Governance and Social Action in Sudan

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Sound economies, sustainable economic policies and strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan:

This was the title of the plenary lecture given by Professor Karl Wohlmuth at the Sudan/South Sudan conference in Hermannsburg which took place from October 31-November 2, 2012 (Link Final Conference Programme). Professor Wohlmuth presented in his lecture five criteria for sound economies and sustainable economic policies in Sudan and South Sudan: 

First, macroeconomic stability has to be provided. Because of the stop of oil production in January 2012 by the government of South Sudan the macroeconomic instability problems were even aggravated in both countries and they are still severe. 

Second, a medium term public finance framework is needed for both countries, especially so because of the volatility of oil revenues and the low importance of non-oil exports. Such medium-term public finance frameworks are not in place, and there is no Permanent Fund/Permanent Income approach at work to smooth the expenditures from the oil revenues towards stabilization and long-term development objectives. 

Third, a redirection of exports towards non-oil products is needed in both countries. However, the time since January 9, 2005 (Comprehensive Peace Agreement) was not used in the two countries for generating non-oil exports. Despite of the huge agricultural resources and the agro-industrial opportunities, both countries are large-scale food importers. 

Fourth, effective social safety nets are needed to protect the poor and the poorest, but also the middle class which became impoverished in recent years, as the available rudimentary social safety systems have rather deteriorated. Public interventions in health and education sectors as well as towards the functioning of the labour market were highly inefficient and ineffective, and macroeconomic policies were not pro-poor.

Fifth, effective reductions of horizontal and vertical inequalities are requested but the reality in both states is that the regional imbalances and the income inequalities have rather increased. This has repercussions on political stability in both countries and on the perspectives of cooperation in the border-belt.


Professor Karl Wohlmuth at the opening of the Plenary Session on Economic Issues in Sudan and South Sudan


Professor Wohlmuth also commented on the Nine Agreements between the two countries from September 27, 2012 at Addis Ababa and on the future tasks to promote a strategic economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. Five core programmes for a strategic economic cooperation were presented (see PDF Sudan-South Sudan-Conference Presentation). Other contributions to the Conference were made by the Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Commission in Juba, South Sudan on the fight against corruption in South Sudan, by the General Secretary of SPLM/N on the situation in Darfur, South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Khartoum by highlighting the perspectives for peaceful solutions. The former head of UNMIS in Juba spoke on national and regional challenges for the two states and the role of outsiders. The current situation of Abyei area was considered by a Member of the South Sudan Parliament representing Abyei in Juba.


Professor Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen, Justice John Gatwech Lul, Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Commission, Juba, South Sudan, and Marina Peter, Sudan Focal Point Europe and Conference Chair in a Plenary Discussion on Corruption in Sudan and South Sudan


The conference was attended by around 120 participants, among others by representatives of the civil society of Sudan and South Sudan, by regional and international church organizations and NGOs, by government organizations and ambassadors of Sudan and South Sudan, by media people and researchers on Sudan, by members of the German parliament, by the donor community, and by representatives from the SPLM/N speaking for ethnic and disadvantaged groups in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States. The Conference Communique (see Communique Hermannsburg Conference) presents a call for peace, reconciliation and good neighbourliness. The communique emphasizes also: "To avoid new conflicts and ensure sustainable peace, natural resource management and equitable sharing of resources should be a top priority at all levels in society – starting from the bottom-up. Oil is a key element, but a sound economy needs to be built on diversified sources of income. A strategic approach for economic relations between Sudan and South Sudan, with a special focus on the border areas, could help to safeguard peace and good neigbourliness. However, a prerequisite is to immediately address the needs of the people, and the end of armed conflicts." 

This Sudan/South Sudan Conference was the 25th in Hermannsburg which was directed by Marina Peter and Hermann Hartmann (see the leaflet informing about these 25 conferences: Leaflet Hermannsburg Conferences).


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Researches on Governance and Reconstruction of Governance in Sudan and South Sudan in the years 2005-2012: Final Report to the Volkswagen Foundation

Soon after the conclusion of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement for Sudan (CPA) on January 9, 2005 the Research Project "Governance and Social Action in Sudan" started at IWIM, University of Bremen. It was directed by Professor Karl Wohlmuth and Dr. Elke Grawert. It was the purpose of the Project to follow up the process of transition after the CPA towards reconstruction of governance at various levels of decision-making, and thereby to analyze the conditions for development and a sustainable peace. A network of researchers from universities in Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, Ethiopia and staff from IWIM, University of Bremen were involved. The Project was the first one approved in the context of  the Volkswagen Foundation's new Sub-Saharan Africa Research Initiative, and it got generous support during two project phases (Links: and The Project had also a training component as PhD students and Master students were trained. By research workshops in Bremen and in all the other Project Countries the students were trained to do field research in and near the conflict areas (such as refugee camps, conflict areas, border areas, etc.). 

Many publications were released by the project professors and by the project students. Considerable human capital was built and a future-oriented network of research partnerships has emerged. The trained young professionals are now starting their own research projects and use intensively the network that was established during these seven years of cooperative researches.

Now the Final Report to the Volkswagen Foundation was released by the Project Coordinator Dr. Elke Grawert. She is now Research Coordinator at the Bonn International Center for Conversion/BICC in Bonn. The Report will be released to the Public quite soon. Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth from IWIM continues his researches on Sudan/South Sudan with a New Project on "Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan". There was a rather smooth process towards a Referendum on Independence of South Sudan on January 9, 2011 and towards the official Declaration of Independence of South Sudan on July 9, 2011. However, since these days the relations between the two states have deteriorated to the extent that now - over more than a year starting in January 2012 - the oil production in South Sudan had been stopped because of accusations of unfair treatment by the partner. The oil is produced near the international border in the South Sudan but the infrastructure of Sudan is needed for transport and processing towards export via Port Sudan. Both states now suffer from huge losses of public revenues and foreign exchange despite of the nine September 2012 agreements in Addis Ababa about all the open security, border and finance issues. A Strategic Economic Cooperation is needed between the two countries as the border regions of the two states are of extremely great economic importance for Sudan and South Sudan (Links: and



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Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan

Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan:

This is the title of a paper proposed by Professor Karl Wohlmuth for the Annual Conference 2013 of the Graduate College and the Directorate of Scientific Research and Cultural Relations of the University of Khartoum, Republic of the Sudan. Professor Wohlmuth was invited to this event by the Graduate College and the Directorate of Scientific Research and Cultural Relations of the University of Khartoum. The theme of the conference is: "Towards a Confident Renaissance". The conference is held at the Friendship Hall in Khartoum and at the University of Khartoum-Main Campus. 

The theme Economic Policy for Peace, Development and Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan as submitted to the conference is based on the recent research work by Professor Karl Wohlmuth on Strategic Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan (see about the research program and the research output the link: 

Researches on the Sudan at the University of Bremen have a long history dating back to the year 1978 (see the list of selected publications of the Sudan Economy Research Group/SERG with the link:

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Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern/Social Policy in Developing Countries:

Nicht nur im "Handbuch Sozialpolitiken der Welt", sondern auch im Band "Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern" ist der Bremer Wirtschaftsprofessor Karl Wohlmuth mit einem Beitrag über die Sozialpolitik in den Republiken Sudan und Süd-Sudan vertreten. Die besondere Bedeutung dieses Bandes ergibt sich aus der Tatsache, dass die Sozialpolitik zu einem wichtigen Prüfkriterium für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, insbesondere auch der Europäischen Union, geworden ist (vgl. Publikationen Karl Wohlmuth).

Der zweite European Report on Development (ERD) für das Jahr 2010 hat den Titel "Social protection for inclusive development - a new perspective in EU co-operation with Africa" (vgl. Link: In der Zwischenzeit liegt der vierte ERD vor (vgl. Link: und thematisiert ebenfalls Fragen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, und zwar mit dem Fokus auf die Post-2015 Global Agenda.

Zudem wird das Thema der Sozialpolitik für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und für die nationale Politik in Entwicklungsländern immer wichtiger, weil die Reaktion der Staaten auf die Weltfinanzkrise 2008/09 gezeigt hat, dass Entwicklungsländer mit einer aktiven Sozialpolitik Krisen schneller und besser überwinden können. Einkommens- und Beschäftigungsverluste sowie negative Folgen der Krise für Ernährung, Bildung und Gesundheit können eher bewältigt werden. Auch für die makroökonomische Steuerung ergeben sich Vorteile. Zudem wird die Politik der Armutsbekämpfung wesentlich effektiver, wenn grundlegende Elemente einer Sozialpolitik vorhanden sind und systematisch ausgebaut werden.



Sozialpolitik im Sudan und im Süd-Sudan, in:

Sozialpolitik in Entwicklungsländern - ein Handbuch, Berlin: LIT Verlag, 2013

(New Publication: Social Policies in Sudan and South Sudan,

in: Social Policies in Developing Economies - A Handbook, Berlin 2013)


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New Research Report on Economic Cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan: Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Paper Number 40 is now published

In the new research report Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 Professor Karl Wohlmuth analyses the future of economic cooperation between Sudan and South Sudan. The report is based on the Keynote Lecture at the International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference 2012 at the University of Bonn. The Report is an extension and update of the former paper presented at the conference (Link: ).


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Neuer Forschungsbericht über die ökonomische Kooperation von Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 ist erschienen

In dem neuen Forschungsbericht Sudan Economy Research Group Discussion Papers Number 40 analysiert Professor Karl Wohlmuth die zukünftigen Kooperationsmöglichkeiten und Kooperationsnotwendigkeiten zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Der Forschungsbericht basiert auf der Keynote Lecture, die  Professor Karl Wohlmuth bei der International Sudan and South Sudan Studies Conference 2012 an der Universität Bonn gehalten hat. Das dort vorgelegte Paper wurde für die SERG-Reihe überarbeitet und aktualisiert (Link: ).


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Vom Sudan nach Namibia: Eine Vortragsreihe der Universität Bremen in Verbindung mit zwei Ausstellungen

Die Universität Bremen dokumentiert ihre Zusammenarbeit mit afrikanischen universitären Partnern im Rahmen von Ausstellungen und einer Vortragsreihe vom 30. April – 28. Mai 2013 im DGB-Haus am Hauptbahnhof (vgl. den Flyer zu der Veranstaltung: ). 

Sowohl die Kooperation von Wissenschaftlern der Universität Bremen mit Namibia als auch jene mit dem Sudan währt nun schon über 35 Jahre. In der Zwischenzeit sind zahlreiche weitere Kooperationen mit Afrika dazugekommen und prägen Lehre und Forschung der Exzellenzuniversität.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth wird am 28. Mai 2013 zum Thema "Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation" einen Vortrag halten (vgl. Synopse unter: Berichtet wird über die Projekte der Zusammenarbeit mit dem Sudan und über die aktuellen Forschungen zu den Entwicklungen nach der Unabhängigkeitserklärung des Süd-Sudan vom 9. Juli 2011 (vgl. dazu ausführlich: und ).

Die Veranstaltung wird am 30. April 2013 von Frau Prof. Dr. Yasemin Karakasoglu, Konrektorin für Interkulturalität und Internationalität, und von S. E. Neville Gertze, Botschafter der Republik Namibia, feierlich eröffnet. Prof. Dr. Manfred Hinz hält den Eröffnungsvortrag.


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Wissenschaftliche Kooperation der Universität Bremen mit Afrika: Das Sudanprojekt der Universität Bremen am IWIM

Im Rahmen der Vortragsreihe "Vom Sudan nach Namibia", organisiert vom Rektorat und dem International Office der Universität Bremen in Verbindung mit Institutionen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit in Bremen, hielt Professor Karl Wohlmuth einen Vortrag über "Sudan und Süd-Sudan: Vom Konflikt zur Kooperation?. Frau Prof. Dr. Yasemin Karakasoglu, Konrektorin für Interkulturalität und Internationalität, eröffnete den Vortragsabend. Der Professor ging zunächst auf die Phasen des Sudanprojektes an der Universität Bremen (Sudanforschungsgruppe Bremen) seit den 70er Jahren bis zur Gegenwart ein und analysierte dann die Ursachen der Konflikte zwischen dem Sudan und dem Süd-Sudan. Auf Möglichkeiten und Chancen einer zukünftigen Kooperation der beiden Länder wurde eingegangen. 

Im Vortrag wurden fünf Themen behandelt: Erstens, die Konflikte im Sudan: Ursachen, Einflussfaktoren, Perioden; zweitens, das sudanesische Wachstumsmodell und die Konflikte; drittens, die Geographie, Intensität und Dynamik der Konflikte im Sudan/Süd-Sudan; viertens, Ansätze für eine Lösung der Konflikte durch eine grundlegend neue Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik; und fünftens, Ansätze für eine Lösung der Konflikte durch eine strategische ökonomische Kooperation zwischen Sudan und Süd-Sudan. Eine lebhafte Diskussion über die Thesen des Bremer Sudanforschers schloss sich an den Vortrag an. Die Präsentation wird auf Grund des bekundeten Interesses nun einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit zugänglich gemacht (Link: PDF Präsentation). Ein Draft Paper zum Vortrag und Aufsätze des Referenten zu den behandelten Themen liegen vor (vgl. Publikationen von Karl Wohlmuth). Über diese Themen wird im Rahmen der Sudanforschungsgruppe der Universität Bremen in den kommenden Jahren weiter gearbeitet (Link: Sudanforschungsgruppe).


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A New Development Strategy for Sudan: “Sudan in the 21st Century - Seeking Pathways Forward”

The outline of a new development strategy for Sudan was prepared by Dr. Mohamed al Murtada Mustafa. Dr. Murtada was the first permanent Undersecretary for Labour in the Sudan, the Director of the African Regional Labour Administration Centre (ARLAC) for the English-speaking African countries in Harare, Zimbabwe, and then the Director of the International Labour Office in Egypt before retiring to academic and philanthropic endeavours in Khartoum. He was educated at Addis Ababa University, Harvard University, the University of Wisconsin, Northeastern University, and the International Institute for Labour Studies in Geneva. Dr. Murtada was an early collaborator of the Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) in Bremen. He has supported the research work on Sudan in Bremen tremendously. Now he pays again tribute to his country by presenting to key policymakers the contours of a new development strategy for Sudan which is based on decades of experience as a civil service official and member of the Government of Sudan and as an employee and head of offices of the  ILO with working times in Khartoum, Geneva, Harare, and Cairo. Dr. Murtada has published in IWIM publication series, such as in the SERG Discussion Paper Series, but also in the IWIM Book Series (see the link to the IWIM Homepage, Publications:

The frame and the basic ideas for a new development strategy for Sudan are summarised below in the words of Dr.  Murtada (taken from the Strategy Paper, which will be published as the number 43 in the SERG Discussion Paper Series, with the links: and

The earliest studies by the International Labour Office (ILO) in conjunction with the Sudanese Government (Ministry of Labour) and the University of Bremen (SERG) in 1976 up to today repeat almost the same recommendations to enhance and improve the Sudanese economy. The recommendations were, just to mention some key ones: Improve infrastructure; develop industry; link agriculture to manufacturing; increase vocational and technical training; reform taxes to encourage industry and exports; support small industries, the vulnerable people, and remote regions; institute rule of law; ensure contract enforcement and transparency to encourage foreign investment;  and provide for sustainable economic policies via effective institutions and a responsible macroeconomic policy formation. Whether from lack of political will, leadership, economic means, or external financial investment, the neglect of all these recommendations along with conflict, civil war and international sanctions has continued to disintegrate the development options in the Sudan. After decades of conflict and civil war, the government of Sudan now faces the burden of reconstructing the country, the society and its economy, of repatriating internally displaced persons (IDPs) and providing training and jobs for them in urban and rural areas, also to replace redundant cattle-herding livelihoods and to initiate agricultural projects for food security in depleted environments. While the discovery of oil brought revenue before the great country of the Sudan split into two republics, the oil money was not properly used to expand and to develop the economy. The agricultural sector, the industrial sector, the civil service, and the education sector deteriorated from the satisfactory state they were left in by the British at independence. Although the country since independence has presented a lot of plans and programmes, implementation was always weak or non-existent.

This strategy paper by Dr. Murtada outlines changes which are necessary to get the economy back on track in five major sectors stemming from and supporting institutional revisions: education, entrepreneurship, agriculture, industry, and management. While the short-term and the long-term solutions are outlined, the Sudanese people themselves need to pull together, to stop competing for power and land, to produce and support fresh leaders, and to begin to consider the long-term conditions of the country for the good of its own people. The Strategy Paper is structured as follows: After the Introduction (section 1) the section 2 is on Building Capacity, Growth, and Employment through Education, with Recommendations for Education. The section 3 is on Combatting Unemployment, Promoting Growth through Entrepreneurship, with Recommendations for Entrepreneurship. Section. Section 4 is on Improving Growth and Employment through Agriculture, with Recommendations for Agriculture. The section 5 is on. Growth and Employment through Industry, with Recommendations for Industry. The section 6 is on Management, by Improving Civil Service, People, Goods, and Resources, with Recommendations for Management. Section 7  is on. Results of Past Efforts and Lessons Learned. The Section 8 is Towards a New Strategy. And the final section 9 is on Conclusions, followed by References on the history of policymaking in Sudan.             

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen has given advice to the author during the process of finalizing the Strategy Paper and has peer-reviewed the paper. The research on Sudan and South Sudan is continuing at the University of Bremen (see the links to the websites: and:

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Sudan: From an oil-based economy to an agriculture-based and science-based economy?

Prominent Sudanese scientists from universities and research institutions in Sudan and at UNESCO Cairo and Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen are launching a new strategy for a transition of Sudan from an oil-based development path towards an agriculture-based and science-based development model. This is a part (Unit 2) of the forthcoming Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook on “Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Inclusive Growth in Africa. General Issues and Country Cases”. Professor Dr. Samia Satti Osman Mohamed Nour and Professor Karl Wohlmuth contributed an Introductory Essay to the theme under the title: “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Sudan’s Economic Revitalization - An Introduction”. The Unit 2 in Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title: “Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policies for Sudan’s Economic Revitalization”  has four additional essays. Professor Samia Satti Nour presents an analysis of the national innovation system (NIS) of Sudan, by focusing on three subsystems, the education institutions subsystem, the science & technology institutions subsystem, and the ICT institutions subsystem; the weaknesses of the NIS are highlighted and an agenda for action is proposed. She also presents in a second essay an analysis about innovative industrial firms in Sudan, focussing on two internationally active Sudanese conglomerates in the food industry, on two large-sized companies (belonging to the chemical and food industries) and on two medium-sized companies (belonging to the metal and textile industries). The purpose is to assess how innovative these companies really are and how they could improve their innovation performance. It is also measured by a new analytical approach how far away these companies are from the innovation frontier, and it is analysed what the government and the private sector can do to stimulate STI in the Sudanese companies.

Migdam E. Abdelgani, from the National Centre for Research (NCR), Environment, Natural Resources and Desertification Research Institute (ENDRI), and Nazar Mohamed Hassan, from the UNESCO Cairo Office, provide an essay on the impact of agricultural research on the agriculture yields in Sudan. ENDRI has recently launched the Environment and Natural Resources International Journal (ENRIJ), with volume 1 and number 1 published in 2016 (link:; ENDRI is a key research institution in Sudan. This essay is analysing the factors which are impeding yield increases in Sudan, but this essay is also using the example of the national crops campaigns in Egypt (such as for rice production increases) as a model of large-scale testing of agricultural research results in the field.

Finally, the Unit 2 on Sudan in Volume 20 presents an analysis by Mohammed Elhaj Mustafa Ali from the University of Kassala and the Sudan International University (SIU) about knowledge spillovers from foreign investors in Sudan to local companies. Although the oil-based growth in Sudan has attracted mainly investment for the oil sector, foreign investment was also incoming to supply the growing Sudanese consumption market and to invest in agriculture and services sectors of Sudan. The essay on knowledge spillovers from foreign direct investors to domestic firms in Sudan gives also an agenda of how to stimulate technology transfers from foreign firms to domestic firms.

In the Introductory Essay by Professor Samia Satti Nour and by Professor Karl Wohlmuth also an Agenda for Reforms aimed at Economic Revitalization through STI Development is presented. The Strategy proposed has short-term to medium-term to long-term implications for reforming institutions and policies. Professor Samia Satti Nour is a prominent researcher on STI development. She recently has obtained a full professorship at Khartoum University (see the PDFs of the Inaugural Lecture/ICT Development in Sudan and the Inaugural Lecture/Academic Profile of and Awards to Professor Samia Satti Nour, as well as the PDF on the Abstract in English and in Arabic of her Springer Book ICT in Sudan). Professor Wohlmuth was invited to attend the inaugural meeting at the University of Khartoum. Professor Samia Satti Nour is adviser to the African Development Perspectives Yearbook programme for Volume 20 and Co-editor of Volume 20. Recently she has presented a Policy Note on the multiple Digital Divides in Africa for The Nordic Africa Institute (see the PDF: NAI Policy Note).

Dr. Hassan Mohamed Nazar is also Co-editor of the Volume 20 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook. He is Senior Science and Technology Specialist for the Arab States in UNESCO’s Cairo Office since 2009. He has massively contributed to the Introductory Unit 1 for Volume 20 (together with Professor Karl Wohlmuth), and he has participated as a speaker at the Launch Event for volumes 18 and 19 of the Yearbook in Kigali, Rwanda in October 2016 at the invitation of UNECA. In the Unit 2 on Sudan for Volume 20 he contributed with an essay on the role of agricultural research for increasing agricultural yields in Sudan, an essay which was written in cooperation with Migdam E. Abdelgani.  Dr. Hassan Mohamed Nazar has also established the Sudan Knowledge (SK) Platform  to make the intellectual capacities of the Sudanese researchers and other experts and policymakers known more widely and to allow for a broader use of these capacities for development. The SK Platform is a strong network of researchers, policy makers, educators, consultants and employers from all parts of the world to exchange knowledge and experience and to discuss current developments and challenges. This Directory of Capacities of the Sudanese can be used to help find, support and collaborate with experts from the SK network. The Sudan Knowledge Network aims also to bring together researchers and experts from the Diaspora (see the various links:, and:, and:

Migdam E. Abdelgani, from the National Centre for Research (NCR), is known for his study (in cooperation with other Sudanese researchers) about “Potential Production and Application of Biofertilizers in Sudan”, published in the Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9 (9), pp. 926-934, 2010 (link: These ideas are relevant for an agricultural transformation strategy which is part of the economic revitalization programme for Sudan.

Dr. Mohamed Elhaj Mustafa Ali, as the author on the essay about knowledge spillovers from foreign investors to domestic firms in Sudan, is lecturer at the University of Kassala and at the Sudan International University (link: He is expert on foreign direct investment in Sudan and has recently published a Policy Brief on the relevant issues of foreign investment in Sudan in Bremen at the SERG/IWIM platforms (see the PDF: Mustafa Ali -Policy Brief). He has also published a Policy Brief for the Economic Research Forum (ERF) in Cairo on “Measures to Protect Poor Sudanese Households from the Risks of Catastrophic Health Expenditures” (see the PDF: PB28-Mustafa Ali).

There are intentions to continue to cooperate in the future on the most important issues of STI development for Sudan. The Sudan Economy Research Group (SERG) Discussion Paper Series is still open for researchers from Sudan to publish on these most important issues (see the links to the series:, and:

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