative is supported by a range of UN entities including FAO, OHRLLS (UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States), OSAA (Office of the Special Adviser on Africa), UNCTAD, UNDP, UNECA, UNHABITAT, UNIDO and WIPO, and engaging other organizations such as the African Development Bank, the African Union, NEPAD and representatives from academia, civil society and the private sector.

Invitation: Professor Karl Wohlmuth was invited by His Excellency, Mr. Frederick Musiwa Makamure Shava, President of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) to speak at the "Global Expert Meeting on Agriculture and Agro-industries Development towards Sustainable and Resilient Food Systems" in Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe about "Strategies towards Industrialization based on Agricultural Development - Lessons learned from the 3ADI model and moving beyond 3ADI". The Conference is held on 24-26 April 2017, arranged by ECOSOC, FAO, UNIDO, and other UN organizations.

Further Information:

See the Programme of the Victoria Falls Global Conference of ECOSOC: PDF ECOSOC-Draft Programme

See the Press Release of IWIM at the occasion of this Event: PDF Press Release of IWIM on ECOSOC

See the Link to the ECOSOC working programme on SDG 9 with meetings in Dakar, Victoria Falls and New York City (United Nations Headquarters): https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting

See the Link to the Special Meeting of ECOSOC on "Innovations in Infrastructure Development and Promoting Sustainable Industrialization" at: https://www.un.org/ecosoc/en/events/2017/2017-special-meeting-ecosoc-%E2%80%9Cinnovations-infrastructure-development-and-promoting

 

Standortwahl bei Markteintritten von kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen in Afrika: Yves Bagna entwickelt einen „Porter Competitiveness Index“

Der Ingenieur und Ökonom Diplom-Ingenieur und MBA Yves Bagna aus Kamerun hat einen "Porter Competitiveness Index" zur Bewertung der wirtschaftlichen Attraktivität afrikanischer Länder erarbeitet. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit dem "Global Competitiveness Index" des World Economic Forum (WEF) abgeglichen. An diesem Projekt hat Professor Karl Wohlmuth als Berater mitgewirkt. Die Studie ist jetzt im Forschungsinstitut der Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik e. V. Berlin (IWVWW) als Buch erschienen. Im nächsten Heft der Institutszeitschrift "Berichte" (Nummer 1, 2017) wird eine prägnante Kurzfassung der Studie unter dem Titel "Zielmärkte in Afrika, Eine Untersuchung der wirtschaftlich attraktiven Länder in Afrika" erscheinen. Yves Bagna hat seinen Ansatz dem Team von Professor Michael Porter an der Harvard Business School, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness (ISC), vorgestellt (Link: http://www.isc.hbs.edu/Pages/default.aspx).


Vgl. zu den Kurzfassungen und bibliographischen in Deutsch, Französisch und Englisch die folgenden Einträge:

Zukunftsmarkt Afrika: Welche Länder sind für eine Geschäftsanbahnung besonders interessant?

Yves Bagna legt eine neue Studie zu afrikanischen Zukunftsmärkten vor und entwickelt einen "Porter Competitiveness Index". In diesem faktenreichen Buch werden wichtige theoretische Ansätze genutzt, um Aussagen über die Attraktivität afrikanischer Länder für kleine und mittelständische deutsche und andere europäische Unternehmen zu treffen. Unternehmen, die in Afrika investieren wollen bzw. einen Kooperationspartner vor Ort suchen, können den Analyserahmen und die Ergebnisse gut für eigene Bewertungen nutzen. Yves Bagna wurde von Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, Universität Bremen, während der Erstellung der Studie beraten. Die Studie wurde 2017 vom Forschungsinstitut der IWVWW e. V. in Berlin veröffentlicht und kann von dort bezogen werden. Ausführliche Kurzfassungen in Deutsch, Englisch und Französisch geben dem Leser einen kompakten Überblick.

Deutsche Kurzfassung und bibliographische Information (PDF Deutsch)

L'Afrique marché d'avenir: Quels sont les pays lucratifs pour des activités commerciales?

Yves Bagna présente une nouvelle étude sur les marchés d'avenir en Afrique et développe pour ce but un « Porter Competitiveness Index ». Dans ce livre riche en faits, des instruments théoriques remarquables sont employés dans le but de déterminer les pays attractifs en Afrique pour les petites et moyennes entreprises en Allemagne et dans les autres pays européens. Les entreprises qui veulent investir en Afrique ou qui cherchent des partenaires d'affaires sur place peuvent évidemment utiliser ce cadre analytique pour leurs propres estimations. Yves Bagna a été consulté pendant cette étude par le Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, de l'Université de Breme. L'étude a été publiée en 2017 par l'institut de recherche IWVWW e. V. de Berlin et peut donc être obtenue dans cette institution. Un résumé minutieux du contenu en allemand, en anglais et en français permet au lecteur d'avoir un aperçu succinct.

Französische Kurzfassung und bibliographische Information (PDF Französisch)

Future Markets in Africa: Which countries are particularly interesting for initiating business?

Yves Bagna presents a new study on African future markets and develops a "Porter Competitiveness Index". In this fact-rich book, important theoretical approaches are used to make statements about the attractiveness of African countries to small and medium-sized German (and other European) companies. Companies wishing to invest in Africa or to establish a co-operation with a local partner can use the analysis framework and the results for their own evaluations. Yves Bagna was advised by Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, University of Bremen, during the elaboration of the study. The study was published in 2017 by the Forschungsinstitut of the IWVWW e. V. in Berlin and can be obtained from there. Detailed abstracts in German, English, and French give the reader a compact overview.

Englische Kurzfassung und bibliographische Information (PDF Englisch)

 

Thirty Experts work on Regional Integration In Africa: Professor Karl Wohlmuth discusses the turn from a linear to a transformative regional integration model

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has contributed to this project with an essay "Towards Transformative Regional Integration and Measuring Integration Progress", covering the following issues: The Linear Regional Integration Model and the Reality of African Regionalism and Towards a Transformative Regional Integration Model and the Perspectives of Structural Transformation in Africa (see for the Download of a PDF: https://interventionseconomiques.revues.org/3152). This essay is part of the chapter on Regional Experiences, while there are also chapters on African Regionalism and on Economic Policy of Regionalism. The essay by Professor Wohlmuth covers some issues of Volume 18 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for 2015/16 with the title Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration (see the Link: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/).


About the Journal (from the journal website):

La revue Interventions économiques / Papers in Political Economy est une revue scientifique qui s'intéresse aux débats théoriques en économie politique et en socio-économie, à l'évolution et aux transformations socio-économiques des sociétés actuelles et aux résultats de recherche menés dans ces divers domaines.

About the new Publication (from the introduction by the co-ordinators of the edition):

"Y faisant face, l'UA a adopté l'Agenda 2063, lequel retient l'intégration du continent comme sa deuxième aspiration majeure : un continent « politiquement uni ». Au-delà de cette perspective cinquantenaire, les trajectoires antérieures et les évolutions récentes de l'intégration régionale africaine méritent un temps d'arrêt pour jeter un regard rétrospectif sur les acquis et se projeter sur l'avenir, à la lumière d'un état des lieux.

C'est l'objet du présent numéro thématique de la Revue Interventions Économiques. Le numéro « spécial Afriques» entend faire le point sur l'intégration régionale en Afrique, cinq décennies après la création de l'Organisation de l'Unité Africaine (OUA) et 15 années après la naissance de l'Union africaine (UA). Il a vocation à contribuer à améliorer la connaissance sur l'intégration régionale en Afrique. Ce faisant, les experts s'y prononcent sur l'impact des régionalismes sur la compétitivité du continent, tout en essayant de situer les économies africaines au sein de l'économie mondiale. De plus, les lecteurs trouveront dans ce numéro des réflexions qui tentent de faire le suivi des efforts en matière d'intégration africaine, de repérer les opportunités et les menaces inhérentes tant aux contextes national (aspirations au statut d'émergence) et régional qu'à l'environnement mondial. Une place importante est également faite non seulement à l'évaluation des acquis en termes de bien-être et de qualité de vie des populations, à l'identification de quelques pratiques exemplaires, mais aussi à une projection sur l'avenir dans des perspectives à moyen ou long terme pour l'émergence et l'intégration africaines."

Charlie Mballa et Issiaka Mandé

Major Issues (see about regular current issues of the journal: https://interventionseconomiques.revues.org/3152):

The journal has published on relevant political economy themes (on the organization of the global economy and on regional and national political and economic issues)-



 

Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien

Die drei Entwicklungsökonomen Hans-Heinrich Bass (Bremen), Robert Kappel (Hamburg/Berlin) und Karl Wohlmuth (Bremen) haben im Auftrag der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) Tunesien eine Studie zu den Ansatzpunkten einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien verfasst. Angesichts der wachsenden Arbeitslosigkeit und der Ineffektivität der nationalen Beschäftigungspolitik in Tunesien sind Impulse für eine Neuorientierung in der derzeitigen Entwicklungsphase des Landes besonders wichtig (vgl. dazu die Links zur FES Tunesien: http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf und zur digitalen Bibliothek der FES: http://www.fes.de/cgi-bin/gbv.cgi?id=12921&ty=pdf ).

Aus der Studie zitiert:

"Wirtschaftliche Probleme und soziale Ungerechtigkeiten lösten im Jahr 2011 die Revolution in Tunesien aus. Seither hat sich viel in Tunesien getan; die demokratische Entwicklung des Landes wird international gelobt. Doch wirtschaftliche Reformen wurden bislang kaum unternommen. Insbesondere junge Tunesier_innen und Bewohner_innen des Landesinneren warten noch immer auf eine wirtschaftliche und soziale »Dividende« der Revolution. Ohne neue Impulse in der Beschäftigungspolitik gerät der politische Prozess in Tunesien in Gefahr.

Die beste Form, um langfristige soziale Gerechtigkeit und gesellschaftliche Stabilität zu erreichen, ist durch gute, würdige und fair entlohnte Arbeit. In Tunesien herrscht jedoch schon seit langem Unterbeschäftigung und der Anteil prekärer Jobs nimmt rasch zu. Viele Hochschul- und Berufsschulabsolvent_innen finden keine adäquaten Jobs, wohingegen viele andere im stetig wachsenden informellen Sektor tätig sind. Aus diesem Grund braucht Tunesien dringend eine neue Industriepolitik und eine umfassende Beschäftigungsstrategie.

Auswege aus der Beschäftigungskrise Tunesiens sind möglich. Eine effektive Beschäftigungspolitik setzt jedoch die Stärkung des Unternehmenssektors voraus, insbesondere durch die Förderung kleinerer und mittlerer Unternehmen. Darüber hinaus sind neue Formen der Integration der tunesischen Wirtschaft in regionale und globale Wertschöpfungsketten durchzusetzen. Nur durch eine breit angelegte Reindustrialisierung können die nötigen Jobs geschaffen und nachhaltig gesichert werden."

Erstens werden in der Studie Grundlagen einer kohärenten, inklusiven und nachhaltigen Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik für Tunesien vorgestellt. Dabei kommen der Privatsektor-Entwicklung und dem inklusiven Wachstum besondere Bedeutung zu. Die Dynamik in urbanen Zentren ist für die Beschäftigungsschaffung und für ein inklusives Wachstum stärker zu nutzen. Eine neue Industriepolitik kann inklusives Wachstum und Beschäftigungsschaffung unterstützen. Kleine und mittlere Unternehmen müssen anders als bisher offensiv gefördert werden.

Zweitens legt die Studie dar, dass die Integration Tunesiens in globale und regionale Wertschöpfungsketten durch wirtschafts- und handelspolitische Maßnahmen deutlich verbessert werden kann. Ein großes Beschäftigungspotential einer vertieften Integration ist erkennbar. Allerdings sind industriepolitische Voraussetzungen für eine erfolgreiche globale und regionale Integration erst noch zu schaffen. Die einseitige und enge Konzentration in sektoraler und geographischer Hinsicht ist zu überwinden.

Drittens zeigt die Studie, dass Auswege aus der Beschäftigungskrise möglich sind, wenn durch eine nationale Beschäftigungsstrategie die fehlende Dynamik der Arbeitsmärkte korrigiert wird. Aber auch ein neues Management der De-Industrialisierung ist notwendig, weil in den letzten Jahren viele Jobs im Sektor der verarbeitenden Industrie verloren gegangen sind. Die Beschäftigungskrise kann überwunden werden, wenn eine neue Industriepolitik die Möglichkeiten der Reindustrialisierung ausschöpft. Die Beschäftigungsschaffung in Tunesien kann durch vier Pfade der Reindustrialisierung voran gebracht werden. Schließlich sind aber Ausrichtung und Umsetzung der Beschäftigungsstrategie als gesamtgesellschaftliche Aufgabe zu verstehen; alle Stakeholder des Beschäftigungssystems müssen beteiligt werden, um einen Erfolg zu ermöglichen.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bibliographische Angaben zur Studie:

Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien / Hans-Heinrich Bass, Robert Kappel und Karl Wohlmuth. - Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Naher / Mittlerer Osten und Nordafrika, November 2016. - 17 Seiten = 215 KB, PDF-File. - Electronic ed.: Berlin : FES, 2016, ISBN 978-3-95861-599-1 http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/12921.pdf

Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung/FES International Naher/Mittlerer Osten Nordafrika: https://www.fes.de/international/nahost/inhalt/publ_tunis.php

Die Studie wird derzeit ins Französische und ins Arabische übersetzt.

 

Die Vereinten Nationen präsentieren die zwei aktuellen Ausgaben des Bremer Afrika-Jahrbuchs in Kigali, Ruanda zum Thema "Fortschritte Afrikas bei der regionalen und globalen ökonomischen Integration"

Seit 1989 wird von der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven an der Universität Bremen, geleitet von Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, das African Development Perspectives Yearbook herausgegeben. Nun hat die UN-Wirtschaftskommission für Afrika in Kigali, Ruanda die beiden Ausgaben des Jahrbuchs für 2015/2016 und 2017 der afrikanischen Öffentlichkeit vorgestellt. Das Launch Event fand vom 25.- 27. Oktober 2016 auf Einladung des UNECA-Direktors Andrew Mold im Kigali Convention Centre (KCC) statt (Programme Kigali). Es ging darum, wichtige Multiplikatoren aus Politik, Wissenschaft, Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und Medien über die zentralen Inhalte der beiden Bände zu informieren. Eingeladen waren die Presse, Botschafter aus den Ländern der Ostafrikanischen Gemeinschaft, Politiker und Beamte der ruandischen Regierung, Experten von UN-Organisationen, die Chefökonomen der Regierung und der Zentralbank, Vertreter von Universitäten und Experten von Organisationen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit. Professor Karl Wohlmuth legte Pressetexte zu den beiden Bänden (Press Release Volume 18 und Press Release Volume 19), die Eröffnungsrede (Opening Speech) und einen Überblick zur entwicklungspolitischen Bedeutung des Jahrbuch-Projektes für Afrika vor (Wohlmuth-Panel Discussion 3). Die Politikrelevanz der bisherigen 19 Bände wurde in der Präsentation analysiert.

Der Inhalt des Bandes für 2015/2016 "Towards Transformative Regional Integration in Africa" wurde mit großem Interesse aufgenommen, da auch in Ostafrika effektivere Wege einer regionalen Zusammenarbeit gesucht werden. Die regionale Integration in Afrika ist in den letzten Jahren zu einem Schwerpunktthema im Rahmen der Afrikanischen Union (AU) geworden; die UN-Wirtschaftskommission für Afrika arbeitet über diese Fragen sehr intensiv und thematisiert die Strukturprobleme der regionalen Integration für ganz Afrika. Im Band für 2015/2016 wird auf jene strukturverändernden Interventionen eingegangen, die den regionalen Integrationsprozess in Afrika unumkehrbar machen könnten und insgesamt zu mehr Wachstum, Beschäftigung und sozialem Ausgleich führen. An dem Band 18 waren u. a. Experten der UNCTAD/Genf, der FAO/Rom, der UNECA/Kigali, von TRALAC, Stellenbosch, vom ECDPM/Maastricht und Forscher aus afrikanischen Ländern (Sudan, Botswana, Ghana) sowie von der Bremer Forschungsgruppe beteiligt. In mehreren grundlegenden Abhandlungen wurde verdeutlicht, dass die regionale Integration in Afrika nicht nach dem Modell der EU funktioniert, sondern zunächst bei den Strukturdefiziten ansetzen muss, die innerhalb des regionalen Integrationsraums den Handel, die Investitionen, die Arbeitskräftewanderungen, die Kapitalbewegungen und die makroökonomische Koordination erschweren. Das Ministerium von Ruanda für die Ostafrikanische Gemeinschaft unter der Leitung von Frau Ministerin Valentine Rugwabiza und andere Behörden von Ruanda haben das Vorhaben von Anfang an aktiv mit unterstützt.


Eine Arbeitsgruppensitzung des Launch Events in Kigali, Rwanda, im Kigali Convention Centre.

Links im Bild: Dr. Thomas Kigabo, Chefökonom der National Bank of Rwanda bei seiner Ansprache;
zweiter von rechts: der Managing Editor des African Development Perspectives Yearbook, Prof. Dr. Tobias Knedlik
Quelle: The New Times, Kigali, Rwanda

Im Band für 2017 zum Thema "New Trade and Investment Policies for Africa" wird darauf aufbauend analysiert, wie eine neue Handels- und Investitionspolitik in Afrika durchgesetzt werden kann, um global wettbewerbsfähig zu werden. Es geht dabei um Themen, die lange in Afrika vernachlässigt wurden: Wie kann eine Handels- und Investitionspolitik so weiterentwickelt werden, dass es zu mehr Wachstum, zu höherer Beschäftigung und zu schnelleren Strukturveränderungen kommt?; welche Rolle spielen neue Politiken bei der dringend notwendigen Exportdiversifizierung in Afrika?; wie können die Öl exportierenden Länder in Afrika ihre Handels- und Investitionspolitik so steuern, dass Landwirtschaft und Industrie Entwicklungschancen haben?; und, wie können durch neue Politiken auch international konkurrenzfähige internationale Unternehmen in Afrika gefördert werden? Federführend waren bei diesem Band neben den Experten der Bremer Forschungsgruppe dänische, tunesische, gambische und nigerianische Ökonomen und Ökonominnen beteiligt. Dieser Band ist für Ruanda wie auch für andere Länder der Ostafrikanischen Gemeinschaft von großem Interesse, weil Ruanda als kleines Land ohne direkten Zugang zu Häfen auf offene Märkte und große Integrationsräume angewiesen ist.

Im Mittelpunkt der Diskussionen standen aus aktuellen Gründen auch die Themen des Brexit und einer Afrikanischen Währungsunion. Die Wirkungen des Brexit auf die Ostafrikanische Gemeinschaft (EAC-East African Community) haben mit der Bedeutung von Großbritannien für die meisten Länder der Ostafrikanischen Gemeinschaft zu tun, aber der Brexit beeinflusst auch die Zukunft des EPA (Economic Partnership Agreement) zwischen EU und EAC. Diese Themen haben beim Launch-Event daher eine besondere Rolle gespielt. Präsentationen von UNECA-Direktor Andrew Mold und von Professor Tobias Knedlik bezogen sich daher direkt auf die Perspektiven einer vertieften Integration in Ostafrika nach dem Brexit und einer Afrikanischen Währungsunion. Aber auch die weitergehenden Integrationspläne wie TFTA (Tripartite Free Trade Area) und CFTA (Continental Free Trade Area) wurden intensiv diskutiert. Der Band 18 des Jahrbuchs war für alle diese Fragen der vertieften regionalen Integration eine gute Grundlage. Neben den monetären Aspekten der regionalen Integration standen auch die Strategien zur Verbesserung der Wettbewerbsfähigkeit von Ländern und Unternehmen in Ostafrika im Fokus. Der Beitrag von neuen Handels- und Investitionspolitiken zur Lösung von Problemen in Ostafrika wurde mit Bezug auf den Band 19 des Jahrbuchs diskutiert.

Die Präsentation der beiden Jahrbuch-Ausgaben in Kigali wurde in Form eines Politikdialogs zwischen Wissenschaft, Politik und Medien durchgeführt. Die Politikrelevanz der wissenschaftlichen Ergebnisse der Jahrbücher wurde an Beispielen dargestellt. Die Fernsehinterviews zum Launch Event mit Professor Tobias Knedlik, dem Managing Editor des Jahrbuchs, und mit UNECA-Direktor Andrew Mold wurden in 48 afrikanischen Ländern gesendet. Der UNESCO-Direktor Nazar Hassan, Kairo, gab einen Überblick zum Thema des Bandes 20 für 2018 über "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa". Diese Thematik ist für eine vertiefte regionale und globale ökonomische Integration der afrikanischen Länder überaus wichtig (Hassan STI Policy und Hassan Yearbook Kigali). Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Ekpoma, Nigeria, derzeit Universität Bremen, hat ein Statement zu den Instrumenten einer vertieften Handelsförderung für Sub-Sahara-Länder vorgelegt; die Initiativen der "Trade Facilitation" und von "Aid for Trade" wurden von der nigerianischen Forschergruppe im Band 19 kritisch beleuchtet (Alabi-Kigali-Statement). Professor Karl Wohlmuth wird eine Dokumentation über das Launch Event in Kigali erstellen.

Bibliographische Daten zu den Afrika-Jahrbüchern:

Wohlmuth, Karl/Achim Gutowski/Tobias Knedlik/Patrick N. Osakwe/Isabelle Ramdoo (Editors), 2016, African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2015/16, Volume 18, Theme: Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration, Wien/Zürich/Münster: LIT Publishers, 456 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-643-90523-9 (Web Information: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy )

Wohlmuth, Karl/Reuben A. Alabi/Achim Gutowski/Tobias Knedlik/Oyebanke Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, 2016, African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2017, Volume 19, Theme: Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards New Trade and Investment Policies, Wien/Zürich/Münster: LIT Publishers, 486 Seiten, ISBN 978-3-643-90785-1 (Web Information: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy )

Vgl. auch die Flyer zu den beiden Bänden: Wohlmuth Cover Band 18 und ADPY-Cover Volume 19

Fernsehinterviews anlässlich des Launch Events:

Details from CNBC Africa about the Interviews during the Launch Event:
TV Interview with UNECA Director Andrew Mold: "EAC's challenges toward a Monetary Union"

Thu, 27 Oct 2016 10:10:51 GMT 8 views

http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=5187023778001

Text from CNBC Africa: "As the East African Community gears to become a Monetary Union, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in partnership with the University of Bremen organised a Policy dialogue on regional integration aimed at drawing lessons from the experiences of other regional blocs. CNBC Africa spoke to Andrew Mold, Acting Director at UNECA on challenges of the EAC's journey."

TV Interview with Managing Editor Professor Tobias Knedlik: "EAC deliberate on challenges, solutions to monetary union"

Fri, 28 Oct 2016 14:44:28 GMT 9 views

http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=5188797459001

Text from CNBC Africa: "The East African Community is edging closer to an economic union and policy makers are keen on evading mistakes of other regional blocs across the globe. CNBC Africa spoke to Professor Doctor Tobias Knedlik of Fulda University and began by asking him whether smaller economies relinquish their competitiveness amid the looming integration."

Die Bremer Universität veröffentlichte aus Anlass des Launch-Events eine Pressemitteilung: Pressemitteilung Kigali

Weitere Infos zu den Afrika-Jahrbüchern und zum Launch-Event sind zu erhalten über:

Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth
Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven
FB 7, Universität Bremen
Telefon: 218-66517
Email: wohlmuth@uni-bremen.de

 

Launch of the Volumes 18 and 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook in Kigali, Rwanda: Editions "Towards Transformative Regional Integration in Africa" and "Towards New Trade and Investment Policies in Africa" are presented by UNECA

During a Launch Meeting at 25-27 October 2016 organized by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) and the University of Bremen (Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen) the volumes 18 (for 2015/16) and 19 (for 2017) of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook (see the Flyers: PDF Wohlmuth-Cover Band 18 and PDF ADPY-Cover Volume 19) were presented in the Kigali Convention Centre (KCC) to an audience of African and international experts. The participants, speakers and discussants were from Politics and Government in Rwanda, Central Bank of Rwanda, UN Agencies, Ambassadors from the East African Community to Rwanda, International and Local Media, Development Cooperation Agencies, and Universities. The three-days-programme started with a Press conference (Day 1), followed by the Launch Event and a Policy Dialogue (Day 2), and a visit to the Universities (Day 3) to present the two editions of the Yearbook. The programme (see the original programme: PDF Programme Kigali 8-2016) was drafted by UNECA Director Andrew Mold, UNECA/Eastern Africa Office, Kigali and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Director of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen.

For the Press Conference on Day 1 of the Launch Meeting Press Releases were prepared (see PDF Press release Volume 18 and PDF Press Release Volume 19). Professor Wohlmuth submitted for Day 2 the Opening Speech (PDF Opening Speech Kigali) and a Presentation for the Launch Event on the Policy Implications and Policy Recommendations of the Yearbook editions and especially of Volumes 18 and 19 (see PDF Wohlmuth Panel Discussion 3). Further presentations for Day 2 were prepared by Professor Tobias Knedlik on "Lessons from Europa for the African Monetary Union" and by Dr. Nazar Hassan, UNESCO on "Highlights of Volume 20: STI Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa" (PDF Presentation Hassan STI Policy and PDF Synopsis Hassan Yearbook). Beside of discussing the themes of Volume 18 "Towards Transformative Regional Integration in Africa" and Volume 19 "Towards New Trade and Investment Policies in Africa" information was given on the highlights of forthcoming Volume 20 on "STI Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa".

Day 2 started with Opening Remarks. In the Session on "Transformative Regional Integration in Eastern Africa" new developments in the East African Community (EAC) had an impact, just to mention the implications of the Brexit, the differences between members about the EPA negotiations, and the entry of South Sudan as a new member. The situation of the EAC after the Brexit vote in UK was of great interest for the participants from Rwanda and from the other countries of the EAC. Therefore, UNECA Director Andrew Mold gave an introductory presentation on "The implications of Brexit for the East African Community", followed by the presentation of Professor Tobias Knedlik on the "Lessons from Europa for the African Monetary Union". The most important issues and messages of Volume 18 on "Transformative Regional Integration in Africa" were then confronted with the current discussions in the EAC on the future of the relations between EAC and Europe after the Brexit. The discussion after these presentations about "Transformative Regional Integration in Africa" has invited remarks by Dr. Thomas Kigabo, Chief Economist at the National Bank of Rwanda. His contribution centred on the consequences of the Brexit vote for the EAC and the EPA negotiations. Because of differences among EAC member countries about the implications of the Brexit vote and with regard of the EPA agreement the directions of the integration process in the East African Community (EAC) are under review (see the link to the article by James Karuhanga about the speech of Dr. Kigabo: http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-10-27/204808/ ).

Day 2 was continued with the Session on "New Trade and Investment Policies in Eastern Africa". UNECA Director Mold presented the main messages from his article in the Yearbook with the theme "Building Productive Capacities for Regional and Global Competitiveness: The Case of the East African Community". Mr. Rodgers Mukwaya, Economic Affairs Officer, UNECA widened the picture by looking at "Patterns of African Regional Integration - The Tripartite and Continental Free Trade Areas". The discussion on new trade and investment policies centred first, on ways and instruments of building productive capacities as prerequisites for regional and global competitiveness; and second, on opening regional economic communities (RECs) like EAC further towards tripartite and continental free trade areas. Rwanda is looking with great interest and ambition to such further steps of integrating regionally and globally. Emphasizing the case of the East African Community (EAC) was seen by the participants as a valuable application of the main messages from the presented Yearbook editions. Relevant issues of the two volumes were brought to the point by the speakers and discussants. A written statement was presented to the audience by Professor Reuben A. Alabi from Nigeria and currently being a Guest Researcher at the University in Bremen. His statement was about his contribution to Volume 19 in which he and the co-author had assessed the relevance of the "trade facilitation" and "aid for trade" tools for trade promotion of Sub-Saharan Africa (PDF Statement Professor Alabi). Nazar Hassan, Director, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), brought in the theme of "Innovation for Inclusive Growth in Africa". Rwanda and other countries in the region see science, technology and innovation (STI) as key factors for a successful regional and global economic integration. It was argued that such a theme for the next volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is of utmost importance. Day 2 ended with Closing Remarks.

Day 3 of the Launch Event was used for Talks with Professors from Rwandan Universities on the issues of the two volumes, but also to discuss about university and research partnerships between Rwandan and German universities. There is great interest in Rwanda to cooperate with the Research Group on African Development Perspectives at the University of Bremen, according to Professor Tobias Knedlik, the Managing Editor of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Also UNECA expressed its interest to further cooperate with our universities and research groups.


Venue of the Launch Event: Kigali Convention Centre, Rwanda

UNECA has issued a statement on the event which is titled Collaboration, not competition, is key to a successful regional integration (see the link: http://www.uneca.org/stories/collaboration-not-competition-key-successful-regional-integration ). The international press has taken up the issues (see the links for the report by AllAfrica: http://allafrica.com/stories/201610311186.html , and by TRALAC: https://www.tralac.org/news/article/10727-collaboration-key-to-successful-regional-integration-experts-say.html , and by BigNewsNetwork: http://www.dolphnsix.com/news/1645154/collaboration-competition-successful-regional-integration , and also by the major Rwandan daily journal The New Times under the title "Collaboration key to successful regional integration, experts say": http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-10-27/204808/

In Television Interviews by CNBC Africa, which were broadcasted in 48 African countries, Professor Tobias Knedlik and Director Andrew Mold were interviewed on the importance of the issues discussed during the Launch Event for the policymakers in the East African Community (see the interview with Professor Tobias Knedlik in the video under: http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=5188797459001 , and the interview with Director Andrew Mold in the video under: http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=5187023778001 ).

Details from CNBC Africa about the Interviews during the Launch Event:
TV Interview with UNECA Director Andrew Mold: "EAC's challenges toward a Monetary Union"

Thu, 27 Oct 2016 10:10:51 GMT 8 views

http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=5187023778001

Text from CNBC Africa: "As the East African Community gears to become a Monetary Union, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in partnership with the University of Bremen organised a Policy dialogue on regional integration aimed at drawing lessons from the experiences of other regional blocs. CNBC Africa spoke to Andrew Mold, Acting Director at UNECA on challenges of the EAC's journey."

TV Interview with Managing Editor Professor Tobias Knedlik: "EAC deliberate on challenges, solutions to monetary union"

Fri, 28 Oct 2016 14:44:28 GMT 9 views

http://www.cnbcafrica.com/video/?bctid=5188797459001

Text from CNBC Africa: "The East African Community is edging closer to an economic union and policy makers are keen on evading mistakes of other regional blocs across the globe. CNBC Africa spoke to Professor Doctor Tobias Knedlik of Fulda University and began by asking him whether smaller economies relinquish their competitiveness amid the looming integration."

Statement by the University of Bremen: The University of Bremen released at the occasion of the Launch Meeting in Kigali a Press Statement (see the PDF Pressemitteilung Kigali and the Link: http://www.uni-bremen.de/universitaet/presseservice/pressemitteilungen/einzelanzeige/news/detail/News/vereinte-nationen-praesentieren-bremer-afrika-jahrbuecher-in-ruanda.html?cHash=f5d90784f2a1ed199696cbd8ab5f57d1 ). A full documentation about the Launch Meeting will be submitted by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen, Director, Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen.

 

New Research Report on Employment Policies in Tunisia: Managing Deindustrialization and Initiating Reindustrialization

In a new Research Report Professor Karl Wohlmuth outlines Elements of a New Employment Strategy for Tunisia. The Report is a Background Paper for a Consultancy Study on Approaches to initiate a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia.

Tunisia is five years after the Arab Spring Revolution in the process of reforming its development model and especially so its employment policy and the related institutions. High overall unemployment rates and high unemployment rates among the graduates of tertiary and vocational education institutions reveal that the economy is not absorbing adequately its skilled labour force. In demand is in Tunisia unskilled labour and low skilled labour as these groups of the labour force have much smaller unemployment rates. The production system is since decades biased towards sectors, activities and processes which require low skilled and cheap labour. The reasons are that Tunisia has managed rather badly its deindustrialization process, the decline of the manufacturing share in GDP and the decline of the manufacturing share in overall employment. Improving the management of deindustrialization would require that the labour market and investment laws and regulations are adapted, that the STI (Science, Technology and Innovation) system is adjusted, that the tertiary and vocational education systems are reformed, and that the social security system is streamlined.

Source: North Country Public Radio/ northcountrypublicradio.org (Arab Spring Anniversary)

Intentions to reform the development model and its institutions are there, but the political process prevents concrete actions. Also, in order to increase the demand for skilled people who are unemployed or working under precarious conditions, the country needs to initiate a reindustrialization process. In the Research Report four paths of reindustrialization are discussed and contrasted: First, reindustrialization via the promotion of competitive value chains in other economic sectors than manufacturing (agriculture, services, mining, etc.) is a promising route which could create a great number of jobs. Obviously, the sector policies are not employment-promoting. Second, reindustrialization via exploiting the potential for manufacturing in remote regions of the country (as manufacturing is largely concentrated in some coastal regions) is another viable option. Regional development incentives have obviously not worked towards creating employment in manufacturing sectors through a new inter-regional division of labour. Third, reindustrialization via new forms of integration into global value chains is a further important option. Tunisia has a large number of scientists and researchers and around 700 science, research & development institutions, but does not exploit this potential for global value chains which put to use the skills base and the research potential of the country. Fourth, Tunisia has great opportunities to reindustrialize via the development of "green growth industries" as the protection of its natural resources is important for sustainable development. In various environment-sensitive sectors employment can be generated through "green growth initiatives". Examples are areas such as organic agriculture, ecotourism and sustainable tourism, sustainable construction, and a better management of solid waste. All these areas offer a lot of opportunities up to new value chains and an increase in the demand for skills.

The Research Report is a Background Study, being part of a Joint Consultancy Contract. It is expected that short and long versions of the study can be published soon. The study relates also to the ongoing work on economic reforms in Tunisia by Karl Wohlmuth (see Publications Wohlmuth and STI Policies Tunisia: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/ ).

Reference to the Study:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, Ansatzpunkte einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (Orientations for a New Employment Strategy for Tunisia), Teil 1 (Part 1): Management von De-Industrialisierung und Initiierung von Politiken der Reindustrialisierung (Management of Deindustrialization and Initiation of Policies at Reindustrialization), Forschungsbericht im Ökonomische Reformen in Tunesien-Projekt (Research Report in the Project Economic Reforms in Tunisia), diverse Lang- und Kurzfassungen des Forschungsberichts werden veröffentlicht (various long and short versions of the Research Report will be published soon), Manuskript (Manuscript), 45 Seiten (pages), unveröffentlichter Text (unpublished text), erscheint im Dezember 2016 als Nummer 127 der Blauen Discussion Papers Reihe des IWIM der Universität Bremen (forthcoming as Number 127 of the Blue Series Discussion Papers, IWIM, University of Bremen, 45 pages, December 2016), unter dem Titel/under the title: Das Management der De-Industrialisierung und die Initiierung von Politiken der Reindustrialisierung. Elemente einer nationalen Beschäftigungsstrategie für Tunesien (The Management of De-Industrialization and the Initiation of Policies for Reindustrialization. Elements of a National Employment Strategy for Tunisia).

Link zu den Publikationen/ Link to the Publications (vgl./see: Publications Wohlmuth) und/and Link zum Tunesien-Projekt/ Link to the Tunisia Project (vgl./see: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/sti_policies_tunisia/ )

 

"Towards New Trade and Investment Policies for Africa" – African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 19 for 2017 is already published

Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for the year 2017 is already available in the bookshops. In Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title "Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic IntegrationTowards New Trade and Investment Policies" major strategic and policy issues are analysed. The guiding issue is how to make trade and investment policies in Africa relevant for structural change. It is asked how these policies can support structural transformation through more policy coherence, strict implementation of programmes and a future-oriented development management approach. So far these policies are not fully coordinated with other key policy areas, like sector policies, competition and technology policies, private sector policies, regional and spatial policies, labour and equity policies, and policies to strengthen global value chains. Also severe implementation problems have affected the impact of trade and investment policies. The lack of future-oriented trade and investment policies has led for Africa to missed opportunities in global trade and investment integration.

The focus in Volume 19 is, first, on new trade policies in Africa for structural change. The framework of coherent and comprehensive trade policies is presented; the role of international organisations in promoting agricultural export trade is analysed; and the divergence between planned and actual export diversification strategies is discussed. Second, another focus in Volume 19 is on new investment policies in Africa for structural change. It is investigated how investment policies could be redirected towards major economic sectors, like agriculture and manufacturing. It is also asked how oil-exporting countries can strengthen their industrial policy towards export diversification. It is also analysed how global value chains can be strengthened by appropriate policies. Third, there is a section in Volume 19 with book reviews and book notes being related to the themes of volumes 18 and 19.

Complementary to Volume 19 is Volume 18 with the title "Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration". Based on Africa's deep routed structural problems the key aspect of a more transformative regional integration process is how to promote structural transformation by adapted strategies and policies for the whole region.

See the Flyers of the two volumes (ADPY-Cover Volume19 and Wohlmuth-Cover Band 18) for a short description of the respective Contents of the two volumes.

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook Project started in 1989 with volume 1 on Human Dimensions of Adjustment in Africa. Over the years the African Development Perspectives Yearbook has become the leading English-language publication on African Development Issues in Germany.

Launch Event in Kigali, Rwanda in October 2016: UNECA (United Nations Economic Commission for Africa) and the University of Bremen will launch the two recent volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook in a three days ceremony in Kigali, Rwanda. Speakers from the United Nations, from the Government of Rwanda, from universities in Rwanda, from various media, and the management staff of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen will launch in their statements the new editions. A Press Conference on Day One, a Workshop on Day Two and a Visit to the Universities in Kigali and to the Genocide Memorial on Day Three are part of the programme (see the Preliminary Programme of the Launch Event as a Launch of the Yearbook). Ms. Valentine Rugwabiza, Minister of East African Community, Republic of Rwanda, will give the Keynote Presentation to launch the new editions of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook.

More information about the new publication:
The Book is available as a Hardcopy Edition and as an E-Book Edition.

How to order the book? See: http://www.lit-verlag.de/isbn/3-643-90785-1 The other volumes in the Series: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm About the Research Group on African Development Perspectives: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm and http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/afrikanische_entwicklungsperspektiven/ Entry about the African Development Perspectives Yearbook at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Development_Perspectives_Yearbook

 

Spatial Development Matters for Inclusive Growth in Africa – A Keynote Lecture by Professor Karl Wohlmuth

University of Bremen Development Economist Professor Karl Wohlmuth contributed to the International Conference of GARS (German Aviation Research Society) with a keynote lecture on spatial development and inclusive growth in Africa (see the PDF). The professor started with a discussion on Aviation in Africa and its role for Spatial Development, and then he considered the various elements of inclusive growth and especially the relevance of spatial development as a key factor. In this context he presented the ongoing controversy about the meaning of inclusive growth. In various country case studies he outlined how spatial development could contribute to more inclusive growth and development, for example if spatial interdependencies (South Sudan) and spatial dependencies (Nigeria) are considered. In order to make spatial planning an important element of inclusive growth, it has to be embedded into overall economic and social policies (as the country cases of South Africa, Tunisia, Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and Uganda show). Obviously the importance of spatial development as a key component of inclusive growth had been neglected far too long in development studies. It is therefore very useful that GARS has devoted two sessions of the conference to such issues (see the programme: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/files/dateien/96_preliminary_bremen_workshop_program_20_6_2016.pdf ).


"Aviation in Africa" & 13th Aviation Student Research Workshop



In cooperation with Airneth, G.A.R.S. and the Hogeschool van Amsterdam, the Centre for Public Management (zep) of the City University of Applied Sciences Bremen (HSB) hosted the First Workshop on Aviation in Africa and the Annual G.A.R.S. Student Research Workshop. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation on "New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies – Spatial Development Matters" in the Session I "New Strategies for Inclusive Economic Growth in Africa I" which took place on Thursday, June 30th 2016, 9:15 – 10:45, Venue: City University AS Bremen, Werderstraße 73. Professor Karl Wohlmuth also participated as a panellist in Session V: Panel Discussion: Air Transport and Inclusive Growth for Africa. The panellists were: Robert Kappel (GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies, Hamburg), Karl Wohlmuth (IWIM, University of Bremen), Ken Button (George Mason University), and Nicole Adler (Hebrew University). The Panel was chaired by Ofelia Betancor, Universidad de Las Palmas. See the Programme Details for the two Sessions: http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/files/dateien/96_preliminary_bremen_workshop_program_20_6_2016.pdf). The Panel Discussion also came to the conclusion that Aviation in Africa can contribute to inclusive growth and development if the sector is organized and regulated in an appropriate manner – at national, regional and continental African levels..

Reference to the PDF and the Draft Paper: Wohlmuth, Karl, 2016, New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies – Spatial Development Matters, Contribution to: "Aviation in Africa" & 13th Aviation Student Research Workshop, 30th June to 2nd July 2016, Bremen, Presentation on Thursday, June 29th 2016, in Session I: New Strategies for Inclusive Economic Growth in Africa I, Workshop organized by the Centre for Public Management of the City University of Applied Sciences Bremen in cooperation with Airneth, G.A.R.S., Hogeschool van Amsterdam, Presentation (see PDF) and Draft Paper, 8 pages (see Publications Wohlmuth).

 

Reindustrialization of Tunisia: Towards equitable and sustainable development, and further democracy, Conference in Hammamet, 12-13 February 2016

The Conference on "Reindustrialization of Tunisia" in Hammamet, which was organized by our Tunisian partners ENIT and TAASTI in Tunis, was a success (see the Programme PDF ReindusConf-Booklet and the Abstracts PDF Wohlmuth-Abstracts). The DAAD has financed the participation of eight researchers from Bremen, mainly from the University of Bremen. The theme of "Reindustrialization of Tunisia" was discussed by Tunisian and German economists. Also representatives of Tunisian Ministries, Employers Federations, Private Businesses and NGOs were invited as speakers. The whole conference was recorded by the TAASTI team so as to have lecture material for the ETP Master course at ENIT in Tunis. As the employment situation is quite serious in Tunisia, especially so the situation of the youth and of the academic and vocational training graduates, the discussion about reindustrialization and employment generation options was timely.




The Conference Delegates Met at the Sentido Phenicia Hotel in Hammamet, Tunisia



The Conference started with a panel discussion. The panellists, among them Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen and Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen, discussed about the "Role of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) for Reindustrialization in Tunisia". Professor Karl Wohlmuth emphasized ten key global industrial megatrends, as industrial development is shaped by strong global driving forces, such as digitalization, miniaturization, multi-faceted globalization, deeper forms of global value chain networking, intelligent (smart) specialization, use and spread of green technologies, industrial production through new technologies for saving resources, recycling and reusing materials, adapting to diversified and rapidly changing consumer preferences, and new forms of flexible production and labour use.





The Panellists discuss about the "Role of STI for Reindustrialization in Tunisia"



A representative from the Ministry of Industry spoke about new industrial policy initiatives in Tunisia. Although the Ministry of Industry has in some industrial policy areas a lead role, many other Ministries and Agencies have a say on industrial development. Therefore, Policy Forums were considered as important so as to address the inter-sectoral issues of Reindustrialization in Tunisia.





A presentation about the "Industrial Development Initiatives of the Tunisian Ministry of Industry"



The professors from the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen gave presentations on key Reindustrialization issues. Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave two presentations. In the first presentation he discussed the causes of deindustrialization in Tunisia and the various options for reindustrialization; a new strategy for industrial development has to be based on pro-active STI policies (see the PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2). In the second presentation Professor Wohlmuth made proposals for the establishment of STI Policy Forums for guiding the reindustrialization process in Tunisia (see the PDF Wohlmuth-STI Policy Forum).




Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation about "Deindustrialization and Reindustrialization in Tunisia"





Professor Karl Wohlmuth during his presentation about the "Role of STI Policy Forums in Tunisia"



Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass gave a presentation on "Strengthening the Role of Global Value Chains for a Successful Reindustrialization Process in Tunisia"; as Tunisia has lost in economic complexity in recent years; new approaches are needed to reverse this trend. Professor Achim Gutowski, ISS Hamburg/IWIM Bremen, spoke about "Financing Innovations in Tunisia and Germany"; as Tunisia has a financing gap in industrial innovations of the private sector, there is great interest in the modes how Germany is promoting innovation financing.




Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass spoke about the "Strategies to Strengthen the Integration of Tunisia into Global Industry Value Chains"





Professor Gutowski gave a presentation about "Financing Innovations in Germany and Tunisia"


All over the conference sessions there was a lively discussion. For the Master students of the ETP programme at ENIT in Tunis a Foresight Analysis course was held as a closing session of the conference (financed by DAAD). New instruments of foresight analyses were presented as well as results from foresight studies concerning future global industrial development patterns.


Towards a New Development Model for Tunisia – A Precondition for Reindustrialization

A major outcome of the conference in Hammamet was the insight that Tunisia has to overcome the development model inherited form Ben Ali so as to solve the major economic and social problems. Five years after the Revolution this task is not achieved. The Conference Lectures started with a speech by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Director of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives, IWIM, University of Bremen, Germany. He introduced in his presentation the theme "Deindustrialization, Reindustrialization and the Contribution of Coherent Industry and STI Policies: What are the Tasks ahead for Tunisia?". In his presentation he considered key issues of Tunisia's economic transformation process. The Tunisian Government is on the way to design a new development model so as to overcome the pre-revolution economic structures and modalities of policy-making ("Ben Ali legacy"). Based on the HRV (Hausmann/Rodrik/Velasco) decision tree to find out the most binding constraints to growth, the Tunisian government and international experts acknowledge that the "low appropriability" of the returns to private business activity is still the most important barrier causing low levels of investment and employment generation in the country.

As "low appropriability" of the returns to investment is caused by many factors (corruption, incoherent economic policies, confiscatory high levels of total tax rates, arbitrary administrative decision-making, lack of competition, advantages of political connectivity, privileges of state-owned enterprises, delays in implementing reforms, and excessive costs of regulation due to oversized bureaucratic structures, etc.), the task of establishing a new development model is extremely complex. Other factors retarding growth are also considered, such as human capital, infrastructure, innovation, finance, macro and micro risks, but these factors are not considered as binding as the "low appropriability" of private returns to investment factor is. On this basis Professor Karl Wohlmuth discussed the deindustrialization process of Tunisia and the options for reindustrialization, reflecting also on the role of pro-active STI policies for Tunisia (see the full text of synopsis in PDF Wohlmuth-Abstracts and Presentation PDF Wohlmuth-Tunis-2). Although there is an ongoing debate on economic reforms in Tunisia, it is necessary to shorten drastically the extremely long implementation cycle of reform laws from Ministries to Cabinet and Parliament and then back to the Ministries and Implementation Agencies. While the reforms of the Investment Code have started already in 2009 (before the Revolution), up to now only drafts are ready at Ministerial Level, but no decision was made in Cabinet and no parliamentary debate has taken place about an approved draft. Old laws, regulations and procedures prevail.

 

International Call for Papers is open for: Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa”

The Research Group on African Development Perspectives has opened the International Call for Papers for Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. Major theme for Volume 20 is "Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa". Guest Editors and Contributors are invited to cooperate with the Research Group on this volume (see the International Call for Papers). Main issues proposed for the volume are outlined in detail in the International Call for Papers. Beside of analytical studies and empirical assessments of African National Innovation systems and reports on the working of STI Policies in African countries, a deep country focus is planned for Tunisia, Sudan, South Africa, Kenya, Cameroon, and Nigeria. Important is also the policy focus of the contributions to Volume 20. Please send your Abstract as soon as possible!

Volume 18 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for 2015 has the title: "Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration". The main issue is how regional integration in Africa can become more transformative.

Volume 18 will be published in early 2016. The three Units (Parts) of Volume 18 are:
Unit 1: Towards Transformative Regional Integration in Africa
Unit 2: Specific Policy Issues of Regional Integration in Africa
Unit 3: Global Value Chains and Regional Impacts in Africa

Patrick N. Osakwe, Head, Trade and Poverty Branch, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), Geneva, Switzerland, and
Isabelle Ramdoo, Deputy Head of the Economic Transformation and Trade Programme at the European Centre for Development Policy Management (ECDPM) in Maastricht, The Netherlands, have joined for Volume 18 the Editorial Committee of the Professors Tobias Knedlik (Managing Editor), Achim Gutowski (Book Review Editor) and Karl Wohlmuth (Volume Editor).

Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for 2016/17 has the title "Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards New Trade and Investment Policies". The main issue is how trade and foreign investment can support structural transformation in Africa.

Volume 19 will also be published in 2016. The three Units (Parts) of Volume 19 are:
Unit 1: New Trade Policies in Africa for Structural Change
Unit 2: New Investment Policies in Africa for Structural Change
Unit 3: Book Reviews and Book Notes

Oyebanke Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Professor of Economics, Columbia University, New York, U.S.A, and with Dalberg Global Development Advisors, and
Reuben A. Alabi, Professor of Agricultural Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, and Guest Professor and Project Director at IWIM for the period 2015-2017, have joined for Volume 19 the Editorial Committee of the Professors Tobias Knedlik (Managing Editor), Achim Gutowski (Book Review Editor) and Karl Wohlmuth (Volume Editor).

See on the African Development Perspectives Yearbook Project: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm , and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-adpy.htm , and http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/african_development_perspectives_yearbook/ , and http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/afrikanische_entwicklungsperspektiven/ .

 

 

Interdisziplinäre Fachtagung „Strukturentwicklung im Südsudan“ an der Universität Erfurt

An der Universität Erfurt fand im Januar 2016 die Fachtagung "Strukturentwicklung im Südsudan" statt. Experten analysierten aus interdisziplinärer Sicht die akuten Probleme des Landes und Auswege aus der Krise, die durch einen eskalierenden Bürgerkrieg und eine weitere Verarmung der Bevölkerung gekennzeichnet ist. Die kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen im Südsudan nehmen trotz beachtlicher internationaler und regionaler Vermittlungsbemühungen (von IGAD und AU) weiter zu. Auch Regionen im Südsudan, die bisher als weitgehend friedlich angesehen wurden, werden von den Auseinandersetzungen zunehmend erfasst (so im Westen und im Süden des Landes). Es ist daher sehr verdienstvoll, wenn Afrika-Initiativen an der Universität Erfurt diese Konferenz dazu nutzten, ein in der Presse fast vergessenes Thema aufzugreifen und zur Diskussion zu stellen. Bei der Tagung ging es daher auch um die Probleme, Hindernisse, Perspektiven und Möglichkeiten eines Wiederaufbaus im Südsudan. Es ist dabei insbesondere von Bedeutung, zu analysieren, welche Akteure im Südsudan an einem Wiederaufbau interessiert sind und wie ein solcher Neubeginn strategisch und operational bewältigt werden kann. Entgegen dem Wortlaut des IGAD-Friedensabkommens zwischen der Regierung des Südsudan und der südsudanesischen Rebellenbewegung hat die Regierung einseitig die Zahl der Bundesstaaten von zehn (10) auf achtundzwanzig (28) erhöht und auch schon die Ämter der Gouverneure besetzt. Diese "Divide et Impera"-Politik der Regierung führt zu neuen Verzögerungen bei der Etablierung einer tragfähigen Friedensordnung.


Die bisherige Aufteilung des Südsudan in zehn Bundesstaaten (gemäß Verfassung des Südsudan und IGAD-Abkommen)




Die neue und einseitige Aufteilung des Südsudan in achtundzwanzig Bundesstaaten (ohne Einverständnis der IGAD und ohne Zustimmung der Rebellenbewegung)


Die Fachtagung thematisierte die Strukturentwicklungen im Südsudan seit der Unabhängigkeit des Jahres 2011
(vgl. 2016 A4-Leporello). Im Rückblick zeigt sich, dass die großen Hoffnungen des südsudanesischen Volkes nicht erfüllt wurden. Die Experten bei der Tagung waren sich einig, dass vor allem die Stärkung des Sicherheitsapparates die prägende Strukturentwicklung dieser fünf Jahre war, nicht aber der ökonomische und soziale Aufbau des Landes. Zielsetzung der Veranstaltung war es nach den Intentionen der Veranstalter, eine Bilanz der ersten Jahre der Strukturentwicklungen im Südsudan zu ziehen und einen Ausblick auf Entwicklungsperspektiven zu geben. Die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit mit dem Südsudan sollten dabei mit Wissenschaftlern, Experten von NGOs, politischen Vertretern und der Botschafterin des Südsudans kritisch diskutiert werden. Die Veranstaltung ist Ergebnis einer Kooperation der Hochschulgruppe SOS-Darfur mit der Universität Erfurt und der Stadt Erfurt, der evangelischen Landeskirche, dem Studierendenrat, der Stiftung Nord-Süd-Brücken sowie der Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung und der Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.

Der Sudanexperte und Entwicklungsökonom Professor Karl Wohlmuth referierte über die ökonomischen Entwicklungen im Südsudan seit 2011 und zeigte auf, was getan werden müsste (im Sinne von strukturverändernden Strategien) und was aktuell angesichts der derzeitigen politischen Lage getan werden kann (wenn auch nur lokal und mit angepassten Ansätzen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit). Vgl. dazu die Präsentation (PDF: Wohlmuth-Südsudan-Erfurt) und die Synopse (PDF: Wohlmuth-Abstract-Erfurt) zum Vortrag von Professor Wohlmuth. Der Vortrag zeigt auf, dass die großen ökonomischen Chancen und Potentiale des Südsudan seit 2011 nicht genutzt wurden, dass aber dringend Wege gefunden werden müssen, um die Grundbedürfnisse der Bevölkerung zu realisieren, etwa durch lokale Ernährungs- und Beschäftigungsprogramme. Diesbezüglich werden auch konkrete Beispiele aus der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit betrachtet; diese zeigen, dass auf lokaler Ebene durchaus Handlungsmöglichkeiten bestehen.

Vgl. die folgenden Links mit Berichten zu der Tagung (Universität Erfurt, politische Stiftungen und Förderer, Tageszeitungen, etc.) :

https://www.uni-erfurt.de/uni/news/2016/interdisziplinaere-fachtagung-zur-strukturentwicklung-im-suedsudan/

https://www.uni-erfurt.de/fileadmin/public-docs/Hochschulkommunikation/Presse/Veranstaltungen/PDFs/SOS_Darfur_Leporello_web.pdf

http://erfurt.tlz.de/web/lokal/politik/detail/-/specific/Suedsudan-im-Fokus-Erfurter-Studenten-organisieren-Fachtagung-1014828744

https://de.qantara.de/content/tagung-konferenz-strukturentwicklung-im-sudsudan-erfolge-und-schwierigkeiten-der

https://calendar.boell.de/de/event/strukturentwicklung-im-suedsudan-eine-interdisziplinaere-fachtagung



An der Universität Erfurt hat Professor Karl Wohlmuth bereits an drei Sudan/Südsudan-Tagungen mitgewirkt (Vorträge gehalten bzw. auch schriftliche Beiträge zu Tagungen erarbeitet). Vgl. dazu die Einträge in: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/Sudanforschung.htm und
http://www.karl-wohlmuth.de/wirtschaftsreformen_sudan_suedsudan/

Es ist vorgesehen, die Beiträge der diesjährigen Südsudan-Tagung zu veröffentlichen, da sehr wenig Information über die Entwicklungen in diesem Staat und über die Lage der Bevölkerung vorliegt.

 

 

Africa’s Middle Class is growing, but is it also leading to Structural Transformation?

According to continent-wide analyses and country-specific information Africa's Middle Class has grown rapidly in the past two decades, and a further growth is anticipated. Although there are great differences in measurement, based on income, consumption and wealth indicators, the respective ranges for defining the middle class differ widely and matter when separating the middle class from the poor and the rich in Africa. The empirical evidence points to a further growth of Africa's middle class, but the views on the development impacts of this growth differ. In the discussion among the Africanists quite often a link is made between the growth of the African Middle Class and the economic growth in Africa. The "Africa Rising" story is based on the expectation that there will be high economic growth rates in Africa also in the future and that Africa's Middle Class will fuel it. Because of the importance of this link it is necessary to assess critically these growth perspectives. This is done in a new book "The Rise of Africa's Middle Class", to be published in 2016 by Zed Books. It is edited by Professor Henning Melber, Senior Advisor/Director Emeritus, The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Uppsala/Sweden and Guest Professor at various universities in Africa and Europe.

The Rise of Africa's Middle Class

ISBN: 9781783607136 (Paper)
ISBN: 9781783607143 (Cloth)



Professor Oluyele Akinkugbe, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen have contributed to this book with a chapter on "Africa's Middle Class, Africa's Entrepreneurs and the Missing Middle". This study is based on researches about the growth of Africa's Middle Class and the impacts on the development of Africa's Entrepreneurship. Specifically, the chapter investigates the role of Africa's Middle Class for closing the "Missing Middle", the gap between the few large and the many small and informal enterprises in Africa. The question is raised if the growth of Africa's Middle Class will contribute to the growth of African enterprises so that the "Missing Middle" development trap can be overcome. An analysis of African enterprises and entrepreneurs is presented, by type of economic characteristics (survival versus growth-oriented enterprises) and by type of economic motivation (necessity-driven versus opportunity-driven entrepreneurs). The purpose of the analysis is to assess if the growth of Africa's Middle Class will create a viable entrepreneurship sector and a dynamic class of entrepreneurs. Also the role of development policy is investigated in this context; it is asked if and how public development policies can support the growth of African enterprises and of a dynamic African entrepreneurial class and to what extent these are rooted in the growing African middle class (see the link to the new book on "The Rise of Africa's Middle Class" at Zed Publishers: http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/distributed/R/bo25073345.html ). Professor Karl Wohlmuth has presented in 2014 the study "African Lions, African Tigers, and Emerging African Middle Classes – A Very Skeptical Note Extended" (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/African_Lions_Sceptical.pdf ). In this study the "Africa Rising" story is critically examined and related to the growth of Africa's Middle Class.

 

Cooperation with ENIT, Tunis: Expert Seminar in Bremen, UNESCO Meeting in Hammamet, Further Projects in the Pipeline

The cooperation of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives at IWIM with a group of professors from ENIT/El Manar University in Tunis has seen major events in the year 2015. The Research Group is supporting the "Engineering and Technology Policy/ETP" study programme at ENIT. Outstanding event was the Expert Seminar held in Bremen. Six professors from ENIT participated over a full week at the Expert Seminar in Bremen to be informed about "The Regional Innovation System (RIS) of the Country State of Bremen, Germany: Actors, Institutions, Policies, and Processes" (see the Programme of the Expert Seminar and the Introductory Presentation by Professor Karl Wohlmuth, the organizer of the Expert Seminar in Bremen).

The involved universities and research institutes in Bremen and the press reported intensively about the Seminar; see the reports by the University of Bremen (PDF May 2015 and PDF December 2014), and the Interview with Professor Karl Wohlmuth about the project in the Magazine of the University of Bremen from July 2015, BUS Number 139 (PDF BUS 139), the reports by the University of Applied Sciences Bremen with the links: http://www.hs-bremen.de/internet/de/einrichtungen/presse/mitteilungen/2015/detail/index_51758.html and http://www.hs-bremen.de/internet/de/einrichtungen/presse/mitteilungen/2015/detail/index_51417.html , the report by DAAD in their Press Service with the link: http://www.pressebox.com/pressrelease/hochschule-bremen/Anregungen-fuer-die-Modernisierung-von-Bildung-Forschung/boxid/739986 , the report in the local press (PDF 1 und PDF 2), and the report on the event titled "Wissenschaftsdelegation aus Tunesien zu Besuch am BIBA" by the BIBA LogDynamics Newsletter of June 2015 with the Link: http://www.logdynamics.de/newsletter.html . The Minutes of the Expert Seminar (Minutes) and the Photo Gallery (Access via Dropbox) about the event are also made available. The Dropbox is in the order of the days of the Expert Seminar (Programme). A short version of the Minutes of the Fact Finding Mission to ENIT by the German core group from November 2014 is also available (see the Minutes of the Fact Finding Mission).

Professor Karl Wohlmuth was interviewed by the BUS Magazine of the University of Bremen about the Cooperation Project Bremen-Tunis (see BUS July 2015, Number 139)

Another important activity was the participation of Professor Achim Gutowski, as a representative of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives, at the UNESCO International Workshop "Inter-university networking for capacity-building in STI policy: Towards a comprehensive African master programme at the ENIT" in Hammamet, Tunisia (see the reports by UNESCO on the meeting and on the ETP programme with the links: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/unesco_working_to_strengthen_capacities_in_sti_policy/#.ViSw2m73EdU and http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/events/all-events/?tx_browser_pi1[showUid]=31206&cHash=87c0b463af ; all the documents for the International Workshop and about the ETP programme at ENIT can be downloaded as well as the Photo Gallery). The project is part of UNESCO's Priority Africa Programme.


Source: UNESCO, UNESCO's Priority Africa Programme

The documents are also available in PDF format: the List of participants, the Concept note, the ETP programme, the Workshop Booklet, and the Official Photo of the International Delegates .The Photo Gallery of the Meeting in Hammamet is accessible at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/127450990@N05/sets/72157654594903029/ . Professor Dr. Achim Gutowski was appointed as a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of UNESCO for this project. The media coverage of the event in Hammamet and about the ETP programme was great (see the following entries: http://www.leconomistemaghrebin.com/tag/enit/ and https://www.facebook.com/etp.enit and http://www.taasti.org/etp/fr/documents.html and http://kapitalis.com/tunisie/2015/06/15/universite-lenit-lance-le-1er-master-en-politiques-des-sti/ and http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/events/all-events/?tx_browser_pi1[showUid]=31206&cHash=87c0b463af ). A detailed plan for the workshop follow-up was agreed upon since, and an online platform for STI collaboration was installed, with IWIM being part of it. At the workshop, an agreement was reached to establish a "community of practice" (COP), an online collaborative space, named the "Inter-academic network for capacity-building in STI policy". This will be a platform to share resources and learning/teaching tools among the many partners to the project.

Source: TAASTI, Workshop on Inter Academic networking for STI Policy

Other activities ongoing are the works on the MOOC programme, an Online Course on the Innovation System of the Country State of Bremen; responsible experts for this task from the German side are Professor Dr. Hans-Heinrich Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen, and Dr. Yildiray Ogurol, Head of the Media Center of the University of Bremen; Professor M'Henni and Professor Thouraya Guizani are the responsible persons for the Tunisian side to do the work on the MOOC. An International Conference in Tunis is planned by Professor Jelel Ezzine, ENIT/TAASTI. The main theme will be: "STI Policies in Tunisia and Economic Changes in the Region".

 

Das Europäische Parlament diskutiert über die EPAs (Economic Partnership Agreements) zwischen EU und Wirtschaftsregionen in Afrika

Im Europäischen Parlament wird jetzt sowohl im Handelsausschuss als auch im Entwicklungsausschuss über die vereinbarten Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) diskutiert (vgl. die Passagen zu den Rechtsgrundlagen einer Befassung des Europäischen Parlaments in den Europaverträgen: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/displayFtu.html?ftuId=FTU_6.2.3.html ). Diese Abkommen sollen das Verhältnis zwischen der EU und den AKP-Staaten neu bestimmen. Bereits seit dem Jahr 2000 (Cotonou-Abkommen) wird über diese neue Form der Wirtschaftsbeziehungen und der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit verhandelt. Aber auch im Jahr 2015 ist dieser Prozess noch nicht abgeschlossen. Einige Abkommen sind zwar seit dem Jahr 2014 ausverhandelt, aber noch nicht ratifiziert geschweige denn implementiert. Viele Fragen sind noch offen, sowohl auf afrikanischer Seite als auch auf europäischer Seite. Bis zuletzt versuchten die AKP-Länder, Alternativen zu den EPAs durchzusetzen, doch ohne Erfolg (vgl. dazu die Position der AKP-Länder vom April 2014: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2014/433843/EXPO-DEVE_ET%282014%29433843_EN.pdf ). Zu diesem Thema wird nach wie überaus kontrovers diskutiert, auch in Bremen.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth bei seinem Vortrag über die Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) mit Afrika

Am 11. Juni 2015 fand im EuropaPunktBremen eine interessante und kontroverse Diskussion über Chancen und Risiken der "Economic Partnership Agreements" (EPA) statt. Der Entwicklungsökonom Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth (IWIM, Universität Bremen) stellte den historischen Hintergrund und den aktuellen Stand der Verhandlungen zwischen der Europäischen Union und fünf regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften in Afrika dar (vgl. die PDF von Prof. Karl Wohlmuth). Es handelt sich um die westafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft ECOWAS, die Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft SADC im südlichen Afrika, die Ostafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft EAC, die zentralafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft und den Gemeinsamen Markt für das östliche und südliche Afrika ESA. Aber nur in zwei Abkommen der EU mit regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften sind alle afrikanischen Mitgliedsländer vertreten (ECOWAS und EAC). Daher kann nur in diesen beiden regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften die regionale Integration durch die EPAs unterstützt werden. Es ist den beiden afrikanischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften in den letzten Verhandlungsrunden aber gelungen, die vorgeschlagenen EPA-Vertragstexte deutlich zu verbessern (durch Ausnahmen von der geforderten Handelsliberalisierung, Schutzklauseln, Regionalfonds, Dialogforen, etc.). Professor Wohlmuth ging daher besonders auf die Beispiele des ECOWAS-EPA und des EAC-EPA ein, da diese Abkommen doch einige interessante innovative Elemente enthalten und wesentliche Kritikpunkte ausräumen, die zurecht moniert worden sind (vgl. als Beispiel den aktuellen Vertragstext des ECOWAS-EPA: http://twnafrica.org/ECOWAS%20WA%20&%20EU%20EPA%20draft%20text%20as%20at%20Feb%202014.pdf ). Aus einem reinen Freihandelsabkommen ist dadurch ein Handels- und Entwicklungsabkommen geworden.

Der Abgeordnete für Bremen im Europäischen Parlament, Dr. Joachim Schuster (SPD), ergänzte diese Darstellung um die Berichterstattung aus dem Handelsausschuss des Parlaments, dessen Mitglied er ist. Ein Schwerpunkt der Diskussion in Bremen war die Frage, wie es gelingen kann, die angestrebte Handelsliberalisierung (sofortige vollständige Liberalisierung auf Seiten der EU und mittel- bis langfristige Liberalisierung auf Seiten der afrikanischen Wirtschaftsregionen) an die Bedingungen der Einführung sozialer, humanitärer sowie demokratiestärkender Maßnahmen in den afrikanischen Ländern zu knüpfen. In der Diskussion verdeutlichte sich, dass schon diese Verhandlungsposition der EU bei der Ausgestaltung von Handels- und Entwicklungsabkommen mit Afrika alles andere als einfach ist. Hinzu kommt der globale Konkurrenzdruck von Ländern anderer Regionen, wie Indien oder China, die mitunter mit sehr attraktiven Angeboten anstreben, in den afrikanischen Markt zu drängen und die Länder in neue wirtschaftliche Abhängigkeiten zu bringen. Auch die Rolle der USA in Afrika wird gerade neu bestimmt. Auch darauf muss die EU eine Antwort finden. Die EPAs bieten nach Ansicht von Prof. Wohlmuth daher eine Chance, die Wirtschaftsbeziehungen mit Afrika grundlegend neu - und zudem vertraglich mit Bindungswirkung für beide Seiten - zu bestimmen. Dr. Joachim Schuster betonte besonders den erwarteten Beitrag zur nachhaltigen, demokratischen, friedensstiftenden und sozialen Entwicklung in Afrika.

In der Beurteilung von Chancen und Risiken der Bestimmungen der WTO als Basis für solche Abkommen zeigte sich dennoch eine unterschiedliche Einschätzung zwischen den Diskutanten. Während Professor Wohlmuth den Aspekt des Schutzes von Mindestnormen durch WTO-Bedingungen betonte, zeigte sich Dr. Joachim Schuster hier skeptischer und fordert eindeutige soziale und demokratische Verpflichtungen aller Verhandlungspartner, beispielsweise durch Einbindung auch zivilgesellschaftlicher Gruppen aus den beteiligten Ländern in die Verhandlungen. Dies wird auch und insbesondere in der Phase der Implementierung der EPAs wichtig werden. Die Veranstaltung war gut besucht und zeichnete sich durch eine lebhafte Diskussion aus (vgl. zu den Berichten über Inhalte und Ablauf der Diskussion die folgenden Mitteilungen der veranstaltenden Institutionen: http://www.europa.bremen.de/detail.php?gsid=bremen97.c.12254.de&asl=bremen97.c.3173.de und http://aia-bremen.de/ und http://joachim-schuster.eu/veranstaltung-zu-freihandelsabkommen-der-eu-mit-den-afrikanischen-staaten/#more-1724 ).

Professor Karl Wohlmuth in der Diskussion mit dem Publikum über die Folgen der EPAs

Von der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven, die Professor Karl Wohlmuth am IWIM leitet, wird zu dem Thema demnächst der Band 18 des African Development Perspectives Yearbook herausgegeben, in dem es um die EPAs und um neue transformative Strategien der regionalen Integration in Afrika geht. Die Mitherausgeberin des Bandes 18 des Jahrbuchs, Isabelle Ramdoo vom European Centre for Development Policy Management/ECDPM in Maastricht, Niederlande, und ihr Kollege Dr. San Bilal haben kürzlich zum Verhandlungsstand bei den EPAs und zu den Perspektiven der EU-AKP-Kooperation eine informative Studie herausgegeben (vgl. dazu: http://ecdpm.org/wp-content/uploads/Great_Insights_Vol3_Issue9_Oct-Nov_2014.pdf ). Der Dialog über die EPAs soll in Bremen fortgesetzt werden.

 

African Economic Research Consortium (AERC): IWIM Professor Reuben A. Alabi is an active collaborator at AERC International Research Conferences

Again Professor Alabi, Guest professor at IWIM, was invited to an AERC conference in Addis Ababa to report on ongoing researches about "Pro-poorness of fertilizer and agrochemical use and its implications on food security in Nigeria". He has developed at IWIM a methodology to analyze the pro-poorness of fertilizer subsidies from the side of state and federal governments in Nigeria. He will participate at the AERC Biannual Research Workshop in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in November/December 2015 for a full week; he will give presentations and he will participate at discussions. AERC is a leading research foundation for the support of African scientists to become part of the international research community. The invitation was presented to him by the Executive Director of AERC in Nairobi, Kenya.

As an AGRODEP member, Professor Reuben A. Alabi was invited to attend a high level "Applied Panel Data Econometrics" training course. The AGRODEP/IFPRI Dakar Management Team has selected Professor Alabi from a long list of candidates. The training workshop took place in Dakar, Senegal, on September 7-11, 2015. AGRODEP (African Growth & Development Policy) Modelling Consortium, facilitated by IFPRI, is an institution to support African agricultural economists. The programme is supported by the prestigious IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) in Washington D.C. (see the Link to AGRODEP: http://www.agrodep.org/ ). The aims of AGRODEP are self-described as follows: "The African Growth and Development Policy Modelling Consortium is an initiative aimed at positioning African experts to take a leadership role in the study of strategic development questions and the broader agricultural growth and policy debate facing African countries." and "AGRODEP maintains repositories of economic models and data sets, related documentation and research output available to all Network Members."

Professor Reuben Adeolu Alabi, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria and IWIM, University of Bremen, and Adams Oshobugie Ojor Adams, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria, presented a research report on "The Pro-Poorness of Fertilizer Subsidy and its Implications on Food Security in Nigeria" (see the Research Report and the Agenda of the Conference in Arusha, Tanzania) at the Biannual AERC Research Workshop. An AERC Plenary Session on "Sovereign Wealth Funds and Natural Resource Management in Africa" and five Research Groups Meetings were held from May 31-June 4, 2015 in Arusha, Tanzania.

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, IWIM and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, presented the paper "The Case of Sustainable Management of Solid Waste in Germany: Practical Lessons for Nigeria based on the Country State of Bremen" at the 2nd International Summit: Waste Summit 2015, Financing Management In Developing Economies, 22nd - 24th April 2015, Lagos, Nigeria (see the Extended Abstract). The Waste Summit was organized by the Waste Management Society Of Nigeria (WAMASON) and the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). These are leading environmental organizations in Nigeria (see the two websites: http://www.environmental-expert.com/companies/waste-management-society-of-nigeria-wamason-24860 and http://www.iswa.org/ ). Professor Reuben A. Alabi is the Project Director of the Research Programme "Environment and Development Management Nigeria-Germany: Comparing Waste Management Value Chains" at IWIM, University of Bremen. At Lagos, the Paper and a Power Point Presentation were given. Professor Karl Wohlmuth is Consultant and Senior Advisor in the Project since January 2015. The duration of the Project is through end of 2017.

Herausforderungen für die Innovationspolitik in Bremen – 1985 bis 2015

Neue Studien zur Innovationspolitik in Bremen

Vor dreißig Jahren hat das IWIM (Institut für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management) an der Universität Bremen die Studie "Bremen als Standort für Hochtechnologie" veröffentlicht. In mehreren Beiträgen wurden Wege aufgezeigt, wie Bremen nach dem Zusammenbruch der AG Weser durch eine kohärente Innovations- und Technologiepolitik den Strukturwandel beschleunigen und hochwertige Arbeitsplätze schaffen kann. Profile von Unternehmen im bremischen Hochtechnologiebereich zeigten auf, dass das Potential in Bremen durchaus vorhanden ist. Insbesondere wurde auch deutlich gemacht, dass Bremen von den Konzepten in anderen Ländern, in anderen Regionen und auch in den anderen Stadtstaaten (Berlin und Hamburg) lernen kann. Die Studie wurde seinerzeit vom Senat der Freien Hansestadt Bremen unterstützt. In einem Grußwort (PDF) haben Klaus Wedemeier, Bürgermeister und Präsident des Senats, Prof. Dr. Timm, Rektor der Universität Bremen, und Friedo Berninghausen, Präses der Handelskammer Bremen, auf die Notwendigkeit einer kooperativen Innovations- und Technologiepolitik für Bremen hingewiesen.

Dreißig Jahre später steht in Bremen wieder die Innovations- und Technologiepolitik im Fokus der wirtschaftspolitischen Diskussionen. Dies hat damit zu tun, dass die Arbeitslosigkeit in Bremen im Bundesvergleich hoch ist und dass auch die Armutsraten im überregionalen Vergleich auffallend hoch sind. Trotz der beträchtlichen Finanzhilfen von Bund und Ländern seit Jahrzehnten konnte das fiskalische Defizit nicht reduziert werden, so dass die Schulden des Landes weiter stark ansteigen. Andererseits sind trotz einer aktiven Forschungslandschaft in Bremen die Beiträge innovativer Unternehmen zur Wertschöpfung eher bescheiden geblieben. In diesem Kontext hat die Studie des HWWI/ITD ( vgl. die PDF und den Download: http://www.hwwi.org/uploads/tx_wilpubdb/HWWI-Policy_Paper_88_Innovationspapier.pdf ) Bedeutung, da eine dezidierte Neuorientierung der Innovationspolitik in Bremen gefordert wird. An der Studie waren Ökonomen von allen bremischen Hochschulen/Universitäten beteiligt. Vom IWIM wirkte Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth an dem Vorhaben mit und verfasste den Beitrag "Weiter so wie bisher, oder einen Neuanfang wagen". Auch ehemalige Mitarbeiter des IWIM (so Prof. Dr. Hans-Heinrich Bass als Autor und Herausgeber, und Prof. Dr. Achim Gutowski als Autor) waren an dem Projekt maßgeblich beteiligt. Die Studie wurde von der Presse positiv aufgenommen (vgl.: http://www.weser-kurier.de/startseite_artikel,-Wie-Bremer-Wirtschaft-und-Politik-innovativer-werden-sollen-_arid,1108732.html ), und im Rahmen einer gut besuchten Podiumsdiskussion mit bremischen Spitzenpolitikern (vgl. Einladung Podium und Thesenpapier) wurden die wichtigsten Thesen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Die Politik zeigte großes Interesse an den Thesen und an der Studie insgesamt, doch bleibt abzuwarten, wie nachhaltig das Interesse ist. Betont wurde, dass eine kooperative Innovations- und Technologiepolitik dringend erarbeitet werden muss. Ein Zukunftsrat für Bremen (Wirtschaft, Politik, Wissenschaft) wurde vorgeschlagen.




Ein "Bremen-Plan für Innovation und Wirtschaftsentwicklung" ist notwendig

Neben der HWWI/ITD-Studie sind vor kurzem weitere Studien von Bedeutung für die Freie Hansestadt Bremen vorgelegt worden: die RWI-Studie zum bremischen Innovationssystem (vgl. RWI-Studie und Präsentation der RWI-Studie), eine Studie zur Metropolregion Bremen-Oldenburg (vgl. zum Download die HWWI-Studie: http://opus.kobv.de/zlb/volltexte/2014/23331/pdf/OLB_HWWI_Wachstumspotenziale_der_Region_WeserEms_und_Bremen_2030.pdf ), und Studien zu den Perspektiven von Deutschland mit Implikationen für Bremen (so die PwC-Studie über Arbeitsplätze der Zukunft in Deutschland, die Prognos-Studie "Deutschland Report 2020/2030/2040/Bericht zur Zukunft der Nation", mit dem Download: http://www.prognos.com/fileadmin/pdf/Reports/Deutschlandreport/Deutschland_Report_2040/Flyer_D-Report_2040_web.pdf und die Studie "Prognos Zukunftsatlas" mit dem Download: http://www.prognos.com/fileadmin/pdf/Atlanten/ZKA_2013_Regionen/Zukunftsatlas_2013_Auf_einen_Blick.pdf ). All diese Berichte haben Relevanz für die gegenwärtige Diskussion, die in Bremen geführt wird. Bei dieser Diskussion kommt es nach Ansicht von Prof. Karl Wohlmuth auch darauf an, dass die vielen Innovationsprogramme (vgl. die Darstellung der zwölf Programme unten) für Bremen vereinheitlicht, aufeinander bezogen, und dynamisch weiterentwickelt werden. Eine stärkere Vernetzung zwischen den Akteuren, eine tiefere Analyse und Umsetzung der Kernprogrammpunkte, und die Realisierung einer größeren Unabhängigkeit der Einzelprogramme in Konzeption und Entwicklung von der jeweiligen Finanzierungsquelle (EU, Bund, DFG, etc., Wirtschaft, Landesmittel, etc.) gilt es anzustreben. Dies kann durch einen von Professor Karl Wohlmuth vorgeschlagenen Bremen-Plan für Innovation und Wirtschaftsentwicklung erreicht werden. Dieser Bremen-Plan umfasst 10 Punkte (und wird als Skizze für die Diskussion demnächst veröffentlicht). Auf alle wichtigen neuen Berichte und auf die zwölf Innovations- und Wirtschaftsförderungsprogramme des Landes wird Bezug genommen.

Die zwölf bremischen Innovations- und Wirtschaftsförderungsprogramme (Quelle: Clusterstrategie 2020, Freie Hansestadt Bremen)



Nachrichtlich: Die Innovationsstudie von 1985 und das Grußwort der bremischen "Troika"




Grußwort

Die wirtschaftlichen Perspektiven der Ukraine nach dem Assoziierungsabkommen mit der EU: Eine Konferenz des IWIM unter Beteiligung von Ökonomen der Kiewer Nationalen Wirtschaftsuniversität

Am 23. März 2015 fand am Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften der Universität Bremen eine Konferenz über die Wirtschaftsprobleme der Ukraine statt. Die Konferenz wurde vom Ko-Direktor des IWIM, Prof. Dr. Axel Sell, organisiert und vom Verein zur Förderung des Fachbereichs Wirtschaftswissenschaft der Universität Bremen wiwib e. V. finanziell unterstützt. Professor Sell führte in die Thematik der Konferenz ein und erläuterte das Programm (vgl. den Abschlussbericht von Professor Sell zur Konferenz). Professor Dr. Oleksandr Sushchenko, Vizepräsident der Kiev National Economic University (KNEU) und Professor Dr. Oleksandr Dyma, Vizedekan der Faculty of Human Resource Management and Marketing der Kiev National Economic University (KNEU), erläuterten in ihren Vorträgen die gegenwärtige Lage und die anstehenden Reformen. Dr. Stefan Barenberg, Doktorand am IWIM, ging auf die Reformen im Bereich Corporate Governance ein. Frau Professor Dr. Jutta Günther und Maria Kristalowa vom IINO erläuterten die besondere Situation der Ukraine in Bezug auf die Auslandsinvestitionen. Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth ging auf die Prioritäten bei den Wirtschaftsreformen und auf ein Strategiekonzept für die Vollendung der Transformation in der Ukraine ein (vgl. die Kurzdarstellung und die PDF von Professor Wohlmuth zu den Reformprioritäten und den Strategieansätzen für die Ukraine). Frau Katerina Bosko von der Forschungsstelle Osteuropa der Universität Bremen leitete die Abschlussdiskussion.

Frau Katerina Bosko von der Forschungsstelle Osteuropa leitet die Abschlussdiskussion zur Ukraine-Konferenz

Die Kooperation mit der Kiev National Economic University (KNEU) wird von Professor Sell und vom Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft weiter vertieft werden. Die Ergebnisse der Konferenz zeigen, dass die Ukraine vor großen Herausforderungen steht und die notwendigen und weithin bekannten Reformen endlich umsetzen muss. Insbesondere in allen Bereichen der Governance sind Reformen notwendig, um die Strukturtransformation in der Ukraine erfolgreich voranzubringen und Kurs auf Europa zu nehmen. Das Abkommen Minsk II bietet nun wieder die Chance, in der Ukraine jene Weichenstellungen zu treffen, die eine Vollendung der Transformation und ein erfolgreiches Andocken an die europäische Wirtschaftsdynamik ermöglichen.

 

Agro-industrial Development in Nigeria: New Publications by IWIM's Guest Professor Reuben A. Alabi

This is to inform the public about new researches done by Professor Reuben A. Alabi who is now for three years in Bremen at the Excellence University to do researches on "Waste Management Value Chains in Nigeria. Lessons from Germany and the Country State of Bremen".

The most recent study on agro-industrial development in Nigeria is “Economic Analysis of Effect of Flood on Income Distribution among Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria”. Osasogie Daniel Izevbuwa from the Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria has contributed also to this study (see the PDF of the Journal Article and the Link to the study: http://ijraf.org/v2-i3.php ). What did the study reveal?:

The study estimated the effect of flood on the income distribution of the victims in Etsako East Local Government Area of Edo State. A multistage sampling technique was employed to sample respondents for the study. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used to obtain information from the farmers. The data obtained were analysed econometrically. The income inequality increased among the victims due to the lopsidedness of the distribution of the compensation. For example, the study indicates that the middle income group lost 18% of their income during the flood and they got only 13% of the total compensation, whereas the richest income group lost 33% of their income and received 44% of the total compensation. Corruption and nepotism/tribalism have been implicated for the skewed distribution of the compensation among the victims.

In the prestigious International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington D.C. Professor Alabi and his research team have published the study: “Analysis of Agricultural Public Expenditures in Nigeria, Examination at the Federal, State, and local Government Levels”. The study was published as an IFPRI Discussion Paper 01395 in December 2014 by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (see the  PDF of the IFPRI Study). The study comes out with important messages:

The level of public spending on agriculture in Nigeria remains low regardless of the indicator used. Agricultural spending as a share of total federal spending averaged 4.6 percent between 2008 and 2012 and has been trending downward precipitously. In contrast, Nigeria recorded an annual average agricultural growth rate of more than 6 percent between 2003 and 2010, and agricultural gross domestic product followed an increasing trend between 2008 and 2012. Budgetary allocation to agriculture compared with other key sectors is also low despite the sector's role in the fight against poverty, hunger, and unemployment and in the pursuit of economic development. To develop the agricultural sector, all tiers of government—federal, state, and local—should increase spending. The state and local governments should step up efforts to increase internally generated revenue so as to reduce overdependence on allocations from the federation account.

Professor Reuben A. Alabi is also contributing to Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with an Essay on The Role Of International Organisations In Promoting Agricultural Export Trade In Sub-Sahara Africa. This study is done in cooperation with Professor Kehinde Omotola Adejuwon, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. This study examines the role of international organisations in promoting agricultural exports in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA), with particular emphasis on IFAD, WTO, and especially the Aid For Trade (AFT) programmes. The study concentrates on four major export crops in SSA, such as cocoa, coffee, cashew and cotton. Professor Alabi is now cooperating since 2004 with the African Development Perspectives Yearbook project.

 

Der lange Weg zu einem "neuen" Sudan: Die Erfurter Protokolle

Soeben ist die Dokumentation der Fachtagung zum Sudan an der Universität Erfurt in 2014 erschienen. In dieser Studie sind ausgewählte Beiträge der Fachtagung veröffentlicht worden, darunter der Beitrag von Professor Fouad Ibrahim, warum die Menschen in Darfur hungern, ein Beitrag von Ulrich Delius über die marginalisierten Regionen im Sudan, ein Beitrag von Philipp Rock über den deutschen Beitrag zur wirtschaftlichen und politischen Entwicklung im Süd-Sudan und der Beitrag des Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessors und Sudanforschers Karl Wohlmuth zu den Programmen für nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan. Insgesamt werden fünf zentrale Programmbereiche analysiert.

Wenn auch die Lage im Augenblick alles andere als nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen in den beiden Staaten erwarten lässt, ist es doch notwendig, immer wieder darauf hinzuweisen, dass eine friedvolle Zukunft in den beiden Staaten und zwischen den beiden Staaten nur dann denkbar ist, wenn die zentralen Wirtschafts- und Sozialreformen angegangen werden (diese Studie ist als PDF verfügbar). Wie der Bremer Professor zeigt, liegen zu allen zentralen Reformbereichen Vorschläge für beide Länder vor, doch gilt es, diese endlich umzusetzen.

 

A New Three Year (2015 - 2017) Research Project on Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria was launched in Bremen by Professor Reuben A. Alabi

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, an Associate Professor at the Department of Agricultural Economics of Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria and a former Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow at IWIM, is the director of a new research project for the coming years 2015-2017 on the theme "Environment and Development Management Germany-Nigeria: Improving and Adapting Waste Management Value Chains". The Nigerian Professor has brought this internationally financed research project to the Excellence University of Bremen. Experiences with German value chains in waste management will be analysed and used for evidence-based reforms in Nigeria. A cooperation with German and Nigerian enterprises in the field of waste management is envisaged and also a cooperation between German and Nigerian universities and research institutes being active in the field. The Nigerian professor will also organize workshops in Bremen and in Nigeria to report on the research results and on the policy recommendations. Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth is working as a consultant and senior adviser in this project. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives supports the researches. It is envisaged to publish volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on the theme of "Energy and Sustainable Development in Africa" using also material from the research project.

 

Fact Finding Mission (FFM) by Economists from Bremen to Tunis: Cooperation with ENIT University in Tunis and with leading STI Institutions in Tunisia Envisaged

A Fact Finding Mission (FFM) to Tunisia took place in November 2014 at the invitation of Professor Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Society for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation. Participants were three members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass, Bremen; Professor Achim Gutowski, Hamburg; and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen) and from the Cultural Sciences Professor Dr. Cordula Weisskoeppel, University of Bremen. Also a young scientist from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen (from a research working group of Professor Bass) participated as a member of the team; he was responsible for drafting the Minutes. The Fact Finding Mission (FFM) gave the opportunity to study Tunisia's National Innovation System, to discuss with representatives of Tunisian government institutions and of Higher Education and STI institutions, and to meet ENIT university staff being responsible for new study and research programmes. There was also time to discuss about the future cooperation with Professor Ezzine and his team, especially on the new study programme Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP). It was agreed to support the programme when it starts in September 2015 in Tunis, by Summer Courses, Scientific Conferences, and by specifically developed lecture modules on innovation policies. This first phase of the cooperation between Bremen and Tunis was financed by the DAAD. Professor Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen, was the main applicant. Further already scheduled programme components for 2015 are a Seminar in Bremen on Bremen's Regional Innovation System and a Science, Technology, Industry and Innovation (STII) Policy Research Conference in Tunis.

 

 

 

The Delegations from Bremen and Tunis during their Meetings

Professor Jelel Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation (TAASTI), Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El-Manar (UTM), has invited the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to cooperate on the development of a Master Degree Programme in Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP) and on the establishment of an African Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy Institute as well as on the creation of a Pan-African Innovation Ecosystem (PAIES). Tunisia’s success of its economic transformation process is dependent on progress in making STI a major force of growth and development. 

Of great interest and importance for the two delegations was the meeting with ADEA (Association for the Development of Education in Africa) staff in the African Development Bank Headquarters Building in Tunis. Representatives from ADEA, the University of Bremen, the University of Applied Sciences Bremen and from ENIT university discussed about ICT education and innovation policies in Africa, about the African Development Perspectives Yearbook Project, and about a cooperation between these institutions towards establishing the ETP programme at ENIT from September 2015 onwards (see the report by ADEA about the meeting: http://adeanet.org/portalv2/en/news/universities-bremen-and-tunis-el-manar-pay-visit-adea#.VKhq8clhLJk ). Various reports on the FFM to Tunis were published in Bremen in newspapers (see PDF) and also in online journals like The European (Web Access: "http://www.theeuropean.de/hans-heinrich-bass/9297-tunesien-nach-den-praesidentschaftswahlen-hoffnung"). The two Universities in Bremen reported about the event (see for the Hochschule Bremen:  http://www.hs-bremen.de/internet/de/einrichtungen/presse/mitteilungen/2014/detail/index_49269.html and for the University of Bremen: http://www.uni-bremen.de/universitaet/presseservice/pressemitteilungen/einzelanzeige/news/detail/News/unterstuetzung-bremer-oekonomen-in-tunis-willkommen.html?cHash=755d38f765e079e8488fd03561fdf373). See also the Photo Gallery for the FFM to Tunis (Photo Gallery). The Minutes of the FFM to Tunis are now available and can be sent upon request to interested experts intending to cooperate with universities in Tunisia.

 

 

Technological Capabilities, Digital Production, and African Industrialisation: A New United Nations Industrial Development Study

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has just finalized a Background Study for a new UNIDO Project on Africas Industrial Futures in the Digital Age. The Background Study is on the accumulation of technological capabilities (see for details the link to the Publications by Professor Karl Wohlmuth). The Economics Professor from Bremen analyses the possibilities to accumulate technological capabilities through digital media in African countries and especially so within African enterprises. The socio-economic context of the particular country and the particular firm plays a great role. The study first of all presents evidence about the technological heterogeneity in Africa, by looking at the most influential technological and ICT capability indicators. The accumulation of technological competences is imperative in order to include Africa into global digital manufacturing value chains. It can be supported also in Africa by specific policy measures, and by targeting structural and innovation policies accordingly. However, it is necessary to consider in the policy process the impact of the global techno-economic changes on the industrial structures, bottlenecks and opportunities in Africa. Decisive are the initial conditions in African formal and informal sector enterprises with regard of ICT competence and technological capabilities.

In order to accumulate technological capabilities within African enterprises and African industry systems, it is necessary to adapt the national and regional innovation systems accordingly. It is argued in the Background Study that it is possible to adapt the pillars of the national and regional innovation systems in African countries in such a way that economic incentives for the accumulation of technological capabilities can become stronger. In various case studies the Economics Professor shows that this is also possible in less developed African countries. An Agenda for Strengthening Technological Capabilities is presented in the Background Study.

Digital entrepreneurship, digital skills, and digital manufacturing play an increasing role in Africa, and networking within and between African countries and with the global ICT community facilitates the productive use of these new tools for manufacturing. New industrial development paths, along remanufacturing, green manufacturing and informal sector manufacturing, benefit from processes of digitalisation and these offer new opportunities for African producers, also in terms of employment. New training and further education modules play a role in Africa and are already initiated by enterprises and training institutions. New developments in the innovation process, such as open innovation, and new production modules, like 3D printing, give the manufacturing process in Africa already a new dimension.

A shorter version of this Background Study will be published in a United Nations book on Africas Industrial Futures. In this book international experts present their findings on the perspectives of industrial production in Africa in the digital age. Chapters deal also with digitalisation trends and impacts on Africa, manufacturing trends and opportunities in Africa, global structural changes as affecting industrial production in Africa, energy scarcity and climate change as factors impacting on Africas manufacturing production, and developments with regard of new competitive sectors in Africa. The Expert Group is finalising the report quite soon and will also present policy recommendations to national governments in Africa, UN bodies, donor agencies, and enterprises. Professor Wohlmuth is involved in the expert group as a Consultant and as a Lead Author. Professor Wohlmuth has in earlier work for UNIDO presented studies on the technological strengthening of agro-industrial sectors in Africa (see the Link: http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=1001692 ).

 


Abgehängtes Schwellenland?

„Südafrika braucht dringend starke Reformen“

Interview mit Professor Dr. Karl
Wohlmuth
zu den wirtschaftlichen Perspektiven Südafrikas; vgl. Web
Access:

http://www.econoafrica.com/wirtschaft-politik/suedafrika-braucht-dringend-starke-reformen/

 

Towards Sustainable Science, Technology, Industry, and Innovation (STII) Policies in Tunisia – A Cooperation between the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen and Tunisian Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Institutions

Professor Jelel Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation (TAASTI), Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El-Manar (UTM), has invited the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to cooperate on the development of a Master Degree Programme in Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP) and on the establishment of an African Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy Institute as well as on the creation of a Pan-African Innovation Ecosystem (PAIES). Tunisia’s success of its economic transformation process is dependent on progress in making STI a major force of growth and development.

A Fact Finding Mission to Tunisia will take place in November 2014. Participants are three members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass, Bremen; Professor Achim Gutowski, Hamburg; and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen) and from the Cultural Sciences Professor Dr. Cordula Weisskoeppel, University of Bremen. Also two young scientists from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen (from a research working group of Professor Bass) will participate as members of the team. The Fact Finding Mission will give the opportunity to study Tunisia’s National Innovation System, to discuss with representatives of Tunisian government institutions and of Higher Education and STI institutions. There will also be time to discuss about the future cooperation with Professor Ezzine and his team. This first phase of the cooperation is financed by the DAAD. Professor Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen,  was the main applicant.  Further already scheduled programme components for 2015 are a STII Summer School in Bremen and a STII Research Conference in Tunis.

 

“African Lions, African Tigers and Emerging African Middle Classes”: A new Research Report

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen presents a new research report on the “Africa Rising Story” being so influential at the moment (see the New Research Report). The author is interested to have comments which can be used for a new draft as the research report will be  published in various versions.

The “Africa Rising Story” is the theme of the paper. A lot of myths are prevalent on African growth and development, and the international consulting companies play a role in this. Some of these myths are discussed in this paper on the basis of readings of major international consultancy reports, like McKinsey, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Roland Berger, The Boston Consulting Group, Ernst & Young, Bain & Company, ATKearney, KPMG, Deloitte, and many others. These international consultancy companies have a decisive influence on foreign investors in Africa, on multinationals doing business in Africa, but also on governments, on private local businesses in Africa, and, last but not least, also on donors who are engaged in Africa.

Some of these myths are discussed in this paper and confronted with facts and realities (Africa as a continent of top growers; Africa as a continent of booming economic sectors and of expanding consumer classes; Africa as a continent with an increasing number of globally competitive enterprises; Africa as a continent capturing the “demographic dividend” and the advantages of the “digital economy”; and Africa as a continent with an emerging middle class which is taking up developmental roles). Also the methodological frame of these international consultancy reports is considered. There is reference to the background and the motivation of these companies to write on Africa, to their methodologies and analytical approaches, to their functional importance for investors and governments, and to the spread of the messages all over Africa and throughout the development community.

The intention of the paper is it to provide a frame for a more critical assessment of such reports as they are circulated all over the world press and are written so as to influence not only investors but also key political decision-makers.

A further extension of this version of the research report is done by including more insights on the methodologies used by international consultancy companies in their reports on Africa. This extension of the report will then become published in the IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers (see IWIM Blue
Series Discussion Papers
).

 

„Afrikanische Löwen, Afrikanische Tiger und aufstrebende Afrikanische Mittelklassen“: Ein neuer Forschungsbericht

Professor Karl Wohlmuth von der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven der Universität Bremen hat einen neuen Forschungsbericht zur “Africa Rising Story” vorgelegt, die in der derzeitigen Diskussion über Afrikas Wachstumsperspektiven eine große Rolle spielt (vgl. den Neuen Forschungsbericht). Der Autor ist an Kommentaren interessiert, die bei neuen Entwürfen auch berücksichtigt werden, denn der Forschungsbericht wird in mehreren Versionen erscheinen.

Afrika wird in den letzten Jahren immer wieder als boomender Kontinent mit riesigen Wachstums- und Investitionschancen portraitiert, und als ein Kontinent mit einigen sehr schnell wachsenden Ländern („Afrikanische Löwen“ und „Afrikanische Tiger“). Mythen spielen bei der Interpretation von Wachstum und Entwicklung in Afrika eine große Rolle und diese überlagern zunehmend Fakten und Realitäten. Wo nahm die „Africa Rising Story“ mit „Afrikanischen Löwen“ und „Afrikanischen Tigern“ ihren Ausgangspunkt? Welche Hintergründe gibt es dafür? Eine besondere Rolle bei der Mythenbildung spielen dabei die internationalen Consultingunternehmen mit ihren Afrikaberichten, also Namen wie McKinsey, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Roland Berger, Bain & Company, The Boston Consulting Group, Ernst & Young, ATKearney, KPMG, Deloitte, und viele andere mehr. Diese Unternehmen haben starken Einfluss auf die ausländischen Investoren, auf die Multinationalen Unternehmen, die in Afrika Geschäfte machen, aber auch auf die Regierungen, die lokale Privatwirtschaft in Afrika und schließlich auch auf die multilaterale und bilaterale Entwicklungszusammenarbeit.

Einige dieser Mythen werden in der Studie diskutiert und mit Fakten und Realitäten konfrontiert (Afrika sei ein Kontinent von besonders schnell wachsenden Ländern; Afrika sei ein Kontinent mit boomenden Wirtschaftssektoren und schnell expandierenden Konsumentenklassen; Afrika sei ein Kontinent mit einer wachsenden Zahl von global agierenden und international wettbewerbsfähigen Unternehmen; Afrika sei ein Kontinent, der zunehmend die Vorteile der „demographischen Dividende“ und der „digitalen Revolution“ ausschöpfen könne; und Afrika sei ein Kontinent mit einer zunehmend entwicklungsförderlich agierenden afrikanischen Mittelklasse). Auch die methodischen Grundlagen der Berichte dieser internationalen Consultingunternehmen werden geprüft. Es wird auf die Hintergründe und die Motivationen bei der Erstellung dieser Berichte, auf die methodischen und analytischen Ansätze, auf die funktionale Bedeutung der Berichte für Investoren und Regierungen, und auf die Art der Verbreitung der Messages in Afrika und im globalen Kontext eingegangen.

Mit dieser Studie soll ein Rahmen für die kritische Auseinandersetzung mit den Afrikaberichten der internationalen Consultingunternehmen präsentiert werden. Dies ist wichtig, weil die Inhalte dieser Afrikaberichte sehr schnell von der Weltpresse aufgenommen und so die potentiellen Investoren und wichtige politische Entscheidungsträger gezielt beeinflusst werden.

Eine weitere Version dieser Studie wird demnächst vorgelegt; es wird darin stärker auf die methodischen Grundlagen in den Afrikaberichten der internationalen Consultingunternehmen eingegangen werden. Dieser erweiterte Beitrag wird dann in den  IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers veröffentlicht werden (vgl. IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers).

 

Jubiläum des „Jahrbuchs Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven“: Pressemitteilung der Universität Bremen

Vor 25 Jahren erschien der erste Band des „African Development Perspectives Yearbook“ mit dem Titel „Human Dimensions of Adjustment“. Die Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven Bremen feiert ihr Jubiläum und arbeitet intensiv an den Projekten für die kommenden Jahre. Das „Jahrbuch Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven“ erscheint seit 1989 als englischsprachige Publikation („African Development Perspectives Yearbook“). In diesen 25 Jahren ist das Jahrbuch zu einer international anerkannten Quelle für Information und Analyse zu Afrikas Entwicklungsperspektiven geworden. Beiträge in den Jahrbüchern finden immer wieder die Aufmerksamkeit von Experten in internationalen Organisationen wie auch in nationalen Entwicklungsinstitutionen. Im Jubiläumsjahr 2014 sind sogar zwei Bände des Jahrbuchs erschienen. Beide Bände haben das Thema „Makroökonomische Politikgestaltung in Afrika“. Im ersten Band geht auf die allgemeinen Grundlagen der makroökonomischen Politikgestaltung in Afrika und auf die makroökonomische Politikgestaltung in den Ländern des „Arabischen Frühlings“ in Nordafrika ein. Im zweiten Band werden vergleichende Länderstudien für einige Sub-Sahara-Länder Afrikas und Regionalstudien präsentiert. Im Rahmen dieser beiden Bände wird ein neuer makroökonomischer Strategieansatz für Afrika entwickelt, der auf fünf Säulen beruht.

Die neue makroökonomische Strategie für Afrika, die von den Experten in ihren Beiträgen vorgeschlagen wird, fordert erstens eine stärkere Nutzung der Spielräume von Geld-, Wechselkurs- und Fiskalpolitik für die Beschäftigungsschaffung. Zweitens soll die makroökonomische Politik die Bedingungen für inklusives und nachhaltiges Wachstum verbessern. Drittens gilt es, die länderspezifischen Faktoren der Verwundbarkeit bei Störungen im Wirtschaftskreislauf zu erkennen und bei der Stärkung der Abwehrkräfte durch makroökonomische Politikreformen und Strukturreformen zu berücksichtigen. Viertens sind der Grad der ökonomischen Globalisierung und der Stand der ökonomischen Governance von Bedeutung für die Wahl der makroökonomischen Ziele und Instrumente. Fünftens sind die zentralen makroökonomischen Institutionen (insbesondere Finanzministerium, Zentralbank, Planungsministerium) stärker als bisher zu vernetzen. In den Länderstudien zeigt sich, dass auf der Grundlage dieser Strategieelemente soziales und nachhaltiges Wachstum in Afrika gefördert werden kann.

Der erste Band des Jahrbuchs, der 1989 erschienen ist, hatte das Thema „Menschliche Dimensionen der Anpassung“ („Human Dimensions of Adjustment“). Das Thema ist bis heute relevant, da es immer wieder darum geht, wie ökonomische Stabilisierungspolitiken sozial verträglich abgefedert werden können. Seit dem ersten Band sind Struktur und Philosophie der Jahrbuchausgaben behutsam  weiterentwickelt worden. Die Grundideen, die das Projekt tragen, sind aber beibehalten worden. Dies betrifft die Themenwahl, die inhaltliche Struktur, die Präsentation der Inhalte, die Lesbarkeit, aber auch die wirtschaftspolitische Relevanz der Bände. Die Bände sollen Akteure in  Politik, Wirtschaft und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit zu Politikreformen in Afrika anregen. Alle Beiträge gehen daher auf den Handlungsbedarf in der Politik der afrikanischen Länder ein. In diesen 25 Jahren wurden daher viele zentrale Themen afrikanischer Entwicklung fokussiert, die im Mittelpunkt der Reformdiskussionen standen.

Jeder Band hat daher ein Schwerpunktthema, das auf aktuelle Fragen der afrikanischen Wirtschaftsentwicklung bezogen ist. Die Probleme,  Möglichkeiten und Chancen Afrikas werden von der lokalen Ebene bis zur globalen Ebene betrachtet, und werden zudem von der Projektebene bis hin zur makroökonomischen Politikebene konkretisiert. Neben den analytischen Beiträgen finden sich Beiträge zur Politikreform und Dokumente (Deklarationen und Resolutionen) von Bedeutung für die Entwicklung des afrikanischen Kontinents. Die Bände sind nach Units (Teilen) organisiert, die von Unit-Herausgebern betreut und eingeführt werden. Dazu kommt, dass afrikanische Autoren und Herausgeber eine immer größere Rolle in der Forschungsgruppe spielen, was die Relevanz der Bände stark erhöht. In einem umfangreichen Review-Teil werden für das Schwerpunktthema relevante Bücher, Zeitschriften, Diskussionsbeiträge und Policy Documents besprochen.

Die Universität Bremen weist in einer Pressemitteilung auf die Bedeutung dieser Publikation hin (Link: http://www.uni-bremen.de/universitaet/presseservice/pressemitteilungen/einzelanzeige/news/detail/News/25-jahre-jahrbuch-afrikanische entwicklungsperspektiven.html?cHash=1cafff88f235c88a4063fbdf44a56b3e und PDF ). Vgl. auch den Bericht in Kooperation  international/Eine Initiative vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (Link: http://www.kooperation-international.de/detail/info/25-jahre-jahrbuch-afrikanische-entwicklungsperspektiven.html und PDF ). 

 

Impact of Agricultural Foreign Aid on Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa – An AGRODEP/IFPRI Study by Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Nigeria

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, IWIM’s Alexander von Humboldt Research Scholar, has published an important study on the Impact of Agricultural Foreign Aid on Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study was facilitated by the international think tank IFPRI (working on agriculture and food security in developing countries and being located in Washington D. C.) and was published by AGRODEP (African Growth & Development Policy modelling consortium). The study investigates the impact of foreign agricultural aid on agricultural GDP and on productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using secondary data regarding foreign agricultural aid, agricultural GDP and productivity indicators from 47 SSA countries, spanning the period 2002-2010 and employing a Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) framework, the study reveals that foreign agricultural aid has a positive and significant impact on agricultural GDP and on agricultural productivity. There is also an impact of disasters and conflicts in Africa on aid receipts, a finding which implies that foreign agricultural aid responds to disasters and conflicts in the SSA region. The paper is downloadable (online access at http://www.agrodep.org/sites/default/files/AGRODEPWP0006.pdf ; see also the PDF of the study).

Professor Alabi is also preparing a paper on foreign aid to Africa’s agriculture for IWIM’s Blue Series Discussion Papers (Link to http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-blue.htm ). Various of his former studies produced at IWIM in Bremen are available in the Blue  Series Discussion Papers. Professor Alabi was recently invited to attend the high-level event German – African Cooperation in Education and Research/Africa Days of the BMBF (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung/Federal Ministry of Education and Research) which took place in Berlin in March 2014 (see the Programme of the event as a PDF). Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth and  Agricultural Economics Professor Reuben A. Alabi prepare a research and development project on Solid Waste Management in Nigeria for environmental protection and production uses, with lessons derived from Germany’s policies in this regard. Nigeria can learn a lot from the solid waste recycling policies in Germany and from the innovative recycling firms’ activities in Germany.

 

Twenty Five Years have gone since Volume One of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook was published in 1989: A Development Project with International Impacts

The Start of the Project: The African Development Perspectives Yearbook as an International Development Project

When in 1989 the first volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook appeared, nobody in the Research Group on African  Development Perspectives Bremen would have anticipated that the Yearbook is still on the market 25 years later, and that the Yearbook would gain international acceptance and recognition – as a source of information on African development perspectives, as a collection of analytical articles, of documentation, and of reviews and book notes. Over the years the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen became a network of researchers, cooperation partners, and development institutions, with increasing participation from Africa. Now, many international and regional organizations, donor agencies, governmental offices, universities, African studies centers, media, and many experts working on and in Africa look carefully at the new issues of the Yearbook. The African Development Perspectives Yearbook considers themes from the local space to the global space, and from the project level to the national policy level; also regional integration and global integration issues are discussed (see about the Research Group and the Yearbook volumes from 1989 to 2014: http://www.iwim.unibremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm and the Wikipedia International entry about the importance of the Yearbook: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Development_Perspectives_Yearbook ).

 

 

African Development Perspectives Yearbook for
1989                                  

African Development Perspectives Yearbook for 2014

 

The First Volume for the Year 1989: “Human Dimensions of Adjustment” as a theme of great Developmental Importance for Africa till now

The first volume for 1989 had the title “Human Dimensions Of Adjustment”. At that time the major direction of discussions was how Africa could respond to the demands for effective economic stabilization. Mainstream economics had their recipes and proposed cures, but many critical observers of such strict economic stabilization policies and packages were skeptical. They emphasized a stabilization approach with social adjustment components associated to the economic stabilization package. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives joined the critical and skeptical voices. African critical and skeptical voices on the proposed mainstream stabilization packages were taken very serious by the members of the Research Group. In Volume One of the Yearbook the Khartoum Declaration Towards A Human-Focused Approach To Socio-Economic Recovery And Development In Africa was carefully analyzed and reprinted in full; it was considered as an expression of African voices. Experts from international organizations like UNICEF and ILO who were as well critical and skeptical towards mainstream adjustment packages for Africa as proposed from IMF and World Bank were invited to contribute to Volume One to present their alternative adjustment policies, but also other views on African Alternative Adjustment were presented.

 

The Structure of the Yearbook and the Philosophy Behind: Comprehensive Analyses towards the
Identification of Successful Development Models

The structure of Volume One was more or less preserved over the years, sustained and improved. The Unit 1 (Part of the Yearbook) on the Khartoum Declaration was complemented by various supporting Units; major issues like the relevance of the UN Program for Africa, the upcoming ecological crisis in Africa and the perspectives of Africa’s relations with the European Community, were discussed in Volume One. A further Unit was on Successful African Development Models; Botswana was already at that time considered as a successful development model but also Zimbabwe. Another Unit covered adjustment issues of Nigeria; already at that time there were demands on Nigeria to implement long-term development strategies and to manage the huge oil revenues properly. A Unit on African Non-Governmental Organizations and Local Development highlighted the critical role of NGOs and CSOs in Africa. There was also a Unit on Reviews and Book Notes and a Unit on Profiles, News and Information. Both Units brought the Research Group into contact with publishers, editors, universities and research institutions. So it was possible to find partners having similar ideas and beliefs – the network became strengthened.

This model (or philosophy) of the issues of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook was sustained over the 25 years. The Yearbook  volumes have a major theme, are focused on issues debated hotly in Africa; more and more African experts, researchers and institutions are involved and do report on their research themes, their development projects and development programs. The Yearbook is organized in a manner that allows it to bring forth the core messages across various Units which are introduced by Unit Editors. The Yearbook contains documents of importance for the Africa region; declarations and statements by regional and international organizations, by NGOs and CSOs on Africa are reproduced. The Yearbook volumes contain a Unit on Reviews and Book Notes filled with specific studies by inviting those to send their material who have written on the particular Yearbook focus. A Network of Experts and Researchers and of Institutions and Organizations was built.

 

The Current Work and the Future of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook: Consolidating the International Network on Africa

Over the years the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen became involved in international research efforts. Donor agencies and international organizations became interested in the work of the Research Group. Consultancy, evaluation and research assignments to members of the Research Group followed. International research projects were awarded to the Research Group and its members The members of the Research Group who produced over these 25 years (from 1989 to 2014) the various Yearbook volumes are now working as professors at universities and colleges, as international consultants and advisers, and as experts in international, regional and national development organizations.

To celebrate the event, the year 2014 has seen the publication of two volumes with the titles – Macroeconomic Policy Formation – General Issues and Macroeconomic Policy Formation – Country Cases. The interest in these two volumes is great as a new macroeconomic strategy for Africa was elaborated and tested for various country cases. Currently there is intensive work on the volume for 2015 with the title “Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration” as the first drafts from the contributors are reviewed, corrected and revised. Many ideas for further issues are discussed among members of the Research Group. High on the Publication Agenda are issues of New Energy and Sustainable Development Policies in Africa after Fukushima and Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Exploiting Leapfrogging Opportunities in Africa. The Scientific Coordinator of the Research Group is still Professor Emeritus Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, Professor of Comparative Economic Systems at Bremen University; the Managing Editor is Professor Dr. Tobias Knedlik, Professor of International Economics at Fulda University, and the Review Editor is Professor Dr. Achim Gutowski, Professor of Innovation and Change Management at the University Campus in Hamburg.

 

Country Cases of Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa: The African Development Perspectives Yearbook, Volume 17 just published

In Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – Country Cases the Editors took up the event of the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan on July 9, 2011 to publish a special Unit on Sudan and South Sudan as part of the new Yearbook. This Unit 1 on New Economic Policies for Sudan and South Sudan - The Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation highlights the need for new macroeconomic strategies and policies in Sudan and South Sudan. The Editors were supported by research groups from the two countries. The authors of this Unit 1 are convinced that new macroeconomic policies (supported by medium-term and long-term development strategies) and a strategic economic and political co-operation between the two countries (based on visions of sustainable growth in the border areas) are necessary for Sudan and South Sudan to reach peace and development.

Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook contains as well a Unit 2 on Macroeconomic Policies in West Africa. Researchers from academic institutions in Nigeria and Senegal, and from WAMA (West African Monetary Agency) and WAMI (West African Monetary Institute) have contributed to this important Unit. The established CFA-based WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union integration process is contrasted with the newly established WAMZ (West African Monetary Zone) integration process. Senegal was included as a country case for the WAEMU, while Nigeria is a case for the WAMZ.

In Unit 3 of Volume 17 a great number of book reviews and book notes are presented and so this Unit 3 is a valuable source of information on new books, journal issues, documents and research papers with a focus on macroeconomic policy formation in Africa. The Unit 3 gives access to a great number of economic reports on Africa economies. Volume 17 is complementary to Volume 16 on Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – General Issues which presents a new macroeconomic strategy for Africa (see the short description of the contents of volume 17 on the back cover of the book).

 

The New Volume 17: Order your copy at LIT (Link: http://www.lit-verlag.de/london/ )

 

 

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook — The Flagship Publication of IWIM

 

The New Macroeconomic Strategy For Africa as developed in in Volume 16 focusses on employment-targeting by considering the policy space for more facilitating fiscal, monetary and exchange rate policies. The New Strategy emphasizes also the vulnerability to (external and internal) shocks and the resilience factors so as to cope successfully with these shocks. As well the New Strategy considers those elements of macroeconomic policies which support inclusive and sustainable growth. Also, the New Strategy requests the adaptation of macroeconomic policies to the specific levels of economic governance and economic globalization of the country in question. Last, but not least, in the New Strategy institutional factors, such as a better cooperation of the three poles of macroeconomic policy-making (Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning, Central Bank), are taken into account.

Volume 16 also presents an analysis of the economics of the Arab Spring countries. How the political situation in the Arab Spring countries will develop in the years to come is unclear, but the need for sustainable macroeconomic policies and for inclusive growth policies is evident. The economics of the Arab Spring countries reveals that - despite of considerable economic growth prior to the Arab Spring events – inadequate employment growth, slow human capital accumulation, and a highly restricted and unequal access to economic opportunities are among the major causes of the “Arab Spring” uprisings. There is more need for employment targeting in macroeconomic policies, for macroeconomic policies emphasizing inclusive growth policies, and for considering vulnerability and resilience factors, economic governance and economic globalization trends, and institutional reforms regarding the key macroeconomic policy-making institutions.

Because of the great number of high-quality submissions of papers for Volume 18 on Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration the International Call for Papers for this volume was closed recently (but submissions of papers on successfully and competitively exporting African companies and on global and regional value chains led by African firms are still accepted).

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is released since 1989 by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen celebrates in 2014 a quarter of a century of publication activity. Over the years the African Development Perspectives Yearbook became the major English-language Annual on African Development in Germany. Volumes 16 and 17 were supported with contributions and advice by staff from ILO/Geneva, UNESCWA/Beirut and UNDP/Cairo, by staff from research institutions in Egypt, Nigeria and Senegal, and by staff from ECOWAS/WAMZ/WAMI institutions in West Africa. The Managing Editor (Professor Dr. T. Knedlik, University of Fulda and IWH Halle), the Review Editor (Professor Dr. A. Gutowski, University Campus Hamburg) and the Volume Editor (Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen) prepare now Volume 18 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for the year 2015 with the title “Africa’s Progress towards Regional and Global Economic Integration”. See more about the Yearbook Project ( http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm ). See the complete list of Yearbook volumes since 1989 at http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm and the list of the Yearbook volumes being still available with the publisher at: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy.

 

Ist ein neuer Rahmen für die Welternährungspolitik erforderlich?

Dieser Frage geht Professor Karl Wohlmuth in dem Konferenzband „Europa im Spannungsfeld globaler und multilateraler Herausforderungen“ nach. Der vom ehemaligen Rektor der Hochschule Bremerhaven, Prof. Dr. Heinz-Jürgen Scheibe, herausgegebene Band berichtet über die Ergebnisse des 24. Internationalen Wirtschafts- und Transportforums in Bremerhaven („Davos an der Küste“). Neben mehreren Grußworten prominenter Europäer und Förderer werden die wichtigsten Beiträge in 5 Teilen des Buches abgehandelt (Globale und multipolare Herausforderungen; Chancen und Risiken globaler und multipolarer Entwicklungen; Strategien der Wirtschaft auf multipolare Veränderungen; Neue Wettbewerbsherausforderungen multipolarer Verkehrs- und Logistikmärkte; und Bremerhavener Botschaft).

 

 

Die Ergebnisse des 24. Internationalen Wirtschafts- und Transportforums in Bremerhaven  („Davos an der Küste“), DGAW 2014

Der Beitrag von Professor Karl Wohlmuth „Die Perspektiven der Welternährung bis 2050 und die Notwendigkeit einer neuen globalen Ordnungspolitik“ ist im Teil 2 „Chancen und Risiken globaler und multipolarer Entwicklungen“ nachzulesen. Der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor geht auf vier Dimensionen einer zu reformierenden Welternährungspolitik ein: erstens, auf die Bedeutung neuer Instrumente zur Messung von Ernährungssicherheit und Ernährungssicherung; zweitens, auf die Relevanz von Szenarien der Welternährung bis 2050 für die Gestaltung der Welternährungspolitik; drittens, auf die Möglichkeiten, die globale Unternehmensführung („global corporate governance“) von Agrar- und Nahrungsmittelkonzernen im Sinne einer nachhaltigen Ernährungspolitik zu beeinflussen; und viertens, auf die Notwendigkeit, einen neuen Rahmen für die globale Ernährungspolitik („global food security governance“) mit dem Ziel einer angemessenen Produktion relevanter internationaler öffentlicher Güter zu schaffen.

 

Fiskalische Dezentralisierung im Sudan am Beispiel des Bundesstaates Al Gadarif: Forschungsstipendiat aus dem Sudan in Bremen 

In einem Forschungsvorhaben zur „Fiskalischen Dezentralisierung im Sudan am Beispiel des Bundesstaates Al Gadarif“ wird in den kommenden Monaten (Juni bis September 2014) von einem Gastwissenschaftler aus dem Sudan, Sharif Ismail M. Bongo von der University of Gadarif, untersucht werden, welche Möglichkeiten es gibt, die vertikalen und horizontalen fiskalischen Ungleichgewichte im föderalen System des Sudan zu reduzieren. Sowohl die vertikalen Ungleichgewichte in der Finanzausstattung (zwischen der föderalen Regierung in Khartum, dem Staat Al Gadarif und den lokalen Verwaltungseinheiten des Staates) als auch die horizontalen Ungleichgewichte in der Finanzausstattung (zwischen den siebzehn Bundesstaaten des Sudan und zwischen den zwölf Provinzen des Staates Al Gadarif) werden in diesem Forschungsvorhaben untersucht. Diese Ungleichgewichte sind in höchstem Masse entwicklungshemmend und führen zu Konflikten zwischen den Bevölkerungsgruppen und zwischen den Teilstaaten und Verwaltungseinheiten.  

Der Aufenthalt des Gastwissenschaftlers an der Universität Bremen wird vom DAAD finanziert; die Betreuung und Beratung hat Professor Dr.Karl Wohlmuth übernommen, der seit den 80er Jahren Stipendiaten aus dem Sudan berät. Im Rahmen des viermonatigen Forschungsaufenthaltes werden von Herrn Sharif auch Vorträge und Seminare zu dem Thema abgehalten. Ein Bericht für die Sudan-Studienreihe SERG Discussion Papers Nummer 42 (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm ) ist zum Thema Fiscal Decentralization in Gadarif State: Did it Realize the Promise?“ in Vorbereitung.

Herr Sharif hat kürzlich bei der 4th Annual Conference on „Structural Reform, Transformation, and Sustainable Development in Post Secession Sudan: Economic, Political, and Social Perspectives” zum Thema „Restructuring Intergovernmental Fiscal Relations to Enhance Growth and Development in Post-Secession Sudan“ vorgetragen. Auch bei der vorhergehenden 3. Konferenz hat Herr Sharif einen Vortrag gehalten. Diese Konferenzen werden organisiert von der Faculty of Economic and Social Studies, University of Khartoum, dem Sudan Ministry of Finance and National Economy und der World Bank. Die Konferenz (April 21 - 22, 2014, Conference Venue: Shariqa Hall, University of Khartoum) wird jeweils auch mit einem Ergebnisbericht abgeschlossen, der für die Politikreform im Sudan wichtig ist (vgl. zur Konferenz Programme and Call for Papers in englischer und arabischer Sprache, mit den Links http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Conference%20Theme%202014_Eng.pdf und http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Conference%20Theme%202014_Ara.pdf ). Der Ergebnisbericht der 3rd Annual Conference mit den Empfehlungen für die Politik liegt in englischer und arabischer Sprache vor (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/FESS_Annual%20Conference%20Booklet%202013.pdf).

Im Rahmen der Sudan-/Südsudan-Forschung in Bremen stehen Themen der Implementierung nachhaltiger Wirtschaftsreformen im Vordergrund (vgl. den Kurzbericht von Professor Wohlmuth mit dem Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Nachhaltige_Wirtschaftsreformen_im_Sudan.pdf und die aktuelle Studie für die SERG-Reihe mit dem Link http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Wohlmuth-SERG-41.pdf ).

 

Which Future for Sudan and South Sudan? - The forthcoming African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 17 has three chapters on Sudan and South Sudan

In Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – Country Cases the Editors took up the event of the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan on July 9, 2011 and the recent developments which have occurred since in Sudan and in South Sudan and between these two countries to publish a special Unit as part of the Yearbook. This Unit 1 on New Economic Policies for Sudan and South Sudan - The Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation has three chapters and highlights the need for new macroeconomic strategies and policies in Sudan and South Sudan embedded in a new political environment; there is also a focus on the many political and economic interdependencies between these two countries, especially in the border areas between Sudan and South Sudan.  

The Editors were enthusiastically supported in this endeavor by research groups from the two countries. The authors of this Unit 1 are convinced that new macroeconomic policies (supported by medium-term and long-term development strategies) and a strategic economic and political co-operation between the two countries (based on visions of sustainable growth in the border areas) are necessary. So far, the political processes and the attitudes of the elites in these two countries show that the lessons from the many decades of conflict between and within these two countries were not learned. The civil war inside the South Sudan since December 2013 and the continuing conflicts in major regions of Sudan make millions of people in both countries suffering. While the data from the most recent National Baseline Household Survey of 2009 revealed high levels of poverty in both countries (see Graph 1 and Graph 2), it can be expected that income poverty and other dimensions of poverty in both countries have further worsened in the last years. 

 

Graph 1: Poverty in the States of South Sudan (in % of the Population of these States)

Source: World Bank - Analysis of the Data of the National Baseline Household Survey/NBHS of 2009 by World Bank

 

 

Graph 2: Poverty in the States of Sudan (in % of the Population of these States)

Source: World Bank - Analysis of the Data of the National Baseline Household Survey/NBHS of 2009 by World Bank

 

Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook contains as well a Unit 2 on Macroeconomic Policies in West Africa. Researchers from academic institutions in Nigeria and Senegal, and from WAMA (West African Monetary Agency) and WAMI (West African Monetary Institute) have contributed to this important Unit with four chapters. In order to compare and to contrast the established CFA-based WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union) integration process with the newly established WAMZ (West African Monetary Zone integration process, Senegal was included as a country case for the CFA Zone. In Unit 3 of Volume 17 a great number of book reviews and book notes is presented and so this Unit 3 is a valuable source of information on new books, journal issues, documents and research papers with a focus on macroeconomic policy formation in Africa. Volume 17 is complementary to Volume 16 on Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – General Issues which was published already in 2013.

Because of the great number of high-quality submissions of papers for Volume 18 on Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration the International Call for Papers for this volume is closed now (but submissions of papers on successfully and competitively exporting African companies and on global and regional value chains led by African firms are still accepted).

 

New Business Opportunities in Times of Radical Change in Africa – How to deal with Shortages of Qualified Staff?

Every day new lists of “African Lions”, “African Tigers”, and “African Growth Champions” run through the international press and give the impression of a booming continent. The meaning is that these countries have exorbitant growth rates, huge growth potentials, large investment opportunities, and rich labour and human resources as assets for future development. However, these growth opportunities can only be used when qualified staff is available so that human resources development is key for African firms moving up the “globalization ladder” and for German firms being active in Africa. Because of the “mismatch” in African tertiary education systems (enrolments and graduations do not correspond to the needs of the major employment sectors) new approaches are needed to fill the gaps in human resources at country and firm levels. So, newly designed and innovative models of qualifying and recruiting staff are needed.

Based on a critical assessment of the views of international consulting companies on African business opportunities Professor Karl Wohlmuth gave a presentation at a meeting of Afrika-Verein der deutschen Wirtschaft e. V. in association with the Jacobs University (Link: Programme). Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth emphasized in his presentation four issues (Link: Presentation):

First, New Business Areas and New Consumer Classes in Africa – The Development Model determines the Structure and Demand of Qualified Staff

Second, Dynamic Development of African Enterprises and Entrepreneurship – The Stage of Globalisation determines the Structure and Demand of Qualified Staff

Third, Diverging Demographic Developments in Africa – The Objectives of Employment Generation and Entrepreneurship Development will determine the Structure and Demand of Qualified Staff

Fourth, Innovative Models of Qualifying and Recruiting Staff in and for Africa

It was shown that only 13 countries in Africa have some characteristics of “inclusive growth”, as revealed by looking at ten important human development, competitiveness, governance, technology and economic performance indexes. Only countries with characteristics of “inclusive growth” can anticipate a broad development of formalized small and medium sized companies, thereby solving employment and social cohesion problems and building a pool for entrepreneurs and qualified staff for the further growth of firms and businesses in size and in number. It was as well shown that there is a very divergent landscape of companies in Africa. While some few firms are “African Challengers” moving quickly up the “globalization ladder”, the basic conditions for the growth of formalized small and medium sized companies are missing in many African countries. Also, the “demographic dividend” can only be captured in African countries where the tertiary education systems are drastically reformed, where the “demographic transition” takes place and allows for saving, consumption and wealth generation, and where stable employment is created in key employment sectors so as to absorb the growing labour force. These three conditions are present only in few African countries. Therefore, innovative models for qualifying and recruiting staff are needed by German firms so as to benefit from the emerging business opportunities in Africa. These firms can overcome staff shortages by cooperating with African firms and entrepreneurship networks, with African universities and research institutions, and with African initiators and executors of development projects.

These issues are discussed in greater detail by Professor Karl Wohlmuth in an essay on “African Lions, African Tigers, and Emerging African Middle Classes – How the International Consulting Business looks at Africa”. This essay will be published in IWIM’s Blue Series Discussion Papers (Link: IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers).

 

A Comprehensive Transformation Process has to start NOW in Ukraine – How to Speed Up Structural Transformation by Deep Societal and Economic Reforms?

Are the current problems in Ukraine due to ethnic and political tensions, or due to delays in political and economic reforms, or are the causes of the problems much deeper rooted? In a new study on the Axiological Foundations In The Management Of Socio-Economic Development Of Ukraine two researchers from Ukraine - Dr Vitaliy Krupin, Senior Researcher, Doctor of Economics, and Yuriy Zlydnyk, Ph.D. Candidate, both from the Institute of Regional Researches of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine – present their views on the root causes of the problems and on steps towards inclusive, effective and comprehensive structural transformation processes in Ukraine.

After reviewing the socioeconomic characteristics and trends of the Ukraine, the authors highlight the problems of socio-economic development in the context of axiological principles, emphasizing spiritual values and ethical foundations in the Ukrainian society. Ethical norms and value systems have to be studied in order to understand the root problems in the Ukraine of our days. Such problems, as manifested by large-scale corruption, chaotic development processes, unorganized state actions and other failures and deviations in society, can only be overcome – according to the authors - by reforms based on axiological principles. Individual conduct and responsibility of the individual for his/her actions have therefore to be investigated in the context of the ongoing transformation and reform processes in Ukraine.

The axiological foundations for managing socio-economic development processes in the Ukraine were so far not considered as important topics in the researches on the transformation process in Ukraine. The two authors emphasize this aspect as crucial for effective further steps towards inclusive transformation processes. Analyzing the socio-economic indicators since the independence of Ukraine and the results of various corruption indices and barometers for Ukraine the extent of the societal and economic problems becomes obvious. The example of small business activity in Ukraine is presented as a case in point. The authors write that declaratively, small businesses are under minimal state control, but in reality, there are almost 40 different state authorities with rights to check and to suspend any activity of a business, inviting corrupt practices and so leading to widespread informal activities. But, as spiritual values of the people are at the root of these socio economic development problems, all reform policies to initiate a business-friendly environment and to fight corruption and other failures in the development process have to be guided by measures to overcome the lack of formed spiritual values. Informational measures and educational programs are recommended along with deep societal and economic reforms.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has advised and supported the Research Group from the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Lviv during the final phase of researches. The cooperation between Bremen and Lviv will be continued. The paper will be published in Issue 2, 2014 of “Berichte”, the journal of IWIM’s partner institute in Berlin (Forschungsinstitut der IWVWW e. V.).

 

A New Macroeconomic Strategy For Africa: The African Development Perspectives Yearbook, Volume 16

A New Macroeconomic Strategy For Africa is presented in Volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. The New Macroeconomic Strategy For Africa focusses on employment-targeting by considering the policy space for more facilitating fiscal, monetary and exchange rate policies. The New Strategy emphasizes also the vulnerability to (external and internal) shocks and the resilience factors so as to cope successfully with these shocks. As well the New Strategy considers those elements of macroeconomic policies which support inclusive and sustainable growth. Also, the New Strategy requests the adaptation of macroeconomic policies to the specific levels of economic governance and economic globalization of the country in question. Last, but not least, in the New Strategy institutional factors, such as the better cooperation of the three poles of macroeconomic policy-making (Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning, Central Bank), are taken into account. 

Volume 16 also presents an analysis of the economics of the Arab Spring countries. However the political developments in the Arab Spring countries will develop, the need for sustainable macroeconomic policies and for inclusive growth policies is evident. The economics of the Arab Spring countries reveals that - despite of considerable economic growth prior to the Arab Spring events – inadequate employment growth, slow human capital accumulation, and a highly restricted access to economic opportunities are among the major causes of the “Arab Spring” uprisings. There is more need for employment targeting in macroeconomic policies, for macroeconomic policies emphasizing inclusive growth policies, and for considering vulnerability and resilience factors, economic governance and economic globalization trends, and institutional reforms regarding the key macroeconomic policy-making institutions.

A Companion Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook will report on country cases (Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, South Sudan) and on ECOWAS/WAMZ regional economic and monetary integration issues. Volume 17 is also expected in 2014.

 

The New Volume: Order your copy at LIT (Link: http://www.lit-verlag.de/london/ )

 

 

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook — The Flagship Publication of IWIM

 

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is released since 1989 by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives. Over the years the Yearbook became the major English-language Annual on African Development in Germany. Volumes 16 and 17 were supported with contributions also by staff from ILO/Geneva, UNESCWA/Beirut and UNDP/Cairo, by research institutions in Egypt and by ECOWAS/WAMZ/WAMI/Freetown staff in West Africa. The Managing Editor (Dr. T. Knedlik, IWH Halle) and the Volume Editor (Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen) prepare now Volume 18 of the Yearbook for the year 2015 with the title “Africa’s Progress towards Regional and Global Economic Integration”. The Call for Papers for Volume 18 is still open (Call for Papers Volume 18: PDF). See more about the Yearbook Project ( http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm ).

 

Neue Sudan-/Südsudan-Studie über umfassende und nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen ist soeben erschienen: SERG Bericht Nummer 41 

Die neue Studie von Professor Karl Wohlmuth über umfassende und nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan ist soeben in der Reihe SERG (Sudan Economy Research Group) Discussion Papers erschienen (vgl. den Link zu den SERG Discussion Papers).

 

New Study on Comprehensive and Sustainable Economic Reforms in Sudan and South Sudan has just appeared: SERG Paper Number 41 

The new study by Professor Karl Wohlmuth about comprehensive and sustainable economic reforms in Sudan and South Sudan has just been published in the SERG (Sudan Economy Research Group) Discussion Paper Series (see the link to the SERG Discussion Papers).

 

Programme für nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan: Welche Politiken führen aus den politischen, sozialen und ökonomischen Krisen heraus?

Welchen Beitrag können umfassende und nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen für die politische und ökonomische Stabilisierung im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan erbringen? Diese Fragen werden in einer neuen Studie von Professor Karl Wohlmuth mit dem Titel Sudan und Süd-Sudan – Programme für nachhaltige Wirtschaftsreformen untersucht. Die Studie erscheint in den SERG (Sudan Economy Research Group) Discussion Papers als Nummer 41 (vgl. dazu den Link zur: SERG Reihe). Der Beitrag von Professor Karl Wohlmuth geht von der zentralen These aus, dass zunehmende horizontale Ungleichheiten (zwischen den Regionen) und vertikale Ungleichheiten (zwischen den Einkommensschichten) kumulativ wirken und immer wieder neue Konflikte, Instabilitäten und Wachstums- und Entwicklungshemmnisse in den beiden Ländern hervorrufen. Die Wirtschaftsreformvorschläge des Professors in fünf zentralen Bereichen basieren auf diesen Einschätzungen und beziehen relevante Trends und Szenarien ein. Mehr über die Studie von Professor Karl Wohlmuth…

 

Internationale
Rohstoffpolitik: Global Governance ist in der Diskussion

Eine erweiterte Fassung des Essays von Professor Karl Wohlmuth „Back to John Maynard Keynes in Regulating International Commodity Markets“ ist jetzt als Nummer 125 in der Blauen Reihe des IWIM erschienen (Link: Blaue Reihe des  IWIM). Der Bremer Professor analysiert die Grenzen der „Transparenz-Agenda“ und verweist auf die Notwendigkeit, ernsthaft über eine „Strukturreform-Agenda“ nachzudenken. Die „Transparenz-Agenda“ basiert auf einer Vielzahl von freiwilligen Vereinbarungen und Absichtserklärungen und einigen Gesetzesinitiativen, vor allem in den USA und der EU, für die Verbesserung der Transparenz auf spezifischen Rohstoffmärkten. In dem Beitrag wird auch auf die Vorschläge von John Maynard Keynes für die Organisation der internationalen Rohstoffmärkte eingegangen, um dann deren Bedeutung für die heute anstehenden Diskussionen zur Global Governance der internationalen Rohstoffmärkte zu erläutern. Es ist vorgesehen, die „Strukturreform-Agenda“ in einem weiteren Beitrag zu vertiefen.

 

International Raw Materials Policy: Global Governance is in the Discussion 

An extended version of the Essay written by Professor Karl Wohlmuth with the title “Back to John Maynard Keynes in Regulating International Commodity Markets“ has just appeared as number 125 in the Blue Series Discussion Papers of IWIM (Link: Blue Series Discussion Papers of IWIM). Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth analyzes the “Transparency Agenda” and refers also to the necessity to discuss a “Structural Reform Agenda”. The “Transparency Agenda” is based on a great number of voluntary agreements and declarations of intent, but also on some legal frameworks in the USA and the European Union (EU) to improve transparency with regard of some specific raw materials markets. In this Essay the recommendations by John Maynard Keynes for a global governance of the international raw materials markets are discussed as well, and their relevance for the current discussion is assessed. In a further paper the “Structural Reform Agenda” will be analyzed in greater detail.

 

Ein Plädoyer für eine neue Afrikapolitik der Europäischen Union – Die Welternährung ist 2014 im Fokus

Im Jahr 2014 werden die Perspektiven der Welternährung und der Ernährungssicherheit in Afrika im Mittelpunkt der globalen entwicklungspolitischen Diskussionen stehen. Das UN Year of Family Farming (Link: http://www.fao.org/family-farming-2014/en/) und das AU Year of Food Security (Link: http://nigeria.gounna.com/show/show/42195/1) führen zu internationalen Verhandlungen und Diskussionen, die insbesondere auch die EU herausfordern werden. Die EU ist daher gefordert, im Dialog mit Afrika neue Akzente zu setzen. Alle Aspekte der Welternährung und der Ernährungssicherheit in Afrika werden daher bei den anstehenden EU-AU-Verhandlungen auf dem Prüfstand stehen; von afrikanischer Seite wird erwartet, dass die EU im Rahmen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und auch bei den Agrar-, Handels-, Umwelt- und Klimapolitiken mit neuen Vorschlägen antritt. 2014 ist das Jahr des vierten EU-AU-Gipfeltreffens im April in Brüssel, das erste Jahr des Mehrjährigen Finanzrahmens der EU, und für die AU ist 2014 der Beginn der dritten Strategischen Planperiode bzw. auch das Jahr der „Landwirtschaft und Ernährungssicherheit“ (vgl. dazu einerseits das EU/ECDPM (European Centre for Development Policy Management) Challenges for Africa-EU Relations in 2014 Paper:  http://www.ecdpm.org/Web_ECDPM/Web/Content/Download.nsf/0/72EA20FE64B9A92EC1257C4600386506/$FILE/FINAL%2013-PMI05-challenges%20english%20%281%29.pdf und andererseits die Beschlusslage der AU zum Strategischen Plan der AU für 2014-2017: http://summits.au.int/en/21stsummit/events/african-union-commission’s-strategic-plan-2014-2017-adopted-assembly ). Das Jahr 2014 kann daher zu einer Wende in den EU-AU-Beziehungen führen, was angesichts der globalen Konkurrenz um Einfluss in Afrika als vielleicht letzte Chance für Europa gesehen wird (vgl. dazu auch F. Rampa, ECDPM: http://www.ecdpm-talkingpoints.org/challenges-2014-family-farming-african-food-security-and-eu-au-relations-deadlock-or-turning-point-in-2014/).

Professor Karl Wohlmuth geht in seinem neuen Essay „Perspektiven der Welternährung. Plädoyer für eine neue Afrikapolitik der Europäischen Union“ auf die Möglichkeiten ein, die „Gemeinsame Strategie Afrika-EU“ so umzubauen, dass die Ernährungssicherheit in Afrika im Zentrum der zukünftigen gemeinsamen Arbeit steht. Die 2007 in Lissabon vereinbarte Gemeinsame Strategie Afrika-EU hat bisher in keiner Weise die Erwartungen erfüllt und das Jahr 2014 bietet nun die Chance, neue Akzente zu setzen. Der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor zeigt vier Handlungsebenen auf, wie die Probleme der Ernährungssicherheit in Afrika im Rahmen der Gemeinsamen Strategie Afrika-EU konstruktiv aufgegriffen werden können. Konkrete Projekte, Programme und Aktionen werden aufgeführt. Der Beitrag wurde für die letzte Europakonferenz des Forschungsinstituts der IWVWW e. V. an der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin im November 2013 erarbeitet. Die Studie wird in der Zeitschrift „Berichte“ und auch in der „Blauen Reihe“ des IWIM erscheinen (vgl. Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth). Das Institut in Berlin ist seit vielen Jahren Partnerinstitut des IWIM.

 

Kein Ende der Diskussion über „Finanzspekulation und Nahrungsmittelpreise“: Foodwatch reagiert auf die Stellungnahme von Professoren zur Studie von Professor Bass 

Die Studie von Professor Dr. Hans-Heinrich Bass über FINANZSPEKULATION UND NAHRUNGSMITTELPREISE: ANMERKUNGEN ZUM STAND DER FORSCHUNG hat großes Medieninteresse gefunden und auch zu neuen wissenschaftlichen Kontroversen geführt. Die im Rahmen einer IWIM-Schriftenreihe herausgegebene Studie (Link zur IWIM-Reihe: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Bass_Finanzspekulation%20und%20Nahrungsmittelpreise.pdf) führte zu diversen Stellungnahmen von Professoren (vgl. dazu insbesondere: http://wcms.uzi.uni-halle.de/download.php?down=32439&elem=2734431 und http://www.iamo.de/dok/IAMOPolicyBrief12_de.pdf) und zu Reaktionen von foodwatch (vgl. zu den diversen Kommentaren und Reaktionen bei Foodwatch: http://www.foodwatch.org/de/informieren/agrarspekulation/mehr-zum-thema/meta-studie-zur-finanzspekulation/). Die Deutsche Bank will jetzt offensichtlich einen Dialog mit den Kritikern über die Agrarmarktspekulation führen und diese zu einer Konferenz einladen (vgl. dazu: http://www.spiegel.de/wirtschaft/unternehmen/deutsche-bank-will-kritiker-der-agrarspekulation-bekehren-a-940436.html). Von der Allianzgruppe liegt offensichtlich noch keine diesbezügliche Stellungnahme vor.

 

Who Benefits from Spending on Water and Electricity in Nigeria?: A Benefit Incidence Analysis  

This is the title of a new study by Professor Reuben A. Alabi and collaborators (link to full information: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_developing_areas/v048/48.1.alabi.html) which was just published in the prestigious The Journal of Developing Areas, Volume 48, Number One, Winter 2014. This study estimated the Progressivity of Benefit, Average and Marginal Benefit Incidence of public spending on pipe borne water and electricity in Nigeria, using Living Standard Household Survey Data from the Nigeria Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The analyses show that the spending on the utilities in Nigeria is not pro-poor. From the findings of this study policy recommendations were derived to make public spending in Nigeria pro-poor in order to accelerate the speed at which the poor benefit more from increases in access to the utilities in the country.

Professor Alabi has developed the methodological approach for these studies during his stay at IWIM as an Alexander von Humboldt Senior Research Fellow (Link: IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers). The collaboration between the universities in Bremen, Germany and Ekpoma, Nigeria continues. Professor Alabi is working as a university teacher and researcher at the Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edu State, Nigeria (Link: http://www.aauekpoma.edu.ng/index.php?option=com_content&view=featured&Itemid=101). Professor Alabi is also a member of AGRODEP African Growth & Development Policy modelling consortium, facilitated by IFPRI (Link: http://www.agrodep.org/fr/users/raalabi).

 

Wissenschaft, Technologie, Innovation (WTI) und die Agroindustrien in Afrika

Unter diesem Titel hat Professor Karl Wohlmuth eine neue Studie publiziert (vgl. Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth). Wissenschaft, Technologie, Innovation (WTI) sind zentrale, aber bislang zu wenig beachtete Faktoren der afrikanischen Entwicklung. In allen drei Bereichen von WTI besteht in Afrika großer Nachholbedarf. Auch die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit vernachlässigt nach wie vor diese Faktoren. Der Bremer Professor analysiert drei Ebenen: Wie können die Wirtschaftssektoren in Afrika besser mit WTI vernetzt werden? Wie können WTI-Inputs besser in afrikanische Wertschöpfungsketten inkorporiert werden? Wie können durch WTI-Strategien und WTI-Politiken in Afrika Wettbewerbsvorteile auf Länder- und Unternehmensebene geschaffen werden? Am Beispiel der afrikanischen Agroindustrien wird deutlich gemacht, dass auch in Afrika Möglichkeiten bestehen, WTI zu einem zentralen Wachstumsfaktor zu machen. Verschiedene Länderbeispiele werden in der Studie erwähnt.

Die Studie basiert auf Forschungsarbeiten zur agro-industriellen Entwicklung in Afrika, die Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth seit 2008 durchführt (vgl. den Link zu dem Projekt: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Agro-IndustrialDevelopment.htm).

 

 

Die Studie ist im GIGA Focus Afrika erschienen. Das GIGA (German Institute of Global and Area Studies)  ist unter der Präsidentschaft von Prof. Dr. Robert Kappel zum führenden Regionalforschungsinstitut in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland geworden und ist nun auch ein bedeutender internationaler Player in vielen Forschungsbereichen zu Entwicklungsfragen. Im GIGA Focus Afrika werden wichtige und aktuelle Themen zu Afrika kurz und verständlich dargestellt, um die Medien, die Experten und auch die Entscheidungsträger in Wirtschaft, Politik und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit zu erreichen (vgl. den Link zu der Reihe GIGA Focus Afrika: http://www.giga-hamburg.de/de/publikationen/giga-focus/afrika). Prof. Dr. Robert Kappel ist auch ein Mitbegründer der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven Bremen, die das African Development Perspectives Yearbook seit 1989 herausgibt (in den nächsten Wochen erscheinen die Bände 16 und 17 zum Thema „Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa“, während der Band 18 zum Thema Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration” in Planung ist).





In Memoriam
Professor Dr. Alfons Lemper

Wir trauern um unseren geschätzten Kollegen Alfons Lemper, der am 19. 11. 2013 verstorben ist. Durch Eigenschaften wie Umsicht, Weitblick, Toleranz, Bodenständigkeit, Gelassenheit, Aufgeschlossenheit für neue Entwicklungen und die Fähigkeit zum Zuhören und zum Ausgleich von Interessen und Positionen hat Alfons Lemper einen großen prägenden Einfluss gehabt. 

Der Westfale Professor Lemper wurde am 28. 1. 1934 in Glandorf bei Osnabrück geboren. Er studierte und promovierte in Münster. Er war dort als wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter tätig und später auch einige Jahre in der Privatwirtschaft. Es zog ihn aber zurück in die Wissenschaft. 1966 wechselte er an das Deutsche Übersee-Institut, ein Vorläufer-Institut des GIGA Hamburg. Am Deutschen Übersee-Institut übernahm er 1972 dann auch die Leitung. Seit 1977 und bis Oktober 1998 ist Alfons Lemper als Professor an der Universität Bremen im Bereich Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen tätig gewesen. Gemeinsam mit den Kollegen Axel Sell und Karl Wohlmuth baute er das universitäre Institut für Weltwirtschaft und Internationales Management (IWIM) auf und konnte bis zur Pensionierung die Entwicklung des IWIM entscheidendbeeinflussen. Als Fachbereichssprecher übernahm er auch Verantwortung für den gesamten Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaft, um den Konsolidierungsprozess der Wirtschaftswissenschaften in Bremen voranzubringen. 

Sehr beeinflusst wurde Alfons Lemper in seiner wissenschaftlichen Arbeit durch den Münsteraner Professor Andreas Predöhl. So begriff auch Alfons Lemper die Weltwirtschaft als einen dynamischen Prozess, in dem durch das Wirken des internationalen Wettbewerbs ständig volkswirtschaftliche Ressourcen geschaffen werden. In einer dynamischen Weltwirtschaft komme es kontinuierlich zu Positionsverschiebungen; neue Akteure treten auf, neue Märkte entstehen, und neue Chancen können genutzt werden. Aber auch die Gefahr des Abstiegs von Volkswirtschaften und ökonomischen Regionen droht, wenn wirtschaftspolitische Fehler gemacht werden und wenn Chancen im internationalen Wettbewerb nicht genutzt werden. Sein Interesse galt daher – neben der Triade Europa, USA und Japan - auch den aufkommenden Volkswirtschaften in Asien (wie China und Indien) und in Lateinamerika (wie Brasilien). 

Seine wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten zur Kritik der neoklassischen Außenwirtschaftstheorie haben ihn in Fachkreisen sehr bekannt gemacht. In seinem Hauptwerk „Handel in einer dynamischen Weltwirtschaft“ von 1974 liefert Professor Lemper „Ansatzpunkte für eine Neuorientierung der Außenhandelstheorie“; entwicklungsdynamische Momente spielen dabei eine entscheidende Rolle. Regionale Entwicklungsprozesse in Europa, Asien und Amerika interessierten ihn unter dem Gesichtspunkt der raumwirtschaftlichen Dynamik und mit Blick auf die Verschiebung von Wettbewerbspositionen. Sein Credo: Die Entwicklungsprozesse bestimmen die Welthandelsströme und die neuen Wachstumspole in der Weltwirtschaft bestimmen die Weltwirtschaftsordnung. Die Unternehmen sind dabei die entscheidenden Akteure im Entwicklungsprozess. Diese „Ansatzpunkte für eine Neuorientierung der Außenhandelstheorie“ von Professor Lemper haben bis heute Relevanz. Er hat vor anderen Ökonomen die raumwirtschaftlichen Verschiebungen in der Weltwirtschaft theoretisch beleuchtet und empirisch überprüft. Die neue Geographie des Welthandels und der Weltwirtschaft hat er als Forschungsaufgabe immer im Blick gehabt.

Von seinen Studierenden wurde Professor Lemper sehr geschätzt; sie kamen in Scharen in seine Lehrveranstaltungen. Auch für seine Lehrprojekte und Vorlesungen wählte Professor Lemper immer Themen, die es ihm ermöglichten, den Studierenden eine auch praxisrelevante Wirtschaftswissenschaft zu vermitteln, die Entscheidungs- und Orientierungshilfe gibt. 

Seine Kollegen, seine früheren Mitarbeiter und viele ehemalige Studierende trauern um ihn. Wir werden ihn nicht vergessen.

 

Residenzakademie Würzburg der Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes: Die
Perspektiven der Welternährung im Fokus

An der Residenzakademie Würzburg der Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes (SdV) fand im Oktober 2013 ein Seminar statt, das weitgehend von Studierenden organisiert wurde. Neben dem wissenschaftlichen Programm (Programm) wurde auch ein kulturelles Programm mit Besichtigungen des Weltkulturerbes angeboten. Studierende aus verschiedenen Fachrichtungen beschäftigten sich mit den Perspektiven der Welternährung 2050 in einem Seminar mit dem Titel Welternährung zwischen Mangel und Überfluss

Im Rahmen des wissenschaftlichen Programms wurden sechs Workshops durchgeführt (Workshops). Alle Facetten des Problems konnten dadurch aus interdisziplinärer Sicht abgedeckt werden. Professor Karl Wohlmuth befasste sich in seinem Workshop mit den Ökonomischen Grundlagen der Welternährung 2050 und ging auch auf eine Agenda für Afrika ein, da insbesondere in Afrika südlich der Sahara die Problemzonen hinsichtlich der Ernährungssicherung liegen (vgl. Lecture Notes und Präsentation). Professor Karl Wohlmuth ging auf vier zentrale Aspekte ein, die in vier Gruppenphasen des Seminars abgehandelt wurden: Erstens, auf die diversen Instrumente zur Messung der Ernährungssicherheit, um deren Relevanz festzustellen und um die Anwendungsmöglichkeiten auf afrikanische Länder zu prüfen; zweitens auf ausgewählte Szenarien der Welternährung, um die Perspektiven der Welternährung bis 2050 zu erfassen und um zu sehen, wie die Szenarien als Basis für langfristige Politikentscheidungen und Politikänderungen genutzt werden können; drittens auf die globalen Konzernstrategien der Nahrungsmittel- und Agrarkonzerne, um zu sehen, welche Chancen bzw. Risiken sich von daher für die Welternährung ergeben; und viertens auf die globalen Ordnungsmodelle, um zu prüfen, inwieweit die für eine globale Ernährungssicherung wichtigen internationalen öffentlichen Güter durch die existierenden internationalen Organisationen auch angemessen produziert werden können. In der Agenda für Afrika wurden die Probleme in Afrika identifiziert und auch Lösungsansätze vorgestellt.

 

Die
Teilnehmer an der Residenzakademie Würzburg der Studienstiftung des
deutschen Volkes (SdV)

 

Die Teilnehmer am Seminar (vgl. Fotogalerie) haben Präsentationen erarbeitet, die als Basis für eine allgemeine Diskussion in den vier Gruppenphasen dienten. Im Rahmen des Seminar-Plenums wurden Berichte über die Ergebnisse aller Workshops/Arbeitsgruppen gegeben.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth befasst sich mit der Thematik, insbesondere in Bezug auf Afrika, im Rahmen der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven, die das African Development Perspectives Yearbook herausgibt (Link zur Research Group: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-adpy.htm) und im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes Agroindustrielle Entwicklungskonzepte für Afrika (Link zum Forschungsprojekt Agroindustrielle Entwicklungskonzepte für Afrika: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Agro-IndustrialDevelopment.htm).

 

Finanzspekulation und Nahrungsmittelpreise: Gefährden die Finanzmärkte die Welternährung?

Eine neue Studie von Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass für Foodwatch e. V. ist soeben als Heft Nummer 42 in der IWIM-Reihe „Globalisierung der Weltwirtschaft“ erschienen (IWIM-Reihe „Globalisierung der Weltwirtschaft“, Heft Nummer 42, November 2013, PDF).

Professor Bass geht in dieser Studie auf die Kontroversen über die Rolle der Finanzspekulation mit Nahrungsmitteln ein. Ein zentrales Problemfeld der Globalisierung der Weltwirtschaft wird debattiert. Es geht um die Frage, ob die Globalisierung der Finanzmärkte mit einer nachhaltigen Welternährung überhaupt vereinbar ist. Diese Kontroverse hat nicht nur die akademische Welt erreicht, sondern beeinflusst auch immer stärker die Finanzwelt und die Politik, nicht nur in der Bundesrepublik, sondern auch in der gesamten EU und in den USA. Es ist daher wichtig, die Studien zu dem Thema zu sichten und vor allem die methodischen Grundlagen zu überprüfen. Bisher ist dies noch nicht geschehen; die Studie betritt insofern Neuland. In der Studie von Professor Bass wird insbesondere auf die ökonometrischen Ansätze in den verschiedenen Studien eingegangen wie auch auf die Qualität der zugrundeliegenden Daten. 

In der Studie von Professor Bass wird in mehreren Schritten das vorhandene Material geprüft: Zunächst wird das Thema der „Finanzialisierung“ der Rohstoffmärkte erläutert, und dann werden die verfügbaren Daten geprüft; es folgt eine Analyse des generellen Einflusses der Finanzialisierung auf die Preisbildung, gefolgt von Analysen der Auswirkungen der Finanzialisierung auf Preisspitzen und Preisschwankungen. In weiteren Abschnitten der Studie geht es um die Transmissionsmechanismen des Preisgeschehens vom Terminmarkt auf die Spotmärkte. Auch der weitere Forschungsbedarf und der politische Handlungsbedarf werden diskutiert.

 

 

Die Studie wurde von Foodwatch  e. V. (Link Foodwatch Deutschland: http://www.foodwatch.org/de/) bei Professor Bass in Auftrag gegeben. Beim Pressgespräch in Berlin waren der Autor (Professor Bass), der Auftraggeber (Thilo Bode für Foodwatch) und der Herausgeber der Studie (Professor Wohlmuth) anwesend. Professor Wohlmuth und Professor Bass haben in den letzten Jahren mehrere Projekte zu Themen der Globalisierung der Weltwirtschaft, der Welternährung und der Agroindustrie in Afrika gemeinsam bearbeitet (Link Agroindustrie Projekte:http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Agro-IndustrialDevelopment.htm). Professor Bass hat auch eine wichtige Studie über „Finanzmärkte als Hungerverursacher“ für die Welthungerhilfe verfasst (Link zur Welthungerhilfe:http://www.welthungerhilfe.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Mediathek/Studie_Nahrungsmittelspekulation_Bass.pdf und weitere Inputs unter:http://www.welthungerhilfe.de/?id=1299).

Gedruckte Ausgaben der Studie von Professor Bass sind über Foodwatch Deutschland erhältlich: Martin Rücker, Leiter Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit, Foodwatch e. V., Brunnenstr. 181, 10119 Berlin, Telefon: +49 (0)30 / 240 476-290 und Fax: +49 (0)30 / 240 476-26 und E Mail: martin.ruecker@foodwatch.de

 

Chinesische Hochschulexperten aus der Provinz Hainan, VR China informieren sich über das Hochschulsystem und die Innovationspolitik des Landes Bremen

Vertreter von Hochschuleinrichtungen und Forschungsinstituten in der Provinz Hainan, VR China haben über eine Woche im November 2013 am International Graduate Center der Hochschule Bremen an einem Weiterbildungskurs über „Hochschulen und der regionale Technologietransfer“ teilgenommen. Professor Karl Wohlmuth von der Universität Bremen referierte über „Nationale Innovationssysteme, lokale Technologietransfers und globaler Wettbewerb“. 

Ausgangspunkt der Ausführungen war ein Vergleich der Position von Deutschland und China im globalen Innovationswettbewerb. Der Bremer Professor betonte dann die Interdependenzen zwischen dem Nationalen Innovationssystem des Bundes und dem Regionalen Innovationssystem des Landes Bremen. Die Hightech-Strategie 2020 der Bundesrepublik Deutschland wurde mit der Innovationsstrategie 2020 des Landes Bremen kontrastiert. Dann wurden dieverschiedenen Facetten des Regionalen Innovationssystems von Bremen erläutert:
die Rolle von F&E und von Innovationen in den bremischen Unternehmen; die Finanzierung von Innovationen und von F&E in den Bremer Unternehmen; das Forschungs- und Ausbildungssystem in Bremen; und schließlich die F&E-Politik und die relevanten Bereiche der Arbeits- und Steuerpolitik in Bremen. Besonders betont wurden die Verknüpfungen zwischen diesen Eckpfeilern des Innovationssystems. An einigen Beispielen, wie etwa Aviabelt als einer Vereinigung der bremischen Luftfahrtindustrie, wurde der Bremer Ansatz der Vernetzung von Akteuren der Industrie mit der Wissenschaft verdeutlicht (vgl. die Präsentation). 

Der Weiterbildungskurs wurde inhaltlich von Innovationsexperten der Universitäten und Hochschulen des Landes Bremen bzw. von InnoWi/Innovationen für die Wirtschaft gestaltet.

 

Meeting of African Junior Researchers in Hanover at Herrenhausen Palace, VolkswagenStiftung

A great event for the postdoctoral fellows who are supported by the VolkswagenStiftung.  180 junior researchers, representatives from African Universities and African Research Organizations and experts on African development met at the rebuilt Conference Center of the Herrenhausen Palace in Hanover. The VolkswagenStiftung started its Africa Initiative early in 2003 and so celebrated with this event in Hanover also 10 years of support for African researchers who work in cooperation with German research partners and their respective institutions. While in earlier years (2003 - 2008) research projects and fellowships were granted for research projects with graduate and doctoral students, since 2008 the VolkswagenStiftung is funding a programme for postdoctoral students.

At the Conference in Hanover the junior researchers presented their projects – in lectures, presentations and poster sessions. A broad spectrum of research issues was made visible. Research programmes and fellowships were financed for the subjects Natural Resources, Livelihood Management, Social Sciences, Humanities, Engineering Sciences, and Neglected Tropical Diseases. Among the African countries with a greater number of funded postdoctoral fellows were Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzani, South Africa, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Chad, Ghana, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Sudan and Burkina Faso.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen was invited as an expert on African Development. He was involved in a research project of the VolkswagenStiftung as director and cooperation partner for the project “Governance and Social Action in Sudan after the Comprehensive  Peace Agreement of January 9, 2005”, a project which started in 2005 and ended in 2012 (see Governance Project Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/Sudan.Drittmittel/Governance_bak.htm).

 

The Conference Participants in Front
of the Herrenhausen Palace, Hanover

 

See more information about the Meeting (Link VolkswagenStiftung: http://www.volkswagenstiftung.de/en/events/calendar-of-events/veranstaltungsseite/meeting-of-african-junior-researchers-in-hanover.html), about the Programme (Link VolkswagenStiftung: http://www.volkswagenstiftung.de/fileadmin/grafiken/pressebilder/2013/Grantees-Meeting_Afrika-Initiative/Grantees-Meeting_Afrika-Initiative_-_Programm.pdf), about the  Portraits of funded Researchers (Link VolkswagenStiftung: http://www.volkswagenstiftung.de/en/veranstaltungen/veranstaltungskalender/veranstaltungsseite/grantees-meeting-afrika-initiative/im-portraet.html), and about the Research Funding Procedures (Link VolkswagenStiftung: http://www.volkswagenstiftung.de/en/events/calendar-of-events/veranstaltungsseite/meeting-of-african-junior-researchers-in-hanover/interview-with-dr-almut-steinbach.html)

 

Re-regulating International Commodity Markets: A New Essay Was Just Published

In this essay Back To John Maynard Keynes in Regulating International Commodity Markets Professor Karl Wohlmuth compares weak and strong forms of global governance of international raw materials markets. This is done by comparing the “transparency agenda” with the “structural reform agenda”. John Maynard Keynes has worked for decades academically on commodity markets, on speculation and storage, on forward markets and buffer stocks, etc., but he has also gained practical experience on these markets by intensive commercial trading activity on various commodity markets. Based on this immense knowledge he has influenced fundamentally the Post-World War Two Agenda with the proposed International Clearing Union (ICU) and the proposed International Trade Organization (ITO). Both proposed organizations contain detailed provisions for establishing a world order on international commodity markets. He was very much concerned about the impact of price volatility of raw materials on global macroeconomics, and he was deeply convinced that appropriate regulations of international commodity markets and of national resource sectors would impact positively on peace, macroeconomic stability, employment and development. He was convinced that strong global governance must be based on simple, stable, effective, consensual and binding rules. On the basis of this Keynesian framework the “transparency agenda” is evaluated.

Now the “transparency agenda” with regard of international raw materials markets is so much debated, but it is a rather weak form of global governance, although it contains various proposals, voluntary agreements and codes of conduct. The “structural reform agenda” however represents a rather strong form of global governance of the global commodity markets and of the national resources sectors. It contains internationally binding agreements on investment, trade, exploration, production and use of resources, food security, and sustainable development. Also new global governance institutions are discussed based on the international public goods approach. In this essay the “transparency agenda” is discussed in great detail while the “structural reform agenda” is presented only in a short description in the Conclusions and Outlook section. The essay was published in the quarterly journal “Berichte” from the Research Institute of IWVWW e. V. in Berlin, the magazine of our partner institute (see Publications Karl Wohlmuth). A version of the essay will also be published in the IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers (see IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers). The “Structural Reform Agenda”  needs a further elaboration in a follow-up paper.

 

UNMISS in Juba and Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen agree to cooperate on assessing the developments in South Sudan:

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen and UNMISS (United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan) have agreed to cooperate in assessing the situation with regard of peace, security and development in South Sudan. UNMISS has a mandate since 9 July 2011 to consolidate peace and security and to establish conditions for development (see the link to UNMISS: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/unmiss/). Professor Karl Wohlmuth and a representative from UNMISS have recently agreed in Bremen to exchange information and to assess the situation in South Sudan. Professor Wohlmuth works since 1978 on development in Sudan, researching on economic development and the political economy of Sudan. Since 2005 the professor researches on the implications of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the North and the South, and since 2011 he works about the modalities of a strategic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan (see the link: Sudan Economy Research Group/SERG and the project Economic Policies in Sudan after the Referendum of 2011). Recently a documentary film by ARTE has shown the tremendous difficulties to establish the foundations for a viable state of South Sudan (see the link to the film by ARTE: http://www.arte.tv/guide/de/045315-000/suedsudan-geburt-eines-staates#details-photos, and see also the Documentary Film “South Sudan - Birth of a State”). Any progress will depend on a strategic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan as the border region between the two countries is so important for peace, security, growth  and development in both countries.

 

Excellent: The University of Bremen’s Institutional Strategy – Ambitious and Agile 

A new booklet is available on the concept of the University of Bremen as an Excellent University (see also the links to the various programmes: http://www.uni-bremen.de/en/exzellent.html / http://www.uni-bremen.de/en/proub).

Further
Information:
www.uni-bremen.de

 

African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 17: International Call for Papers and Invitation to Guest Editors

Volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa” has been finalized and the manuscript is now with the publisher (see the Synopsis for Volume 16), and the work on Volume 17 with the title „Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration” is starting soon.

Contributors are invited to submit their proposals and abstracts (see the International Call for Papers for Volume 17) to the Editors. Also potential Guest Editors are invited to express their interest to edit one of the four Units of Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook - from the conceptual start to the final editorial work. Guest Editors can see the details about the four Units in the Call for Papers for Volume 17. Please contact the Managing Editor and the Volume Editor of Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook in case of interest. For Unit 5 (Unit with Book Reviews and Book Notes) publishers and institutes are invited to send their books, research papers, issues of journals and documents to the Book Reviews/Book Notes Editor (see also the respective details in the International Call for Papers for Volume 17).

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is published by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen which has established since 1989 (the year of the publication of Volume 1 on Human Dimensions of Adjustment) an international network of scientific supporters and contributors (see details on the Research Group on African Development Perspectives).  The African Development Perspectives Yearbook selects for each volume a specific theme of utmost importance for the building of new policy and governance frameworks in Africa (see the details about the already Published Volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook). The main purpose of the edited volumes is it to inform the public about recent developments in Africa - by academic articles, analytical reports, specific country information and project reports. The aim is also to influence about inclusive and sustainable development strategies in Africa policy makers in governments, in the UN and related organizations, in the global donor community and in international NGOs, but also development experts at universities and media people.

 

Public Expenditure Review of the Agriculture Sector at the Sub-National Level in Nigeria: The Case of Ondo State

Professor Reuben Adeolu Alabi from the Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria and a former Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow at IWIM was appointed as a consultant to World Bank to do research on benefit incidence of public expenditure in the agriculture sector of Ondo State (see the Project Note). Professor Alabi has developed a version of the Benefit Incidence Approach (BIA) during his researches over two years at IWIM, and he has applied the methodology to education and health sectors in Nigeria (see the respective issues of the IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers). The main question of the new study for World Bank is how public expenditure to agriculture sectors affects various groups of population working there and depending on agriculture as a basis of their livelihood. So the study asks what the benefits of public expenditure for agriculture sectors (at all government levels) are for different groups of farmers in the state and in a local government area. It is of importance for policymakers to know who benefits from public expenditure to agriculture sectors: large agricultural entrepreneurs or medium and small farmers. Also public expenditure to agriculture at local government areas (LGAs) in Ondo State will be investigated in this regard. 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth and Professor Alabi intend to cooperate on Technology and Innovation in African Agriculture: The Limits of Subsidization of Inputs, using a methodology to measure the subsidization by inputs and income groups for Nigeria, Malawi and Kenya. A research proposal is now outlined. 

 

Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Sudan and South Sudan – The Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation

This is the title of Unit Three for the forthcoming volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa”. The Editors of the Yearbook took the event of South Sudan’s Independence on July 9, 2011 as an obligation to plan for a whole Unit on the Sudan and the South Sudan for the new volume of the Yearbook. As the separation of the South is of tremendous importance not only for the two countries Sudan and South Sudan but also for the whole continent of Africa, the Editors have invited leading researchers from the University of Khartoum, the University of Kassala (both in the North) and the University of Juba (in the South) to write on the macroeconomic policies and the macroeconomic policy formation processes of the two countries. Dr. Dirk Hansohm, Macroeconomic Advisory Services Nairobi, Kenya, currently working as a consultant in Khartoum, a former member and collaborator of the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) at the University of Bremen, also has contributed to the Unit Three. While the essay on the Sudan considers the macroeconomic consequences of the secession of the South, based on an analysis of the major economic problems and shocks of Sudan since the 1970s, the essay on the South Sudan concentrates on establishing fiscal planning and building fiscal management as cornerstones of macroeconomic stability. Macroeconomic aspects of the two countries are considered by all the authors with having a longer run view in mind (see the Synopsis of the new volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook). 

The Unit Three is also a contribution to the understanding of the economics of post-conflict countries in Africa. It came out from the two papers that despite of quite different endowments and initial conditions the two countries have to pursue similar economic policies so as to strengthen the weak economic policy institutions, to redirect production and exports towards diversification, to lay the foundations for macroeconomic stability and fiscal decentralization, and to establish basic social policy systems. As well the huge defense sector in both countries has to be scaled down because of the fiscal burden and the diversion of resources from productive activities, especially agriculture and manufacturing. The abundant natural resources in the two countries could be used more fully by appropriate strategies. New economic strategies and macroeconomic policies have to be based fully on a medium to long-term planning approach, and growth and employment diagnostics approaches are recommended to enhance local development. Professor Karl Wohlmuth introduced the Unit with an essay on New Economic Policies for Sudan and South Sudan and the Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation. Five elements of a new macroeconomic policy framework were outlined for the two countries, and the contours of a Border States Development Programme (BSDP) were discussed. Such a programme should guide the development of the now eleven states in the North and in the South along the international border between Sudan and South Sudan. This programme would allow it to develop the abundant natural resources in the area to the benefit of the people in both countries.

 

Towards A Second Monetary Zone for West Africa: Macroeconomic Developments in West Africa and the Prospects of the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ)

In Unit Three of the new volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook, Volume 16, with the title “Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa” new macroeconomic and structural developments in West Africa are highlighted. Focus in the Unit Three is mainly on country case studies for Nigeria and Senegal, but in the context of the planned and existing economic and monetary zones in the area. While Senegal is a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Nigeria is part of the WAMZ (West African Monetary Zone) project. The Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS) is attempting since many years to harmonize economic policies and to integrate the Francophone  and the Anglophone countries in the area by merging - in the medium to long term - the two monetary zones. Because of the great importance of Nigeria for the success of WAMZ there are essays in the Unit on Nigeria’s public expenditure policies in the context of macroeconomic policy formation and about the impact of Nigeria’s macroeconomic policies on sectoral development. The two Unit Editors have written an Introductory Essay and have highlighted the strategic framework for a double and then harmonized West African monetary integration process and for a sound and effective macroeconomic policy formation in these countries.

Dr. Osmund O. Uzor is the lead editor of the Unit Three, and Professor Wohlmuth served as the co-editor. Dr. Osmund O. Uzor, a research associate of IWIM, holds a PhD from the University of Bremen; he used his contacts to universities in Nigeria to make this Unit possible. The two Unit Editors used their contacts with WAMA (West African Monetary Agency) and WAMI (West African Monetary Institute) to involve experts for guiding the Editors of the Yearbook on the issue and for writing on the theme of WAMZ. The analysis of the prospects of WAMZ reveals that Maastricht type criteria of convergence (four primary and six secondary convergence criteria) play a role in the foundation of the Second Monetary Zone for West Africa, but that the Euro crisis leads to new reflections among West African policymakers on the modalities, the feasibility and the future perspectives of the project. These issues as related to the Euro crisis are also covered in Unit 1 of the new volume of the Yearbook - with various essays on General Issues of Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa (see the synopsis of the new issue of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook).

 

Evaluierung von dualen Wirtschaftsstudiengängen:

Wieder war Professor Wohlmuth an einer Re-Akkreditierung von Studiengängen beteiligt. In Wetzlar wurden duale Wirtschaftsstudiengänge der THM (Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen) evaluiert. Duale Wirtschaftsstudiengänge werden in enger Abstimmung mit Unternehmen aus der Region durchgeführt und ermöglichen so eine sehr enge Verzahnung von Hochschulausbildung und Praxisphasen im Unternehmen. Die Kooperation der Hochschullehrer und der Betreuer von Studierenden in den Unternehmen ist in solchen Programmen eng. Zudem erfolgt die Finanzierung der Programme und der Studierenden durch Unternehmen und Unternehmensverbände.

Der Professor war in den letzten Jahren an mehreren Evaluierungen von Bachelor-, Master- und Promotionsstudiengängen an Universitäten und Hochschulen beteiligt. Die Erfahrungen aus der Akkreditierungspraxis zeigen, dass eine deutliche Konvergenz zwischen den Programmen von Universitäten und Hochschulen erkennbar ist (hinsichtlich von Qualitätsstandards, Planung der Programme, Internetpräsenz, Internationalisierung, Praxisbezug, theoretische Fundierung der Lehre, etc.). „Komparative Vorteile“ von Programmen werden aber zunehmend von umfassenden und in der Lehre genutzten Forschungszusammenhängen, von Spezialisierungen im Sinne von geschickt ausgewählten Nischen, von etablierten Auslands- und Unternehmenskontakten und von innovativen Lehr- und Prüfungsmethoden abhängen.

 

How to Overcome the Hurdles on the Path to the “United States of Europe”: A New Book by seven German Professors has just appeared

In a new book on overcoming the hurdles on the path towards the “United States of Europe” seven German professors intend to empower the readers to understand the complexities of forming a federal state in Europe. The book is also seen as an encouragement of all the initiatives to form a federal state in Europa what is also the intention of the Spinelli-Group project for a European Federation based at the European Parliament (http://www.spinelligroup.eu/). The authors of the book argue that the fiscal and financial crises in Europe request a new approach in handling the issues and in solving the major problems which appeared at the center stage after the global financial crisis of 2008/2009.

 

 

A New Book: Towards “United States of Europe”: Overcoming the Hurdles

K. Wohlmuth/W. Trillenberg/H.  Matthes/U. Busch/O. Schwarz/J. Roesler/H. Engelstädter, 2013, Hürdenlauf zu den Vereinigten Staaten von Europa, Forschungsinstitut der Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik e. V. Berlin, Reihe: Europäische Integration. Grundfragen der Theorie und Politik, Nr. 31, 2013, ISSN 1021-1993, Herausgeber: Prof. Dr. W.Trillenberg, Berlin: 2013, 262 Seiten

 

Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth considers in his chapter the links between stabilizing the Euro system and forming a Political Union. According to his view, the discussion about the project “European Political Union” and the project “United States of Europe” is intensified in recent times, in political as well as in academic circles. This has various reasons: First, it is considered as necessary to deepen the European integration process because of the fact that various important policy areas are not yet covered. The sovereign debt crisis in Europe shows that fiscal policy is such an area where deeper integration is needed and that even common fiscal rules may be inferior to a full-scale fiscal union. Second, steps towards political unification are considered as vital in order to save the Euro in the long run, and so to prevent a collapse of this cornerstone of Europe’s integration process, as it turned out that crisis management so far was not successful in Europe, mainly because of a serious lack of political cohesiveness. Third, the formation of the G20 group as a global decision-making body as well as of the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) group as an important global actor show that Europe has to unify politically in order to impact on the decision-making processes on world economy and world politics affairs.

Experiences over more than forty (40!) months of hectic crisis management in Europe show that five issues are important and have to be addressed: first, the failure of the European Constitution process has quite negative effects on European integration and on the Euro crisis management as the Lisbon Treaty is not a full substitute; second, the economic policies in Europe are not coherent as there were no further steps towards a European Political Union and especially towards EU fiscal coordination and EU fiscal federalism; third, the European Central Bank (ECB) is overburdened with tasks because the balance between various economic policy actors in the EU and in the Eurozone is not granted; fourth, the lack of progress in further and deeper European integration is paralyzing decision-making processes in Europa and is as well leading to uneven and unsustainable growth patterns; and fifth, the neglect of all lessons gained over decades from the “political economy of reform politics” during crisis management in Europa has impeded seriously the overall outcome of crisis management. 

It is shown in the chapter by Professor Karl Wohlmuth that these five properties of the unfinished European integration process have negative repercussions on Europe, and especially so on the Eurozone and the Euro. Therefore, concerted steps towards political unification and towards a realization of the project “United States of Europe” are inevitable in order to save the Euro, the Eurozone and the European integration process.

 

Global Fisheries and New Global Regulation Strategies: A Book on Quota Management and the Sustainability of the North Atlantic Fisheries got International Recognition

In a book on Cod In Crisis? Quota Management and the Sustainability of the North Atlantic Fisheries, 1977-2007 former IWIM staff Dr. Katharina Jantzen presents a deep analysis of the issues. The book was published in the German Maritime Studies Series as Number 15 by the German Maritime Museum (GMM)/Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum, Bremerhaven. The author K. Jantzen analyses the global issues of fisheries management, discussing the problem of overfishing as a problem of international relations and of forming appropriate regional and then also international organizations. While Part I of the book is on the framework and the methodology, Part II presents three comparative case studies (cod fisheries on the Grand Banks off NewFoundland; Icelandic fisheries management as Best Practice example; and the quota system in the case of the UK under the Common Fisheries Policy). In Part III Analysis and Application is presented. In this Part issues of quota management are analyzed  by looking at incentive-based quota management approaches in fisheries management and new cooperation and management approaches for quotas on the high seas. In Part IV valuable Policy Recommendations And Conclusions were prepared for use of all types of policymakers in governmental and non-governmental organizations, but also EU, FAO, UN, and especially fisheries policy agencies in national governments, as well as regional organizations being relevant for comprehensive fisheries policies.

 

Katharina Jantzen, Cod In Crisis? Quota Management and the Sustainability of the North Atlantic Fisheries, 1977-2007, Deutsche Maritime Studien/German Maritime Studies, Nummer 15/Number 15, German Maritime Museum (GMM)/Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum (DSM), Bremen: Verlag H. M. Hauschild GmbH, 2010, 154 pages

 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth was acting as a member of the Supervisory Committee which was appointed by the Bremen International Graduate School for Marine Sciences – Global Change in the Marine Realm (GLOMAR) specifically for this research project. Dr. K. Jantzen is now working in the Project Food Port: Fresh Fish Logistics at the University of Applied Sciences Bremerhaven/Hochschule Bremerhaven. Main issue is to research on economic and technical parts of fresh fish logistics. New opportunities for fresh fish logistics are to be identified which are economically sound and also sustainable.

 

Wissenschaftliche Kooperation der Universität Bremen mit Afrika: Das Sudanprojekt der Universität Bremen am IWIM

Im Rahmen der Vortragsreihe „Vom Sudan nach Namibia“, organisiert vom Rektorat und dem International Office der Universität Bremen in Verbindung mit Institutionen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit in Bremen, hielt Professor Karl Wohlmuth einen Vortrag über „Sudan und Süd Sudan: Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation?. Frau Prof. Dr. Yasemin Karakasoglu, Konrektorin für Interkulturalität und Internationalität, eröffnete den Vortragsabend. Der Professor ging zunächst auf die Phasen des Sudanprojektes an der Universität Bremen (Sudanforschungsgruppe Bremen) seit den 70er Jahren bis zur Gegenwart ein und analysierte dann die Ursachen der Konflikte zwischen dem Sudan und dem Süd-Sudan. Auf Möglichkeiten und Chancen einer zukünftigen Kooperation der beiden Länder wurde eingegangen. 

Im Vortrag wurden fünf Themen behandelt: Erstens, die Konflikte im Sudan: Ursachen, Einflussfaktoren, Perioden; zweitens, das sudanesische Wachstumsmodell und die Konflikte; drittens, die Geographie, Intensität und Dynamik der Konflikte im Sudan/Süd-Sudan; viertens, Ansätze für eine Lösung der Konflikte durch eine grundlegend neue Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik; und fünftens, Ansätze für eine Lösung der Konflikte durch eine strategische ökonomische Kooperation zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Eine lebhafte Diskussion über die Thesen des Bremer Sudanforschers schloss sich an den Vortrag an. Die Präsentation wird auf Grund des bekundeten Interesses nun einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht (Link: PDF Präsentation). Ein Draft Paper zum Vortrag und Aufsätze des Referenten zu den behandelten Themen liegen vor (vgl. Publikationen von Karl Wohlmuth). Über diese Themen wird im Rahmen der Sudanforschungsgruppe der Universität Bremen in den kommenden Jahren weiter gearbeitet (Link: Sudanforschungsgruppe).

 

Hürdenlauf zu den Vereinigten Staaten von Europa: Dies ist der Titel des neuen Buches von sieben deutschen Professoren über die Zukunft des europäischen Integrationsprojektes. Insbesondere geht es den Professoren darum, „durch verschiedene Betrachtungsweisen des Weges, der Methoden, der historischen Erfahrungen und von Einschätzungen zum Zukunftsmodell eines Europas der „Vereinigten Staaten von Europa“ für den Leser Anregungen zu geben, sich seine eigenen Gedanken zu machen und eventuell zu positionieren im Einklang mit den „Machern“ der zukünftigen europäischen Strukturen oder auch in Kritik zu ihnen, aber mit dem Anstoß zu effizienteren Entscheidungsvorschlägen.“ (Zitat aus dem Vorwort, S.5). Die sieben Autoren analysieren das Projekt der „Vereinigten Staaten von Europa“ auf dem Hintergrund der Erfahrungen in der europäischen Finanzkrise. Sie zeigen den Prozess der europäischen Integration zwischen Auflösung und Neugestaltung auf. Die „Vereinigten Staaten von Europa“ werden als Ausweg aus der permanenten Krise gesehen, wenn auch der „Hürdenlauf“ mit vielen Hindernissen verbunden sein wird. Historische Erfahrungen mit Zusammenschlüssen auf dem Weg zu den „Vereinigten Staaten von Europa“ und Fragen nach der „Europäischen Identität“ werden in dem Buch auch abgehandelt. 

Das Buch soll die Diskussion über die Perspektiven der „Vereinigten Staaten von Europa“ weiterführen und intensivieren. Die Spinelli-Gruppe im Europäischen Parlament (http://www.spinelligroup.eu/) hat diese Aufgabe seit Jahren übernommen und ein bedeutendes Netzwerk auch außerhalb des Europäischen  Parlaments geschaffen. Deren Arbeit gilt es auch zu unterstützen, um föderale statt nationale Sichtweisen in Europa zu fördern. Trotz dieser und anderer Initiativen für ein föderales Europa ist der Durchbruch zu den „Vereinigten Staaten von Europa“ noch in weiter Ferne, doch erzwingen gerade die aktuellen Probleme ein rasches und effektives Handeln für Europa. Information kann dazu beitragen, die Notwendigkeit für ein solches Handeln erkennen. Das Buch „Hürdenlauf zu den Vereinigten Staaten von Europa“ zeigt ein Europa in Bewegung, ein Europa auf dem richtigen Weg zum Ziel, aber auch ein Europa, das noch viele Hindernisse zu überwinden hat und dies auch kann. Das Buch geht auf eine Initiative von IWVWW e. V. Berlin, IWIM,
Universität Bremen und Leibniz-Sozietät der Wissenschaften zu Berlin e.
V. zurück.

 

K. Wohlmuth/W. Trillenberg/H. Matthes/U. Busch/O. Schwarz/J. Roesler/H. Engelstädter, 2013, Hürdenlauf zu den Vereinigten Staaten von Europa, Forschungsinstitut der Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik e. V. Berlin, Reihe: Europäische Integration. Grundfragen der Theorie und Politik, Nr. 31, 2013, ISSN 1021-1993, Herausgeber: Prof. Dr. W.Trillenberg, Berlin: 2013, 262 Seiten

Der Bremer Professor Karl Wohlmuth geht in einem Kapitel auf die Perspektiven des Euro im Kontext der notwendigen Vertiefung der Europäischen Politischen Union ein. Schwachstellen im europäischen Integrationsprozess und Probleme beim Übergang zur Europäischen Politischen Union werden benannt, so das Scheitern der Europäischen Verfassung, das Fehlen einer kohärenten europäischen Wirtschaftspolitik, die systematische Überforderung der Europäischen Zentralbank in der Krise, der lähmende Stillstand bei der Vertiefung der Europäischen Integration, und das Fehlen einer planvollen Krisenbekämpfungsstrategie in der Eurozone. Wichtige Lehren für neue Wege hin zu einem föderalen Europa und zu einem stabilen Euro werden dargelegt. Professor Wohlmuth hat sich bereits in mehreren Beiträgen mit diesen Fragen befasst (vgl. Globalization of the World Economy Series of IWIM: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-white.htm und die Ausgaben 2012 der Zeitschrift „Berichte“ des Forschungsinstituts der IWVWW e. V., Berlin: Link: http://www.iwvww.de/).

 

Nationale Innovationssysteme, Megatrends und globaler Wettbewerb: Zu diesem Thema hielt Professor Karl Wohlmuth im International Graduate Center (IGC) der Hochschule Bremen einen Vortrag für Wirtschafts-, Technologie- und Wissenschaftsexperten aus Tianjin, Volksrepublik China. Innovationsexperten aus dem Bremer Raum (Universität Bremen, Jacobs University Bremen, Hochschule Bremen, Die Denkfabrik, Wirtschaftsförderung Bremen, InnoWi GmbH, NBank Enterprise/Europe Network Niedersachsen) referierten über praktische Modelle der Innovationsförderung und über theoretische Konzepte der Innovationstheorie. 

Professor Wohlmuth analysierte in seinem Vortrag auf der Grundlage der Daten des Innovation Union Scoreboard 2013 der Europäischen Union die wesentlichen Unterschiede der Nationalen Innovationssysteme in Deutschland und in China. Zudem wurden die wesentlichen Anforderungen an eine kontinuierliche Aktualisierung der Nationalen Innovationssysteme detailliert erörtert. Insbesondere wurde betont, dass die Implikationen der globalen Megatrends und die Strategien zur Förderung der globalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit in dynamische Nationale Innovationssysteme integriert werden müssen. Wege zur Integration in die Nationale Innovationskapazität und in die Nationale Innovations-Governance wurden aufgezeigt (vgl. Präsentation von Professor Wohlmuth und Draft Paper Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth). Professor Wohlmuth betonte in seinen Ausführungen auch die Möglichkeiten einer engeren Zusammenarbeit von Deutschland und China bei der Ausgestaltung der Nationalen Innovationssysteme in beiden Ländern. Für Deutschland ergeben sich Chancen auf Grund des riesigen Marktes und der schnellen Wissenschafts- und Technologieentwicklung in China. Für China ergeben sich Chancen auf Grund der Kompetenzen und der Innovationsfähigkeit des starken mittelständischen Sektors in Deutschland; in China dominieren Staatsunternehmen und ausländische Unternehmen bei den innovativen Firmen, so dass ein starker und innovativer mittelständischer Sektor erst aufzubauen ist.

 

Vom Sudan nach Namibia: Eine Vortragsreihe der Universität Bremen in Verbindung mit zwei Ausstellungen

Die Universität Bremen dokumentiert ihre Zusammenarbeit mit afrikanischen universitären Partnern im Rahmen von Ausstellungen und einer Vortragsreihe vom 30. April – 28. Mai 2013 im DGB-Haus am Hauptbahnhof (vgl. den Flyer zu der Veranstaltung: http://www.uni-bremen.de/fileadmin/user_upload/international/Aktuelles/IO_Vom_Sudan_nach_Namibia_Flyer_20130318_RZ.pdf ). 

Sowohl die Kooperation von Wissenschaftlern der Universität Bremen mit Namibia als auch jene mit dem Sudan währt nun schon über 35 Jahre. In der Zwischenzeit sind zahlreiche weitere Kooperationen mit Afrika dazugekommen und prägen Lehre und Forschung der Exzellenzuniversität.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth wird am 28. Mai 2013 zum Thema „Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation“ einen Vortrag halten (vgl. Synopse
unter: http://www.uni-bremen.de/international/profil-international/aktuelles-und-berichte/aktuelles/vom-sudan-nach-namibia.html).
Berichtet wird über die Projekte der Zusammenarbeit mit dem Sudan und über die aktuellen Forschungen zu den Entwicklungen nach der Unabhängigkeitserklärung
des Süd-Sudan vom 9. Juli 2011 (vgl. dazu ausführlich: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Neues%20Projekt%20eco%20pol%20Sudan.pdf und http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-sudan.htm ).

Die Veranstaltung wird am 30. April 2013 von Frau Prof. Dr. Yasemin Karakasoglu, Konrektorin für Interkulturalität und Internationalität, und von S. E. Neville Gertze, Botschafter der Republik Namibia, feierlich eröffnet. Prof. Dr. Manfred Hinz hält den Eröffnungsvortrag.

 

Das „Davos an der Küste“, 17. – 19. April 2013: Welternährung und Weltwasserversorgung im Fokus

„Davos an der Küste“: So nennen die Bremerhavener stolz ihre jährlich stattfindende internationale Wirtschaftstagung. Beim 24. Internationalen Wirtschafts- und Transportforum in Bremerhaven wurden gewichtige Themen abgehandelt: globale Nahrungsmittel- und Wasserversorgung; globale Energieversorgung und Energieverwendung; neue Strategien in Industrie und Handel; Perspektiven von Internationalen Supply Chains; neue globale und regionale Sicherheitsstrukturen; und die Zukunft der Finanzmärkte (vgl. Programm der Tagung). In Plenarveranstaltungen ging es um die Themen „Wohlstand für alle? Diskrepanzen in einer multipolaren
Weltwirtschaft“ und um eine Zusammenfassung der Arbeitsergebnisse für Radio Bremen.

In der von Professor Karl Wohlmuth geleiteten Arbeitsgruppe „Nahrungsmittel- und Wasserversorgung“ ging es um Fragen der globalen Sicherung der Nahrungsmittel- und Wasserversorgung. Aktuelle Probleme wurden diskutiert und mit den Perspektiven bis 2050 kontrastiert. Knappheitsprobleme
erfordern es, die gesamte Versorgungskette vom Produzenten bis zum Konsumenten in den Blick zu nehmen, also Produktion und Konsum anders zu gestalten und innovativ zu bewirtschaften. Die Probleme bei der Realisierung der Millenniumsziele (Agenda 2015) und die  Perspektiven für eine Post-2015-Agenda wurden diskutiert. Der Zeitraum für Langfristbetrachtungen dieser Versorgungsprobleme hat sich mit Szenarien für 2030 und 2050 deutlich ausgeweitet. Es geht dabei um die Versorgung von über 9 Milliarden Menschen auf dem Globus, die für das Jahr 2050 prognostiziert werden, aber auch und vor allem um die notwendigen politischen Schritte und Aktionsprogramme zur Realisierung dieser Versorgungsziele.

Die Tagung wurde von Prof. Dr. Heinz-Jürgen Scheibe organisiert und geleitet, der gleichzeitig als Präsident der veranstaltenden DGAW (Deutsche Gesellschaft für angewandte Wissenschaften e. V.) fungiert. Professor Scheibe war viele Jahre Rektor der Hochschule Bremerhaven und hat in den frühen Jahren der Bremer Universität an dieser Institution promoviert.

Die Radiosendung zur Tagung wurde von Theo Schlüter moderiert (Link: http://www.radiobremen.de/nordwestradio/sendungen/nordwestradio_unterwegs/kalender102_date-20130419.html ). Eine Publikation zur Tagung ist vorgesehen.

 

Schwerpunktheft Afrika: Entwicklungspotential und Risiko

Im Schwerpunktheft Afrika der „Berichte“ des Forschungsinstituts der Internationalen Wissenschaftlichen Vereinigung Weltwirtschaft und Weltpolitik (IWVWW) e.
V. geht es um Entwicklungspotentiale und um Sicherheitsrisiken in Afrika beim internationalen Einsatz von Fachkräften. Nach dem auszugsweisen Abdruck der Rede des Bundespräsidenten Joachim Gauck auf der Sitzung der ständigen Vertreter der Afrikanischen Union in Addis Abeba/Äthiopien  vom 18. März 2013 finden sich Beiträge über den Mali-Konflikt als Spätfolge libyscher Destabilisierungspolitik in den Sahara-Saaten und über Sicherheitsrisiken bei der internationalen Entsendung von Fachkräften nach Afrika. Der Beitrag des Bremer Professors Karl Wohlmuth geht auf Wissenschaft, Technik und Innovation als Triebkräfte der afrikanischen Entwicklung ein. Besonders thematisiert wird der Stellenwert von Wissenschaft, Technik und Innovation für die Förderung von Landwirtschaft, Agroindustrie und Agribusiness in Afrika.

Die beiden Institute kooperieren seit über 20 Jahren in vielfältiger Form (Link: http://www.iwvww.de/).

 

Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) as Drivers of African Development: New Essays by Professor Karl Wohlmuth

In various essays Professor Wohlmuth outlines the role of Science, Technology and innovation (STI) as drivers of African Development (Link on Publications: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-wohlmuth.htm ). Considered are the major economic problems in Africa requesting significant STI inputs to be overcome (stagnation of agriculture, especially of cereals production; de-industrialization and low share of manufacturing in GDP; difficulties to transform trade structures at regional and global levels towards a higher value added content of exports). The African Union (AU) initiatives undertaken in this regard are characterized area by area. Main focus is on public interventions and on public-private partnerships to use STI infrastructure and STI policies more effectively. Three action levels are discussed to show how STI-based development can work towards value addition, employment creation and poverty reduction. The three action levels (building linkages between agriculture and agro-industry subsectors and STI infrastructure; incorporating STI inputs into agro-industrial value chains at all levels
and ranks; and converting comparative advantages into competitive advantages by using specific STI inputs) are discussed in detail and matter in a new Agenda for African Development based on STI. The papers benefitted from consultancy work for UNIDO and participation and discussion at UNIDO/FAO/AU conferences in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Abuja, Nigeria (see also the project context of these researches:
http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Neuesprojekt_agro_ind_1.pdf ).

 

Neuer Forschungsbericht über die  ökonomische Kooperation von Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 ist erschienen

In dem neuen Forschungsbericht Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 analysiert Professor Karl Wohlmuth die zukünftigen Kooperationsmöglichkeiten und Kooperationsnotwendigkeiten zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Der Forschungsbericht basiert auf der Keynote Lecture, die  Professor Karl Wohlmuth bei der International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference 2012 an der Universität Bonn gehalten hat. Das dort vorgelegte
Paper wurde für die SERG-Reihe überarbeitet und aktualisiert (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm ).

 

New Research Report on Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan: Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Paper Number 40 is now published

In the new research report Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 Professor Karl Wohlmuth analyses the future of economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. The report is based on the Keynote Lecture at the International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference 2012 at the University of Bonn. The Report is an extension and update of the former paper presented at the conference (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-sudan.htm ).

 

Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern/Social Policy in Developing Countries:

Nicht nur im „Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt“, sondern auch im Band „Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern“ ist der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth mit einem Beitrag über die Sozialpolitik in den Republiken Sudan und Süd-Sudan vertreten. Die besondere Bedeutung dieses Bandes ergibt sich aus der Tatsache, dass die Sozialpolitik zu einem wichtigen Prüfkriterium für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, insbesondere auch der Europäischen Union, geworden ist (vgl. Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth). 

Der zweite European Report on Development (ERD) für das Jahr 2010 hat den Titel “Social protection for inclusive development - a new perspective in EU co-operation with Africa” (vgl. Link: http://erd.eui.eu/erd-2010/final-report/). In der Zwischenzeit liegt der vierte ERD vor (vgl. Link: http://www.erd-report.eu/erd/index.html) und thematisiert ebenfalls Fragen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, und zwar mit dem Fokus auf die Post-2015 Global Agenda

Zudem wird das Thema der Sozialpolitik für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und für die nationale Politik in Entwicklungsländern immer wichtiger, weil die Reaktion der Staaten auf die Weltfinanzkrise 2008/09 gezeigt hat, dass Entwicklungsländer mit einer aktiven Sozialpolitik Krisen schneller und besser überwinden können. Einkommens- und Beschäftigungsverluste sowie negative Folgen der Krise für Ernährung, Bildung und Gesundheit können eher bewältigt werden. Auch für die makroökonomische Steuerung ergeben sich Vorteile. Zudem wird die Politik der Armutsbekämpfung wesentlich effektiver, wenn grundlegende Elemente einer Sozialpolitik vorhanden sind und systematisch ausgebaut werden.

 

 

Sozialpolitik im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan, in:

Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern - ein Handbuch, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2013

(New Publication: Social Policies in Sudan and South Sudan, 

in: Social Policies in Developing Economies - A Handbook, Berlin 2013)

 

Europa im Spannungsfeld globaler und multipolarer Herausforderungen: 

Zu diesem Thema wird in Bremerhaven im April 2013 eine internationale Konferenz abgehalten. Die wachsende Bedeutung von Schwellenländern in Asien und Lateinamerika und auch die Wachstumsdynamik in afrikanischen Ländern erfordern von Europa die Entwicklung und Umsetzung von neuen Kooperationsstrategien, um so die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der europäischen Wirtschaft langfristig abzusichern. Neue Kooperationsabkommen zeichnen sich zwischen den führenden alten und den neuen Industrieländern ab, nicht nur in den Bereichen Finanzen und Handel, sondern auch in den Bereichen Sicherheit, Umweltschutz und Technologietransfer. Auch für die Lösung der großen und drängenden globalen Probleme (Nahrungsmittel- und Wasserversorgung, Energieproduktion und Energieverwendung, Rohstoffversorgung und Klimawandel) sind neue Kooperationen erforderlich.

Die Teilnehmer am 24. Internationale Wirtschafts- und Transportforum werden viele dieser wichtigen Fragen in Bremerhaven diskutieren und auch versuchen, Antworten für Europa zu finden und Lösungen zu erarbeiten, die in Europa umgesetzt werden können. Das Internationale Wirtschafts- und Transportforum gehört zu den wichtigen jährlich stattfindenden Wirtschaftstagungen im Land Bremen.

Die Konferenz steht unter der Schirmherrschaft von Martin Schulz, dem Präsidenten des Europäischen Parlaments, und unter der Leitung von Professor Heinz-Jürgen Scheibe, dem Präsidenten der Deutschen Gesellschaft Für Angewandte Wissenschaften (DGAW) E. V. Die Konferenz findet anlässlich des 25-jährigen Jubiläums der DGAW statt. Neben den Plenarvorträgen werden in sechs Panels wichtige globale Themen in ihrer Bedeutung für Europa diskutiert. 

Unter der Moderation von Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Universität Bremen wird in einem Panel über Probleme der globalen Nahrungsmittel- und Wasserversorgung diskutiert werden. 

Die Konferenz wird vom 17. - 19. 4. 2012 im Atlantic City Hotel in Bremerhaven abgehalten (vgl. Programm und Anmeldeformular).

 

Trends in Foreign Direct Investment in Uzbekistan: Patterns and Perspectives

A new study on the Perspectives of Foreign Direct Investment in Uzbekistan by Dr. Ubaydulla Nadirkhanov, Postdoc Researcher, Institute of Economy, Academy of Sciences of the Republic Uzbekistan, was published in the journal “Berichte, Januar 2013”/”Reports”, January 2013 of the Research Institute  of the IWVWW e. V. in Berlin, the journal of the partner institute of IWIM. The article in “Berichte, Januar 2013” is based on a research work of Dr. U. Nadirkhanov when he was a guest researcher at IWIM, Bremen in 2012. The research work was presented at the Research Seminar on Trends in Transition and Developing Countries with the title Resource-rich Developing and Transition Countries: The Cases of Nigeria and Uzbekistan, and it was organized by the two Economics Professors Axel Sell and Karl Wohlmuth from the Faculty of Economics and Business Studies (link to the guest researchers’ programs: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Einladung_Forschungsstipendiaten-8-2012.pdf). The Seminar took place in August 2012, at IWIM, University of Bremen (see the details of the academic event: http://www.uni-bremen.de/kalender/event/caldate/2012/08/15/view/event/view-list%7Cpage_id-1/tx_cal_phpicalendar/1310.html?cHash=69534d1bc271992adaaca5ca23350050).

The editors of “Berichte” invite young researchers to submit contributions on economic developments in Central Asia and Eastern Europe. 

The two institutes cooperate currently on a volumeThe Euro and the Perspectives of the European Political Union”.

 

Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan:

This is the title of a paper proposed by Professor Karl Wohlmuth for the Annual Conference 2013 of the Graduate College and the Directorate of Scientific Research and Cultural Relations of the University of Khartoum, Republic of the Sudan. Professor Wohlmuth was invited to this event by the Graduate College and the Directorate of Scientific Research and Cultural Relations of the University of Khartoum. The theme of the conference is: “Towards a Confident Renaissance”. The conference is held at the Friendship Hall in Khartoum and at the University of Khartoum-Main Campus. 

The theme Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan as submitted to the conference is based on the recent research work by Professor Karl Wohlmuth on Strategic Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan (see about the research program and the research output the link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Neues%20Projekt%20eco%20pol%20Sudan.pdf). 

Researches on the Sudan at the University of Bremen have a long history dating back to the year 1978 (see the list of selected publications of the Sudan Economy Research Group/SERG with the link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Dorow/SERG-38-2-2011.pdf).

 

Promoting the Production of Cashew, Shea, and Indigenous Fruits in West Africa: Strategies towards Export Diversification and Local Agro-industrial Development/Sub-Project to: Promoting Agro-Industry in West Africa

(see the Annual Report 2011/2012 of ITD/Institute for Transport and Development, Faculty Of Business And Economics, Hochschule Bremen/University Of Applied Sciences, Directors and Editors: Professors Hans-Heinrich Bass and Hans-Martin Niemeier)

In a collaborative research project directed by Professor Hans H. Bass, Director of the Institute for Transport and Development/ITD, at Bremen University of Applied Sciences, the potentials of indigenous crops and fruits in West Africa for rural and urban domestic markets and for export markets are analyzed. Included in the research programme (covering Mali, Ghana and Nigeria) are the actual and potential value chains for indigenous fruits such as mangoes; the transformation of these fruits into sauces, syrups, and juices is studied and also the services needed for marketing these products in local, regional and international markets are investigated. The same type of value chain analysis is applied to products such as karate (shea) which is part of a complex agro-forestry eco-system with uses for cosmetic and pharmaceutical products; also cashew is included which is offering also huge potentials for processing in downstream industries such as in pharmacology. The research project was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung/BMBF). The various phases of the research project are described in the Annual Report of ITD (see Web Access: 

http://www.hs-bremen.de/internet/forschung/einrichtungen/itd/profil/itd_annual_report_final_version_100dpi.pdf).

 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has contributed to this research project with an article on the role of Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) for promoting agriculture, agro-industries and agribusiness in Africa. As country cases Nigeria and Ghana were considered in the essay. See on the publication details:

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2013, Promoting agriculture, agro-industry and agribusiness in Africa. The role of science, technology and innovation (STI), pp. 22-28, in: Promoting the Production of Cashew, Shea, and Indigenous Fruits in West Africa, edited by Hans-Heinrich Bass, published in: Institute for Transport and Development, ITD Annual Report, Supplement 2, Bremen: Bremen University of Applied Sciences, March 2013; Web Access at SSOAR (Social Science Open Access Repository) under http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/33846 and Persistent Identifier (PID): http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-338461; the study is also accessible at University of Bremen’s e-lib in: http://elib.suub.uni-bremen.de/edocs/00103145-1.pdf. Professor Wohlmuth has researched since 2009 intensively on issues of STI policies and agro-industrial development in Africa (see Publications Karl Wohlmuth).

 

Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa: Employment-Targeting and Promoting Inclusive Growth, Responding to the Euro Crisis and Adapting to Recent Globalization Trends

In Unit 1 of the forthcoming volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa” there will by analyses of new macroeconomic policy approaches being of relevance for Africa. 

 

First, it is analyzed how African governments can increase the macroeconomic policy space and especially the fiscal space for employment creation and social safety; new macroeconomic policy approaches are investigated in this direction and country cases are reviewed. An important result of the researches is that macroeconomic policy reforms and reforms of the relevant macroeconomic policy institutions can be quite effective in reducing unemployment and youth unemployment in Africa. This is important as growth in Africa is not inclusive enough in terms of employment creation and poverty reduction. 

Second, the implications of the Euro crisis for African economies and their economic policies are analyzed; this is not only done for those countries whose currencies are pegged to the Euro, but also for other African country groups with different economic characteristics. As regional integration in Africa favors not only preferential trade agreements, free trade zones and customs unions but also more and more currency unions, the Euro crisis has lessons for Africa to be learned. 

Third, it is analyzed how Africa is responding to the globalization  trends and what this means for economic governance reforms and for macroeconomic policies and institutions. By reviewing the trends in economic governance and economic globalization it is possible to derive conclusions on policy reforms so that the frameworks and institutions for macroeconomic policies in Africa can then be changed and improved. Various country groups in Africa show in their macroeconomic policies quite different responses to globalization trends and to changes of governance systems. 

Fourth, aspects of inclusive growth are discussed and related to macroeconomic policy reforms as traditional (“mainstream”) macroeconomic policy approaches and frameworks have consistently neglected social issues (employment creation, social safety and cohesion, poverty reduction) and, more generally, inclusive growth and sustainable development strategies. Improving macroeconomic stability in a rather narrow sense was the main objective of these policies so far. Guidelines for new macroeconomic policies which aim at targeting inclusive growth are presented in the new volume of the Yearbook. 

 

The Research Group of African Development Perspectives Bremen has cooperated with senior ILO experts and with leading researchers in the field to make this Unit 1 possible. While the Global Financial Crisis gave a push to the new macroeconomics for sustainable African growth and development, there are still gaps in regard of concrete guidelines so as to change the macroeconomic policies and institutions in Africa pro-actively. These gaps are filled by the researches and proposals in this volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. The Yearbook is edited since 1989 by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (see the link to the prior issues of the Yearbook: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm).

 

Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa: A Forthcoming Publication Project

Most of the work is done for this new publication project of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen, and it is expected that the new volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title “Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa” will be released by the publisher in June 2013. Major issues are covered in the context of promoting inclusive and sustainable growth in Africa by improving macroeconomic policies and especially by streamlining the process how these policies are managed (see the project description). 

Beside of analytical surveys various country case studies and region-wide studies are presented. “Understanding the Economics of the Arab Spring Countries” is an issue which is discussed in a whole section of the book. A major issue is also throughout the book how macroeconomic policies and macroeconomic policy institutions can support the consolidation and the broadening of the growth process in Africa. Many examples are presented in the book of ways for increasing the policy space in this direction.

This is the volume 16 of a series which has taken up most important thematic issues of Africa’s development since 1989. Scientific Coordinator of the program is Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen. Managing Editor of the Yearbook is Dr. Tobias Knedlik from IWH Halle an der Saale. A description of all the former issues is available (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm).

An International Call for Papers for Volume 17 of the Yearbook will be published in the second half of 2013.

 

Sozialpolitik im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan: „Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt“ ist soeben erschienen

In einem Beitrag über die Sozialpolitik in der Republik Sudan und in der Republik Süd-Sudan analysiert Professor Karl Wohlmuth die historische Entwicklung und die aktuelle Bedeutung der Sozialpolitik im Kontext der ökonomischen Entwicklung in den beiden Ländern. Ausgehend vom UNESCWA (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia)-Ansatz zur Analyse von Sozialpolitiken in Entwicklungsländern werden drei konzentrische Kreise von Sozialpolitiken analysiert: erstens die direkten Programme und Maßnahmen der Sozialpolitik und der Armutsbekämpfung, zweitens die Programme und Maßnahmen im Bereich der Bildungs-, Gesundheits- und Arbeitsmarktpolitik mit dem Ziel der besseren Daseinsvorsorge, und dann drittens die Möglichkeiten, makroökonomische und sektorale Politiken so zu gestalten, dass sozialpolitische Ziele angemessen durchgesetzt werden können (vgl. die Details zur neuen Publikation unter Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth).

Eine englischsprachige Übersetzung des Beitrages von Professor Wohlmuth ist im Rahmen der Bremer Sudanforschung vorgesehen. Dieser Beitrag wurde im Rahmen des Projektes über die ökonomische Kooperation des Sudan und des Süd-Sudan seit 2011 erstellt (vgl. Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Neues%20Projekt%20eco%20pol%20Sudan.pdf).

 

 

Sudan und Süd-Sudan im

Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2013

(New Publication: Social Policies in Sudan and South Sudan, 

in: Handbook Social Policies of the World, Berlin 2013)

 

 

Learning to Compete: Annual Conference by UNU-WIDER (United Nations University - World Institute for Development Economics Research), Helsinki, June 2013

UNU-WIDER invites to its Annual Conference 2013 with the important theme “Learning to Compete: Industrial Development and Policy in Africa” (see the Link for paper submissions: http://www.wider.unu.edu/home/news/en_GB/call-for-papers-l2c/). It is an international conference held in the context of a collaborative research program (see the Link: http://www.wider.unu.edu/research/current-programme/en_GB/L2C-2010/).

Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth works on similar lines. He has recently researched on strategies for converting comparative advantages into competitive advantages in Africa’s agro-industry sectors (Link: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Neuesprojekt_agro_ind_1.pdf). As a further project in this context, the planned volume 17 (for 2014) of the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook will cover some of these issues under the umbrella title of Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration (Links to the Yearbook Project: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/african_developm_.htm and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm).

 

 

Researches on Governance and Reconstruction of Governance in Sudan and South Sudan in the years 2005-2012: Final Report to the Volkswagen Foundation

Soon after the conclusion of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement for Sudan (CPA) on January 9, 2005 the Research Project Governance and Social Action in Sudan started at IWIM, University of Bremen. It was directed by Professor Karl Wohlmuth and Dr. Elke Grawert. It was the purpose of the Project to follow up the process of transition after the CPA towards reconstruction of governance at various levels of decision-making, and thereby to analyze the conditions for development and a sustainable peace. A network of researchers from universities in Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia and staff from IWIM, University of Bremen were involved. The Project was the first one approved in the context of  the Volkswagen Foundation’s new Sub-Saharan Africa Research Initiative, and it got generous support during two project phases (Links: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/Sudanforschung.htm and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/Sudan.Drittmittel/Governance.htm). The Project had also a training component as PhD students and Master students were trained. By research workshops in Bremen and in all the other Project Countries the students were trained to do field research in and near the conflict areas (such as refugee camps, conflict areas, border areas, etc.). 

Many publications were released by the project professors and by the project students. Considerable human capital was built and a future-oriented network of research partnerships has emerged. The trained young professionals are now starting their own research projects and use intensively the network that was established during these seven years of cooperative researches.

Now the Final Report to the Volkswagen Foundation was released by the Project Coordinator Dr. Elke Grawert. She is now Research Coordinator at the Bonn International Center for Conversion/BICC in Bonn. The Report will be released to the Public quite soon. Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth from IWIM continues his researches on Sudan/South Sudan with a New Project on “Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan”. There was a rather smooth process towards a Referendum on Independence of South Sudan on January 9, 2011 and towards the official Declaration of Independence of South Sudan on July 9, 2011. However, since these days the relations between the two states have deteriorated to the extent that now - over more than a year starting in January 2012 - the oil production in South Sudan had been stopped because of accusations of unfair treatment by the partner. The oil is produced near the international border in the South Sudan but the infrastructure of Sudan is needed for transport and processing towards export via Port Sudan. Both states now suffer from huge losses of public revenues and foreign exchange despite of the nine September 2012 agreements in Addis Ababa about all the open security, border and finance issues. A Strategic Economic Cooperation is needed between the two countries as the border regions of the two states are of extremely great economic importance for Sudan and South Sudan (Links: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Siakeu/Neues%20Projekt%20eco%20pol%20Sudan.pdf and http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-sudan.htm).

 

 

Back to J. M. Keynes in Regulating International Commodity Markets: A Note

There is now increasing attention given to transparency of international commodity markets. Voluntary initiatives like  EITI (Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative) and PWYP (Publish What You Pay) have a role to play although these initiatives are limited in coverage and effectiveness. New legal initiatives now play an increasing role, especially in the USA and in the EU, so as to increase the transparency of all types of payments by large and transnational raw materials-producing corporations to governments in developing countries, especially of countries with weak institutional contexts. In the USA the legal initiative is working along the Dodd-Frank Act of financial sector reforms and in the EU it is working along the proposed transparency and accounting orders. 

However, the particular features, problems and complexities of international raw materials markets (with elements such as market cycles, market failures, market power, and market restrictions) cannot be addressed by these voluntary initiatives and the mentioned legal moves. Also, the complete lack of regulation of the international raw materials markets is a fundamental problem, for developing countries (suffering, for example, from resource curse and from export restrictions) and for developed countries (suffering, for example, from irregular and insecure supplies and from various forms of decisions under corruption). 

The famous economist J. M. Keynes has more than 60 years ago proposed a regulation of international commodity markets in the context of an International Trade Organization (ITO). Although this project never materialized, the proposals have increasing relevance again now. There is however no chance to revitalize such ideas as an ITO in the current world economy context, but even in the context of WTO and GATT rulings some meaningful provisions and waivers can be incorporated so as to regulate some crucial aspects of the international commodity markets. 

In a Note Back to J. M. Keynes in Regulating International Commodity Markets Professor Karl Wohlmuth addresses these issues in the form of Guidelines highlighting ten major issues why “moving back to Keynes” is important for regulating international commodity markets (see Publications: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-wohlmuth.htm).

 

 

Transparenz im Rohstoffsektor: Korruption und Spekulation als Ursachen für Armut

Unter diesem Titel fand kürzlich eine Podiumsdiskussion im Haus der Wissenschaft in Bremen statt, an der auch Frau Professor Dr. Edda Müller, die Vorsitzende von Transparency International Deutschland und  Professor  Dr. Karl Wohlmuth von der Universität Bremen teilnahmen (vgl. das Programm der Veranstaltung anlässlich des Antikorruptionstages und die Presseerklärung von Transparency International Bremen). Moderiert wurde die Podiumsdiskussion von Herrn Theo Schlüter, Radio Bremen. Professor Wohlmuth betonte, dass die diversen freiwilligen Transparenzinitiativen (z. B. EITI/Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, PWYP/Publish What You Pay) und die gültigen bzw. vorgesehenen gesetzlichen Transparenzregelungen (wie etwa im Frank-Dodd-Act in den USA verankert bzw. für die EU im Rahmen der Transparenz- und Buchungsrichtlinien vorgesehen) wohl bedeutsam sind, aber zur Regulierung der internationalen Rohstoffmärkte nur sehr bedingt beitragen können. Mehr ist nötig, insbesondere eine Rückbesinnung auf J. M. Keynes und seine Vorschläge zur Regulierung der internationalen Rohstoffmärkte, die er vor mehr als 60 Jahren im Zusammenhang mit der seinerzeit vorgeschlagenen Gründung einer Internationalen Handelsorganisation (ITO/International Trade Organisation) machte. Viele seiner konkreten Vorschläge sind nach wie vor aktuell und können teilweise auch über Waivers und andere Instrumente im WTO/GATT-System verwirklicht werden.

 

Die Teilnehmer an der Podiumsdiskussion (von links):

Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, Universität Bremen

Dr. Heidi Feldt, Entwicklungs- und Menschenrechtsexpertin

Theo Schlüter, Moderator, Radio Bremen

Stephan Werner, Portfoliomanager Rohstoffe, DWS

Annemieke Wijn, Nachhaltigkeitsexpertin Anchor Consult, früher General Manager Kraft Foods

Prof. Dr. Edda Müller, Vorsitzende Transparency International Deutschland e.V.

 

 

Auf dem Foto (von links):

Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, Universität Bremen

Dr. Heidi Feldt, Entwicklungs- und Menschenrechtsexpertin

Theo Schlüter, Moderator, Radio Bremen

Die Podiumsdiskussion wurde unter dem  Titel „Korruption und Spekulation - Ursachen für viel Armut“ von Radio Bremen/Nordwestradio Unterwegs aufgezeichnet (vgl. den Link: http://www-origin.radiobremen.de/nordwestradio/sendungen/nordwestradio_unterwegs/kalender102_date-20121214.html).

 

 

Understanding the Economics of “Arab Spring” Countries: 

A Unit of the forthcoming issue 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the theme “Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa” is now finalized and will consider the economic causes, the recent developments and the perspectives of the “Arab Spring” countries like Egypt and Tunisia. While the international discussion centers on political and international relations issues, the economics of the background factors to these revolutions in Arab countries is largely neglected. 

IWIM joined forces with institutions in the region, like UNESCWA (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) in Beirut, UNDP’s Regional Center in Cairo and the Arab Planning Institute in Kuwait to make this Unit possible.  Research Director Magda Kandil from ECES (Egyptian Center for Economic Studies) and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen will introduce into the Unit. Background studies and country case studies are presented in the Unit. An analysis of the socioeconomic causes of revolutions in “Arab Spring” countries, an overview of recent developments in “Arab Spring” countries,  and a strategic framework for new economic policies in “Arab Spring” countries are presented. 

Other Units of this forthcoming volume of the Yearbook cover new macroeconomic policy approaches and frameworks for African countries, macroeconomic policies of low income and post-conflict countries in Africa, and macroeconomic policies in WAMZ (West African Monetary Zone) countries with special emphasis on Nigeria. Also a Book Reviews/Book Notes Unit is included.

The Yearbook Project will continue with the theme “Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration” as Volume 17 for 2014 (Link to the Project Website: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm and link to the website with the description of the past volumes: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm).

 

Die sozioökonomischen Grundlagen und die Folgen des „Arabischen Frühlings“:

Unter diesem Thema wurden für die Unit 2 (Teil 2) des neuen Afrika-Jahrbuchs mit dem Titel „Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa“ einige Studien verfasst, sowohl Grundlagenstudien als auch Länderstudien für Ägypten und Tunesien. Während politologische und soziologische Studien sich dem Thema der Ursachen und der Folgen des „Arabischen Frühlings“ intensiv widmen, sind ökonomische Studien dazu eher rar. Diese Lücke soll mit den Studien im neuen Afrika-Jahrbuch nun geschlossen werden.

Das IWIM hat bei der Erstellung dieser Studien mit wichtigen Institutionen in der Region kooperiert, um diese Unit möglich zu machen, so mit UNESCWA (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia) in Beirut, dem UNDP Regional Center in Cairo und dem Arab Planning Institute in Kuwait. Research Director Magda Kandil vom ECES (Egyptian Center for Economic Studies) und Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Universität Bremen führen in einem Beitrag in diese Unit ein.

Andere Units des neuen Jahrbuchs behandeln neue makroökonomische Rahmenbedingungen und Politiken für afrikanische Länder, makroökonomische Politiken in Niedrigeinkommensländern und Post-Konflikt-Ländern, und makroökonomische Politiken in WAMZ (West African Monetary Zone)-Ländern, insbesondere für Nigeria. Auch eine Book Reviews/Book Notes-Unit ist vorgesehen.

Das Jahrbuch-Projekt wird mit dem Thema “Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration” für den Band 17 (2014) fortgesetzt (vgl. den Link zur Website des Jahrbuch-Programms: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/forschung/forsch-adpy.htm und den Link zur Seite mit einer Beschreibung der bisher erschienenen Bände: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm).

 

 

Sound economies, sustainable economic policies and strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan:

This was the title of the plenary lecture given by Professor Karl Wohlmuth at the Sudan/South Sudan conference in Hermannsburg which took place from October 31-November 2, 2012 (Link Final Conference Programme). Professor Wohlmuth presented in his lecture five criteria for sound economies and sustainable economic policies in Sudan and South Sudan: 

First, macroeconomic stability has to be provided. Because of the stop of oil production in January 2012 by the government of South Sudan the macroeconomic instability problems were even aggravated in both countries and they are still severe. 

Second, a medium term public finance framework is needed for both countries, especially so because of the volatility of oil revenues and the low importance of non-oil exports. Such medium-term public finance frameworks are not in place, and there is no Permanent Fund/Permanent Income approach at work to smooth the expenditures from the oil revenues towards stabilization and long-term development objectives. 

Third, a redirection of exports towards non-oil products is needed in both countries. However, the time since January 9, 2005 (Comprehensive Peace Agreement) was not used in the two countries for generating non-oil exports. Despite of the huge agricultural resources and the agro-industrial opportunities, both countries are large-scale food importers. 

Fourth, effective social safety nets are needed to protect the poor and the poorest, but also the middle class which became impoverished in recent years, as the available rudimentary social safety systems have rather deteriorated. Public interventions in health and education sectors as well as towards the functioning of the labour market were highly inefficient and ineffective, and macroeconomic policies were not pro-poor.

Fifth, effective reductions of horizontal and vertical inequalities are requested but the reality in both states is that the regional imbalances and the income inequalities have rather increased. This has repercussions on political stability in both countries and on the perspectives of cooperation in the border-belt.

 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth at the opening of the Plenary Session on Economic Issues in Sudan and South Sudan

 

Professor Wohlmuth also commented on the Nine Agreements between the two countries from September 27, 2012 at Addis Ababa and on the future tasks to promote a strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. Five core programmes for a strategic economic cooperation were presented (see PDF Sudan-South Sudan-Conference Presentation). Other contributions to the Conference were made by the Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Commission in Juba, South Sudan on the fight against corruption in South Sudan, by the General Secretary of SPLM/N on the situation in Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Khartoum by highlighting the perspectives for peaceful solutions. The former head of UNMIS in Juba spoke on national and regional challenges for the two states and the role of outsiders. The current situation of Abyei area was considered by a Member of the South Sudan Parliament representing Abyei in Juba.

 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen, Justice John Gatwech Lul, Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Commission, Juba, South Sudan, and Marina Peter, Sudan Focal Point Europe and Conference Chair in a Plenary Discussion on Corruption in Sudan and South Sudan

 

The conference was attended by around 120 participants, among others by representatives of the civil society of Sudan and South Sudan, by regional and international church organizations and NGOs, by government organizations and ambassadors of Sudan and South Sudan, by media people and researchers on Sudan, by members of the German parliament, by the donor community, and by representatives from the SPLM/N speaking for ethnic and disadvantaged groups in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States. The Conference Communique (see Communique Hermannsburg Conference) presents a call for peace, reconciliation and good neighbourliness. The communique emphasizes also: “To avoid new conflicts and ensure sustainable peace, natural resource management and equitable sharing of resources should be a top priority at all levels in society – starting from the bottom-up. Oil is a key element, but a sound economy needs to be built on diversified sources of income. A strategic approach for economic relations between Sudan and South Sudan, with a special focus on the border areas, could help to safeguard peace and good neigbourliness. However, a prerequisite is to immediately address the needs of the people, and the end of armed conflicts.” 

This Sudan/South Sudan Conference was the 25th in Hermannsburg which was directed by Marina Peter and Hermann Hartmann (see the leaflet informing about these 25 conferences: Leaflet Hermannsburg Conferences).

 

 

“Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity”: All UNIDO Project Books are now available as E-Books

Also the book with the African Country Case Studies on Agro-industry Development which is related to the main document “Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity” is now available as an E-Book. The Country Case Studies were conceived as background materials to the main document. The main document was published in English and in French. The three E-Books can be fully downloaded at: http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=1001692

At this website also other information about the project can be found, especially the Seven Development Pillars. 

The books are presented particularly to the benefit of the members of the 3ADI (Accelerated Agribusiness and Agro-industries Development Initiative) and of policy advisers to African governments, especially the ministries of industry and trade being responsible for new industrialization steps. The website of 3ADI contains further information about the Project: http://www.3adi.org/Agribusiness_for_Africa_Prosperity

In a Video about the book “Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity” UNIDO Director General Dr. Kandeh K. Yumkella discusses the importance of the study for Africa: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C23tW_MjnFE.  

Further information about the book is provided also in UNIDO’s quarterly magazine Making It: http://www.3adi.org/agribusiness_making_it

Professor Karl Wohlmuth has contributed to the Project since February 2008 as a Consultant, Author and Editor. In the African Development  Perspectives Yearbook these issues were given attention quite regularly. See details on the various issues of the Yearbook: http://www.iwim.uni bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm

 

 

Research Cooperation with Nigeria 2012 – 2013:

Professor Dr. Alabi is soon ending his research visit to IWIM, University of Bremen after a stay of three months financed by a Senior Research Fellowship by the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation. Further researches are planned for the year 2013 in cooperation with Professor Karl Wohlmuth (see the Report by Professor Alabi and some of his already published studies to be accessed in the Blue Series Discussion Papers of IWIM).

 

Professor Dr. R. A. Alabi, Ekpoma, Nigeria

A study on An Analysis of the Impact of Foreign Aid on Nigeria: A Dynamic Specification is under Review and will then also be published in the Blue Series Discussion Papers of IWIM.

 

 

 

Zweite Auflage der UNIDO-Studie mit den Länderfallstudien zur Entwicklung von Agroindustrie und Agribusiness in Afrika ist erschienen:

Die zweite Auflage der UNIDO-Studie Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity - Country Case Studies ist eben erschienen. In acht Länderfallstudie (Äthiopien, Mali, Sambia, Kamerun, Nigeria, Senegal, Kenia und Südafrika), die meist von afrikanischen Wissenschaftlern und Wissenschaftlerinnen dieser Länder erstellt wurden, werden die Entwicklungen von Agroindustrie und Agribusiness untersucht. Es werden auch Vorschläge für eine umfassende Politikreform mit dem Ziel der Stimulierung des Sektors gemacht. In zwei zusammenfassenden Kapiteln werden von Professor Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, Universität Bremen und Dr. Patrick Kormawa, Direktor für die Region Westafrika der UNIDO die wesentlichen  Ergebnisse der Länderfallstudien zusammengefasst. Die Determinanten der Entwicklung des Sektors und die Perspektiven einer Politikreform zur Förderung des Sektors stehen dabei im Vordergrund. In einem Index der Transformation des Sektors werden die Erfolge bzw. Hemmnisse bei der Entwicklung des Sektors dargestellt.

Der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth arbeitet seit Februar 2008 an dem Projekt der UNIDO „Value Addition to Africa’s Industry“ mit. 

Der gesamte Bericht mit den Länderfallstudien kann eingesehen werden über den Link:

http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Agro-Industries/Agribusiness/AAP_CCS_v4.pdf

 

 

 

Diese Studie mit den Länderanalysen ist ein Hintergrundbericht zu der umfassenden Grundlagenstudie Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity, die vom Generaldirektor der UNIDO, Dr. Kandeh Yumkella initiiert wurde. Auch diese Studie kann als E-Book in englischer und in französischer Sprache komplett eingesehen werden (vgl. Links unten).

Die Studie ist verfügbar als E-Book in englischer Sprache via:

http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Publications/Pub_sales/Agribusiness_for_Africas_Prosperity_e-book.pdf

und als E-Book in französischer Sprache via:

http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Agro-Industries/Agribusiness/agribusiness_french_e-book.pdf

Diese drei Bücher sind gedacht als Inputs für die Politikreform in diesem Bereich in den afrikanischen Ländern und als Materialien für die Initiative 3ADI/Accelerated Agribusiness and Agro-industries Development Initiative (vgl. die relevanten Links zu dieser Initiative: http://www.3adi.org/ und http://www.3adi.org/tl_files/3ADIDocuments/Other%203ADI%20docs/briefing%20note%203adi%201103.pdf). 

 

 

Second Edition of UNIDO Study on Country Cases of African Agro-industry Development just released:

The second edition of an UNIDO Study with Country Cases on Developing Agribusiness and Promoting Agro-industries in Africa was just released. This is the background document to a major UNIDO Study on Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity, published under the guidance of the General Director of UNIDO, Dr. Kandeh Yumkella. The Second Edition of the Report with African Country Cases contains eight chapters with case studies and two summarizing chapters by Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen and Dr. Patrick Kormawa, Director for the West Africa Region at UNIDO. The eight case studies, mainly done by African economists, contain evaluations of the ongoing structural changes in the sector and of the policy context for agribusiness development and agro-industry promotion. The synthesis is presented in chapters 1 and 10 while the country case studies are presented in the chapters 2 to 9. The synthesis chapters contain a Country Typology and an Overview for the Eight Cases as well as Lessons from the Cases and Recommendations for a New Industrial Policy which is linked better linked to agricultural development. A Transformation Index is presented covering 10 criteria for assessment.

A full download of the background study with the African country cases is possible via:

http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Agro-Industries/Agribusiness/AAP_CCS_v4.pdf

 

 

The main UNIDO Report on Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity can be downloaded as an E-Book in English via:

http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Publications/Pub_sales/Agribusiness_for_Africas_Prosperity_e-book.pdf

and as an E-book in French via:

http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/user_media/Services/Agro-Industries/Agribusiness/agribusiness_french_e-book.pdf

These books are policy inputs to the 3ADI (Accelerated Agribusiness and Agro-industries Development Initiative (see also the relevant links to http://www.3adi.org/ and to http://www.3adi.org/tl_files/3ADIDocuments/Other%203ADI%20docs/briefing%20note%203adi%201103.pdf).

 

 

International Research Fellows present their Findings: Professor Dr. R. A. Alabi from Ekpoma, Nigeria (Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow, Second Term), cooperating with the Research Group on African Development Perspectives (directed by Professor Karl Wohlmuth) and Dr. U. Nadirkhanov from Tashkent, Uzbekistan (DAAD Research Fellow, Second Term), cooperating with the Research Group on Eastern Europe (directed by Professor Axel Sell) will present their research findings on Wednesday, 15 August, 2012, 16-18 p.m. in the University of Bremen, Building WHS 5, Room 0.13. At 18.00 p.m. the Press is invited to interview the two researchers on their scientific work and on the conditions and developments in Nigeria and in Uzbekistan. The Full Programme with Abstracts of the Lectures is ready for download (Full Programme and Abstracts).

 

 

Our International Research Fellows Professor Alabi from Nigeria and Dr Nadirkhanov from Uzbekistan prepare for their presentations

 

Professor Alabi is listening to the statements and presentations

 

Professor Alabi and Dr. Nadirkhanov after their presentations

 

Dr. Nadirkhanov praises the activities of IWIM which was founded 25 years ago in August 1987

 

 

The research supervisors Professor Wohlmuth and Professor Sell with their international guests after the closure of the workshop

The presentations and/or the papers will be revised by the authors and will then be made public in due time. It was agreed to continue the research cooperation between the research groups at the University of Bremen and the partner university institutions in Nigeria and Uzbekistan, and it was also agreed to extend the cooperation to younger researchers in Nigeria and Uzbekistan

 

 

  • Buch-Neuerscheinungen des IWIM:

 




African Development Perspectives Yearbook Vol. 19 (2015/2016): African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2017, Volume 19, Theme: Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards New Trade and Investment Policies, Wien/Zürich/Münster: LIT Publishers (Web Access: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy und http://www.lit-verlag.de/isbn/3-643-90785-1)



African Development Perspectives Yearbook Vol. 18 (2015/2016): African Development Perspectives Yearbook 2015/16, Volume 18, Theme: Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration – Towards Transformative Regional Integration, Wien/Zürich/Münster: LIT Publishers (Web Access: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy und http://www.lit-verlag.de/isbn/3-643-90523-9 )
African Development Perspectives Yearbook Vol. 17 (2014): Karl Wohlmuth, Achim Gutowski, Magda Kandil, Tobias Knedlik, Osmund O. Uzor (Eds.), Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – Country Cases, Lit-Verlag, Hamburg, Münster, 2014

 

African Development Perspectives Yearbook Vol. 16 (2012/13): Karl Wohlmuth, Achim Gutowski, Magda Kandil, Tobias Knedlik, Osmund O. Uzor (Eds.), Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – General Issues, Lit-Verlag, Hamburg, Münster, 2014

 

 

Wohlmuth, Karl, 2012, Co-Author and Volume Editor of Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity, UNIDO E-book publication set with English Version, French Version, and Volume with Country Cases by Karl Wohlmuth/Jean Devlin, Patrick Kormawa,  Agribusiness for Africa’s Prosperity - Country Case Studies, Direct Access of the three E-books and of background information on the UNIDO project:

 

http://www.unido.org/index.php?id=1001692

 

 

Denu G. Berhanu, Institutions and Investment in Sudan, Socio-economic and Institutional Foundations of Reconstruction and Development, Berlin: LIT Verlag 2011

 

African Development Perspectives Yearbook Vol. 15 (2010/11): Reuben Adeolu Alabi, Joy Alemazung, Hans H. Bass, Achim Gutowski, Robert Kappel, Tobias Knedlik, Osmund O. Uzor, Karl Wohlmuth (Eds.), Africa and the Global Financial Crisis - Impact on Economic Reform Processes, Berlin: LIT Publisher 2011

 

 

African Development Perspectives Yearbook Vol. 14 (2009): Karl Wohlmuth, Reuben Adeolu Alabi, Philippe Burger, Achim Gutowski, Afeikhena Jerome, Tobias Knedlik, Mareike Meyn, Tino Urban (Eds.) New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies for Africa - Institutional and Local Perspectives, Lit-Verlag, Hamburg, Münster.

 

African Development Perspectives Yearbook Vol. 13 (2008): Karl Wohlmuth, Reuben Adeolu Alabi, Philippe Burger, Achim Gutowski, Afeikhena Jerome, Tobias Knedlik, Mareike Meyn, Tino Urban (Eds.) New Growth and Poverty Alleviation Strategies for Africa - International and Regional Perspectives, Lit-Verlag, Hamburg, Münster. 

For further details click here

 

 

Anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstages wurde Herrn Prof. Sell eine Festschrift im Rahmen der Institutsreihe beim LIT-Verlag gewidmet. Titel: "Internationales Management".  Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier "Internationales Management": this book is a gift to Professor Axel Sell, written by former students, friends, colleagues, and companions, to honour him on his 65th birthday.  For further information please click here.

 

Anlässlich seines 65. Geburtstages wurde Herrn Prof. Wohlmuth eine Festschrift im Rahmen der Institutsreihe beim LIT-Verlag gewidmet. Titel: "Ökonomische Systeme im Wandel der Weltwirtschaft. Economic Systems in a Changing World Economy".  Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier "Economic Systems in a Changing World Economy": this book is a gift to Professor Karl Wohlmuth, written by former students, friends, colleagues, and companions, to honour him on his 65th birthday, December 8th, 2007.  For further information please click here.

 

African Development Perspectives Yearbook Vol. 12 (2007): Karl Wohlmuth, Chicot Eboué, Achim Gutowski, Afeikhena Jerome, Tobias Knedlik, Mareike Meyn, Touna Mama (Eds.) Africa - Commodity Dependence, Resource Curse and Export Diversification, Lit-Verlag, Hamburg, Münster.  For further details click  here

African Institutions could acquire Yearbook 12 to the subscription price of € 35,- against prepayment (e. g. remitted by cheque).

 

 

The new IWIM publication “Reconstructing Economic Governance after Conflict in Resource-rich African Countries” has been published recently. This publication is a collection of policy briefs written by a various number of African and European researchers on the issue of Reconstructing Economic Governance after Conflict in Resource-rich African Countries. This is the first book that covers this particular issue.  For further information please click here.  Students and IWIM guests would be entitled to receive a price-discounted copy by direct contacting with the staff of IWIM.

 

 

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Status: 15. Februar 2015.