Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven (Research Group)
In Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – Country Cases the Editors took up the event of the Independence of the Republic of South Sudan on July 9, 2011 to publish a special Unit on Sudan and South Sudan as part of the new Yearbook. This Unit 1 on New Economic Policies for Sudan and South Sudan - The Need for a Strategic Economic Cooperation highlights the need for new macroeconomic strategies and policies in Sudan and South Sudan. The Editors were supported by research groups from the two countries. The authors of this Unit 1 are convinced that new macroeconomic policies (supported by medium-term and long-term development strategies) and a strategic economic and political co-operation between the two countries (based on visions of sustainable growth in the border areas) are necessary for Sudan and South Sudan to reach peace and development.
Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook contains as well a Unit 2 on Macroeconomic Policies in West Africa. Researchers from academic institutions in Nigeria and Senegal, and from WAMA (West African Monetary Agency) and WAMI (West African Monetary Institute) have contributed to this important Unit. The established CFA-based WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union) integration process is contrasted with the newly established WAMZ (West African Monetary Zone) integration process. Senegal was included as a country case for the WAEMU, while Nigeria is a case for the WAMZ.
In Unit 3 of Volume 17 a great number of book reviews and book notes are presented and so this Unit 3 is a valuable source of information on new books, journal issues, documents and research papers with a focus on macroeconomic policy formation in Africa. The Unit 3 gives access to a great number of economic reports on Africa economies. Volume 17 is complementary to Volume 16 on Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa – General Issues which presents a new macroeconomic strategy for Africa (see the short description of the contents of volume 17 on the back cover of the book).
The New Volume 17: Order your copy at LIT (Link: http://www.lit-verlag.de/london/ )
The New Macroeconomic Strategy For Africa as developed in Volume 16 focusses on employment-targeting by considering the policy space for more facilitating fiscal, monetary and exchange rate policies. The New Strategy emphasizes also the vulnerability to (external and internal) shocks and the resilience factors so as to cope successfully with these shocks. As well the New Strategy considers those elements of macroeconomic policies which support inclusive and sustainable growth. Also, the New Strategy requests the adaptation of macroeconomic policies to the specific levels of economic governance and economic globalization of the country in question. Last, but not least, in the New Strategy institutional factors, such as a better cooperation of the three poles of macroeconomic policy-making (Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning, Central Bank), are taken into account.
Volume 16 also presents an analysis of the economics of the Arab Spring countries. How the political situation in the Arab Spring countries will develop in the years to come is unclear, but the need for sustainable macroeconomic policies and for inclusive growth policies is evident. The economics of the Arab Spring countries reveals that - despite of considerable economic growth prior to the Arab Spring events – inadequate employment growth, slow human capital accumulation, and a highly restricted and unequal access to economic opportunities are among the major causes of the “Arab Spring” uprisings. There is more need for employment targeting in macroeconomic policies, for macroeconomic policies emphasizing inclusive growth policies, and for considering vulnerability and resilience factors, economic governance and economic globalization trends, and institutional reforms regarding the key macroeconomic policy-making institutions.
Because of the great number of high-quality submissions of papers for Volume 18 on Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration the International Call for Papers for this volume was closed recently (but submissions of papers on successfully and competitively exporting African companies and on global and regional value chains led by African firms are still accepted).
The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is released since 1989 by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen celebrates in 2014 a quarter of a century of publication activity. Over the years the African Development Perspectives Yearbook became the major English-language Annual on African Development in Germany. Volumes 16 and 17 were supported with contributions and advice by staff from ILO/Geneva, UNESCWA/Beirut and UNDP/Cairo, by staff from research institutions in Egypt, Nigeria and Senegal, and by staff from ECOWAS/WAMZ/WAMI institutions in West Africa. The Managing Editor (Professor Dr. T. Knedlik, University of Fulda and IWH Halle), the Review Editor (Professor Dr. A. Gutowski, University Campus Hamburg) and the Volume Editor (Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen) prepare now Volume 18 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for the year 2015 with the title “Africa’s Progress towards Regional and Global Economic Integration”. See more about the Yearbook Project ( http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm ). See the complete list of Yearbook volumes since 1989 at http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm and the list of the Yearbook volumes being still available with the publisher at: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy.
A New Macroeconomic Strategy For Africa is presented in Volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. The New Macroeconomic Strategy For Africa focusses on employment-targeting by considering the policy space for more facilitating fiscal, monetary and exchange rate policies. The New Strategy emphasizes also the vulnerability to (external and internal) shocks and the resilience factors so as to cope successfully with these shocks. As well the New Strategy considers those elements of macroeconomic policies which support inclusive and sustainable growth. Also, the New Strategy requests the adaptation of macroeconomic policies to the specific levels of economic governance and economic globalization of the country in question. Last, but not least, in the New Strategy institutional factors, such as the better cooperation of the three poles of macroeconomic policy-making (Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning, Central Bank), are taken into account.
Volume 16 also presents an analysis of the economics of the Arab Spring countries. However the political developments in the Arab Spring countries will develop, the need for sustainable macroeconomic policies and for inclusive growth policies is evident. The economics of the Arab Spring countries reveals that - despite of considerable economic growth prior to the Arab Spring events inadequate employment growth, slow human capital accumulation, and a highly restricted access to economic opportunities are among the major causes of the "Arab Spring" uprisings. There is more need for employment targeting in macroeconomic policies, for macroeconomic policies emphasizing inclusive growth policies, and for considering vulnerability and resilience factors, economic governance and economic globalization trends, and institutional reforms regarding the key macroeconomic policy-making institutions.
A Companion Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook will report on country cases (Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, South Sudan) and on ECOWAS/WAMZ regional economic and monetary integration issues. Volume 17 is also expected in 2014.
The New Volume: Order your copy at LIT (Link: http://www.lit-verlag.de/london/ )
The African Development Perspectives Yearbook The Flagship Publication of IWIM
The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is released since 1989 by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives. Over the years the Yearbook became the major English-language Annual on African Development in Germany. Volumes 16 and 17 were supported with contributions also by staff from ILO/Geneva, UNESCWA/Beirut and UNDP/Cairo, by research institutions in Egypt and by ECOWAS/WAMZ/WAMI/Freetown staff in West Africa. The Managing Editor (Dr. T. Knedlik, IWH Halle) and the Volume Editor (Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen) prepare now Volume 18 of the Yearbook for the year 2015 with the title "Africa's Progress towards Regional and Global Economic Integration". The Call for Papers for Volume 18 is still open (Call for Papers Volume 18: PDF). See more about the Yearbook Project ( http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm ).
Volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title "Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa" has been finalized and the manuscript is now with the publisher (see the Synopsis for Volume 16), and the work on Volume 17 with the title "Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration" is starting soon.
Contributors are invited to submit their proposals and abstracts (see the International Call for Papers for Volume 17) to the Editors. Also potential Guest Editors are invited to express their interest to edit one of the four Units of Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook - from the conceptual start to the final editorial work. Guest Editors can see the details about the four Units in the Call for Papers for Volume 17. Please contact the Managing Editor and the Volume Editor of Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook in case of interest. For Unit 5 (Unit with Book Reviews and Book Notes) publishers and institutes are invited to send their books, research papers, issues of journals and documents to the Book Reviews/Book Notes Editor (see also the respective details in the International Call for Papers for Volume 17).
The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is published by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen which has established since 1989 (the year of the publication of Volume 1 on Human Dimensions of Adjustment) an international network of scientific supporters and contributors (see details on the Research Group on African Development Perspectives). The African Development Perspectives Yearbook selects for each volume a specific theme of utmost importance for the building of new policy and governance frameworks in Africa (see the details about the already Published Volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook). The main purpose of the edited volumes is it to inform the public about recent developments in Africa - by academic articles, analytical reports, specific country information and project reports. The aim is also to influence about inclusive and sustainable development strategies in Africa policy makers in governments, in the UN and related organizations, in the global donor community and in international NGOs, but also development experts at universities and media people.
Because of the great number of submissions for Volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook the International Call for Papers is closed for Unit 1 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa: Major Issues), Unit 2 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in North African "Arab Spring" Countries) and Unit 3 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Fragile and Post-Conflict African Countries).
Still open is the International Call for Papers for Unit 4 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Western and Central Africa), particularly for submissions on Central African countries, and for Unit 5 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Eastern and Southern Africa).
Also for Unit 6 (Book Reviews and Book Notes) further inputs (books, discussion papers, research papers, research documents) from publishers, development institutions and research institutes are welcomed.
Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth and UNIDO Director for West Africa Patrick M. Kormawa have released the new report Agribusiness for Africa's Prosperity, Country Case Studies. The report contains eight case studies (Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, and Zambia). Throughout these country case studies analyze the following issues: the case for agro-industrial development; the structure and dynamics of agro-industries; the policies for developing agro-industries; the key policy factors for promoting agribusiness; and the visions, plans, and way forward.
Professor Karl Wohlmuth and UNIDO Director Kormawa highlight the issues and give an overview of the study in the first chapter on Context of Agro-industry in Africa. The country cases are reviewed and assessed. Interesting results for policymakers emerged from the case studies: the ranking of the eight countries according to the actual transformation stage of agro-industry and agribusiness reveals that landlocked and least developed countries can develop these branches of industry with positive effects on employment, poverty reduction, value addition and trade creation, and with sustainable effects on agricultural development and industrialization.
In the final chapter Conclusions the two editors of the report give lessons of more general developmental importance that were derived from the study; as well recommendations for policymakers are presented so as to enable them to modify agro-industrial development policies. Also there are views presented in the report on necessary changes and refinements for UNIDO projects and programs in the eight countries. A New Industrial Policy Framework is proposed and outlined in some detail.
The report gives evidence on the state of agribusiness in these eight countries and is intended to equip policymakers with new analysis, new facts, innovative solutions and comparative insights. The Report is part of the UNIDO project Value Addition to African Industry/Agribusiness for Africa's Prosperity that was guided by the UNIDO Director General Kandeh K. Yumkella and executed by Patirck M. Kormawa, UNIDO Director for West Africa. Professor Karl Wohlmuth has worked as an International Consultant in this Project (see details about the New Project Agro-industries: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Agro-IndustrialDevelopment.htm and for bibliographic reference the Publications Karl Wohlmuth: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-wohlmuth.htm)
This is to inform the public about new researches done by Professor Reuben A. Alabi who is now for three years in Bremen at the Excellence University to do researches on "Waste Management Value Chains in Nigeria. Lessons from Germany and the Country State of Bremen".
The most recent study on agro-industrial development in Nigeria is “Economic Analysis of Effect of Flood on Income Distribution among Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria”. Osasogie Daniel Izevbuwa from the Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria has contributed also to this study (see the PDF of the Journal Article and the Link to the study: http://ijraf.org/v2-i3.php ). What did the study reveal?:
The study estimated the effect of flood on the income distribution of the victims in Etsako East Local Government Area of Edo State. A multistage sampling technique was employed to sample respondents for the study. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used to obtain information from the farmers. The data obtained were analysed econometrically. The income inequality increased among the victims due to the lopsidedness of the distribution of the compensation. For example, the study indicates that the middle income group lost 18% of their income during the flood and they got only 13% of the total compensation, whereas the richest income group lost 33% of their income and received 44% of the total compensation. Corruption and nepotism/tribalism have been implicated for the skewed distribution of the compensation among the victims.
In the prestigious International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington D.C. Professor Alabi and his research team have published the study: “Analysis of Agricultural Public Expenditures in Nigeria, Examination at the Federal, State, and local Government Levels”. The study was published as an IFPRI Discussion Paper 01395 in December 2014 by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (see the PDF of the IFPRI Study). The study comes out with important messages:
The level of public spending on agriculture in Nigeria remains low regardless of the indicator used. Agricultural spending as a share of total federal spending averaged 4.6 percent between 2008 and 2012 and has been trending downward precipitously. In contrast, Nigeria recorded an annual average agricultural growth rate of more than 6 percent between 2003 and 2010, and agricultural gross domestic product followed an increasing trend between 2008 and 2012. Budgetary allocation to agriculture compared with other key sectors is also low despite the sector's role in the fight against poverty, hunger, and unemployment and in the pursuit of economic development. To develop the agricultural sector, all tiers of governmentfederal, state, and localshould increase spending. The state and local governments should step up efforts to increase internally generated revenue so as to reduce overdependence on allocations from the federation account.
Professor Reuben A. Alabi is also contributing to Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with an Essay on The Role Of International Organisations In Promoting Agricultural Export Trade In Sub-Sahara Africa. This study is done in cooperation with Professor Kehinde Omotola Adejuwon, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. This study examines the role of international organisations in promoting agricultural exports in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA), with particular emphasis on IFAD, WTO, and especially the Aid For Trade (AFT) programmes. The study concentrates on four major export crops in SSA, such as cocoa, coffee, cashew and cotton. Professor Alabi is now cooperating since 2004 with the African Development Perspectives Yearbook project.
"Südafrika braucht dringend starke Reformen"
Interview mit Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth zu den wirtschaftlichen Perspektiven Südafrikas; vgl. Web Access:
Professor Jelel Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation (TAASTI), Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El-Manar (UTM), has invited the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to cooperate on the development of a Master Degree Programme in Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP) and on the establishment of an African Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy Institute as well as on the creation of a Pan-African Innovation Ecosystem (PAIES). Tunisia's success of its economic transformation process is dependent on progress in making STI a major force of growth and development.
A Fact Finding Mission to Tunisia will take place in November 2014. Participants are three members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass, Bremen; Professor Achim Gutowski, Hamburg; and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen) and from the Cultural Sciences Professor Dr. Cordula Weisskoeppel, University of Bremen. Also two young scientists from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen (from a research working group of Professor Bass) will participate as members of the team. The Fact Finding Mission will give the opportunity to study Tunisia's National Innovation System, to discuss with representatives of Tunisian government institutions and of Higher Education and STI institutions. There will also be time to discuss about the future cooperation with Professor Ezzine and his team. This first phase of the cooperation is financed by the DAAD. Professor Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen, was the main applicant. Further already scheduled programme components for 2015 are a STII Summer School in Bremen and a STII Research Conference in Tunis.
Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen presents a new research report on the "Africa Rising Story" being so influential at the moment (see the New Research Report). The author is interested to have comments which can be used for a new draft as the research report will be published in various versions.
The "Africa Rising Story" is the theme of the paper. A lot of myths are prevalent on African growth and development, and the international consulting companies play a role in this. Some of these myths are discussed in this paper on the basis of readings of major international consultancy reports, like McKinsey, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Roland Berger, The Boston Consulting Group, Ernst & Young, Bain & Company, ATKearney, KPMG, Deloitte, and many others. These international consultancy companies have a decisive influence on foreign investors in Africa, on multinationals doing business in Africa, but also on governments, on private local businesses in Africa, and, last but not least, also on donors who are engaged in Africa.
Some of these myths are discussed in this paper and confronted with facts and realities (Africa as a continent of top growers; Africa as a continent of booming economic sectors and of expanding consumer classes; Africa as a continent with an increasing number of globally competitive enterprises; Africa as a continent capturing the "demographic dividend" and the advantages of the "digital economy"; and Africa as a continent with an emerging middle class which is taking up developmental roles). Also the methodological frame of these international consultancy reports is considered. There is reference to the background and the motivation of these companies to write on Africa, to their methodologies and analytical approaches, to their functional importance for investors and governments, and to the spread of the messages all over Africa and throughout the development community.
The intention of the paper is it to provide a frame for a more critical assessment of such reports as they are circulated all over the world press and are written so as to influence not only investors but also key political decision-makers.
A further extension of this version of the research report is done by including more insights on the methodologies used by international consultancy companies in their reports on Africa. This extension of the report will then become published in the IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers (see IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers).