Publikationsprojekt Afrika-Jahrbuch

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Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa: International Call for Papers for Volume 16 of the Africa Yearbook

Because of the great number of submissions for Volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook the International Call for Papers is closed for Unit 1 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa: Major Issues), Unit 2 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in North African "Arab Spring" Countries) and Unit 3 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Fragile and Post-Conflict African Countries).

Still open is the International Call for Papers for Unit 4 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Western and Central Africa), particularly for submissions on Central African countries, and for Unit 5 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Eastern and Southern Africa).

Also for Unit 6 (Book Reviews and Book Notes) further inputs (books, discussion papers, research papers, research documents) from publishers, development institutions and research institutes are welcomed.

Call for Papers Volume 16: Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa


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New UNIDO Report on Africa's Agroindustry and Agribusiness Released in Vienna:

Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth and UNIDO Director for West Africa Patrick M. Kormawa have released the new report Agribusiness for Africa's Prosperity, Country Case Studies. The report contains eight case studies (Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, and Zambia). Throughout these country case studies analyze the following issues: the case for agro-industrial development; the structure and dynamics of agro-industries; the policies for developing agro-industries; the key policy factors for promoting agribusiness; and the visions, plans, and way forward. 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth and UNIDO Director Kormawa highlight the issues and give an overview of the study in the first chapter on Context of Agro-industry in Africa. The country cases are reviewed and assessed. Interesting results for policymakers emerged from the case studies: the ranking of the eight countries according to the actual transformation stage of agro-industry and agribusiness reveals that landlocked and least developed countries can develop these branches of industry with positive effects on employment, poverty reduction, value addition and trade creation, and with sustainable effects on agricultural development and industrialization. 

In the final chapter Conclusions the two editors of the report give lessons of more general developmental importance that were derived from the study; as well recommendations for policymakers are presented so as to enable them to modify agro-industrial development policies. Also there are views presented in the report on necessary changes and refinements for UNIDO projects and programs in the eight countries. A New Industrial Policy Framework is proposed and outlined in some detail. 

The report gives evidence on the state of agribusiness in these eight countries and is intended to equip policymakers with new analysis, new facts, innovative solutions and comparative insights. The Report is part of the UNIDO project Value Addition to African Industry/Agribusiness for Africa's Prosperity that was guided by the UNIDO Director General Kandeh K. Yumkella and executed by Patirck M. Kormawa, UNIDO Director for West Africa. Professor Karl Wohlmuth has worked as an International Consultant in this Project (see details about the New Project Agro-industries: and for bibliographic reference the Publications Karl Wohlmuth:


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Agro-industrial Development in Nigeria: New Publications by IWIM's Guest Professor Reuben A. Alabi

This is to inform the public about new researches done by Professor Reuben A. Alabi who is now for three years in Bremen at the Excellence University to do researches on "Waste Management Value Chains in Nigeria. Lessons from Germany and the Country State of Bremen".

The most recent study on agro-industrial development in Nigeria is “Economic Analysis of Effect of Flood on Income Distribution among Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria”. Osasogie Daniel Izevbuwa from the Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria has contributed also to this study (see the PDF of the Journal Article and the Link to the study: ). What did the study reveal?:

The study estimated the effect of flood on the income distribution of the victims in Etsako East Local Government Area of Edo State. A multistage sampling technique was employed to sample respondents for the study. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used to obtain information from the farmers. The data obtained were analysed econometrically. The income inequality increased among the victims due to the lopsidedness of the distribution of the compensation. For example, the study indicates that the middle income group lost 18% of their income during the flood and they got only 13% of the total compensation, whereas the richest income group lost 33% of their income and received 44% of the total compensation. Corruption and nepotism/tribalism have been implicated for the skewed distribution of the compensation among the victims.

In the prestigious International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington D.C. Professor Alabi and his research team have published the study: “Analysis of Agricultural Public Expenditures in Nigeria, Examination at the Federal, State, and local Government Levels”. The study was published as an IFPRI Discussion Paper 01395 in December 2014 by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (see the PDF of the IFPRI Study). The study comes out with important messages:

The level of public spending on agriculture in Nigeria remains low regardless of the indicator used. Agricultural spending as a share of total federal spending averaged 4.6 percent between 2008 and 2012 and has been trending downward precipitously. In contrast, Nigeria recorded an annual average agricultural growth rate of more than 6 percent between 2003 and 2010, and agricultural gross domestic product followed an increasing trend between 2008 and 2012. Budgetary allocation to agriculture compared with other key sectors is also low despite the sector's role in the fight against poverty, hunger, and unemployment and in the pursuit of economic development. To develop the agricultural sector, all tiers of government—federal, state, and local—should increase spending. The state and local governments should step up efforts to increase internally generated revenue so as to reduce overdependence on allocations from the federation account.

Professor Reuben A. Alabi is also contributing to Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with an Essay on The Role Of International Organisations In Promoting Agricultural Export Trade In Sub-Sahara Africa. This study is done in cooperation with Professor Kehinde Omotola Adejuwon, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. This study examines the role of international organisations in promoting agricultural exports in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA), with particular emphasis on IFAD, WTO, and especially the Aid For Trade (AFT) programmes. The study concentrates on four major export crops in SSA, such as cocoa, coffee, cashew and cotton. Professor Alabi is now cooperating since 2004 with the African Development Perspectives Yearbook project.

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Die Entwicklungsperspektiven von Südafrika

Abgehängtes Schwellenland?

"Südafrika braucht dringend starke Reformen"

Interview mit Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth zu den wirtschaftlichen Perspektiven Südafrikas; vgl. Web Access:


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Towards Sustainable Science, Technology, Industry, and Innovation (STII) Policies in Tunisia - A Cooperation between the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen and Tunisian Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Institutions

Professor Jelel Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation (TAASTI), Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El-Manar (UTM), has invited the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to cooperate on the development of a Master Degree Programme in Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP) and on the establishment of an African Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy Institute as well as on the creation of a Pan-African Innovation Ecosystem (PAIES). Tunisia's success of its economic transformation process is dependent on progress in making STI a major force of growth and development.

A Fact Finding Mission to Tunisia will take place in November 2014. Participants are three members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass, Bremen; Professor Achim Gutowski, Hamburg; and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen) and from the Cultural Sciences Professor Dr. Cordula Weisskoeppel, University of Bremen. Also two young scientists from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen (from a research working group of Professor Bass) will participate as members of the team. The Fact Finding Mission will give the opportunity to study Tunisia's National Innovation System, to discuss with representatives of Tunisian government institutions and of Higher Education and STI institutions. There will also be time to discuss about the future cooperation with Professor Ezzine and his team. This first phase of the cooperation is financed by the DAAD. Professor Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen,  was the main applicant.  Further already scheduled programme components for 2015 are a STII Summer School in Bremen and a STII Research Conference in Tunis.


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"African Lions, African Tigers and Emerging African Middle Classes": A new Research Report

Professor Karl Wohlmuth from the University of Bremen presents a new research report on the "Africa Rising Story" being so influential at the moment (see the New Research Report). The author is interested to have comments which can be used for a new draft as the research report will be published in various versions.

The "Africa Rising Story" is the theme of the paper. A lot of myths are prevalent on African growth and development, and the international consulting companies play a role in this. Some of these myths are discussed in this paper on the basis of readings of major international consultancy reports, like McKinsey, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Roland Berger, The Boston Consulting Group, Ernst & Young, Bain & Company, ATKearney, KPMG, Deloitte, and many others. These international consultancy companies have a decisive influence on foreign investors in Africa, on multinationals doing business in Africa, but also on governments, on private local businesses in Africa, and, last but not least, also on donors who are engaged in Africa.

Some of these myths are discussed in this paper and confronted with facts and realities (Africa as a continent of top growers; Africa as a continent of booming economic sectors and of expanding consumer classes; Africa as a continent with an increasing number of globally competitive enterprises; Africa as a continent capturing the "demographic dividend" and the advantages of the "digital economy"; and Africa as a continent with an emerging middle class which is taking up developmental roles). Also the methodological frame of these international consultancy reports is considered. There is reference to the background and the motivation of these companies to write on Africa, to their methodologies and analytical approaches, to their functional importance for investors and governments, and to the spread of the messages all over Africa and throughout the development community.

The intention of the paper is it to provide a frame for a more critical assessment of such reports as they are circulated all over the world press and are written so as to influence not only investors but also key political decision-makers.

A further extension of this version of the research report is done by including more insights on the methodologies used by international consultancy companies in their reports on Africa. This extension of the report will then become published in the IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers (see IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers).


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"Afrikanische Löwen, Afrikanische Tiger und aufstrebende Afrikanische Mittelklassen": Ein neuer Forschungsbericht

Professor Karl Wohlmuth von der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven der Universität Bremen hat einen neuen Forschungsbericht zur "Africa Rising Story" vorgelegt, die in der derzeitigen Diskussion über Afrikas Wachstumsperspektiven eine große Rolle spielt (vgl. den Neuen Forschungsbericht). Der Autor ist an Kommentaren interessiert, die bei neuen Entwürfen auch berücksichtigt werden, denn der Forschungsbericht wird in mehreren Versionen erscheinen.

Afrika wird in den letzten Jahren immer wieder als boomender Kontinent mit riesigen Wachstums- und Investitionschancen portraitiert, und als ein Kontinent mit einigen sehr schnell wachsenden Ländern ("Afrikanische Löwen" und "Afrikanische Tiger"). Mythen spielen bei der Interpretation von Wachstum und Entwicklung in Afrika eine große Rolle und diese überlagern zunehmend Fakten und Realitäten. Wo nahm die "Africa Rising Story" mit "Afrikanischen Löwen" und "Afrikanischen Tigern" ihren Ausgangspunkt? Welche Hintergründe gibt es dafür? Eine besondere Rolle bei der Mythenbildung spielen dabei die internationalen Consultingunternehmen mit ihren Afrikaberichten, also Namen wie McKinsey, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Roland Berger, Bain & Company, The Boston Consulting Group, Ernst & Young, ATKearney, KPMG, Deloitte, und viele andere mehr. Diese Unternehmen haben starken Einfluss auf die ausländischen Investoren, auf die Multinationalen Unternehmen, die in Afrika Geschäfte machen, aber auch auf die Regierungen, die lokale Privatwirtschaft in Afrika und schließlich auch auf die multilaterale und bilaterale Entwicklungszusammenarbeit.

Einige dieser Mythen werden in der Studie diskutiert und mit Fakten und Realitäten konfrontiert (Afrika sei ein Kontinent von besonders schnell wachsenden Ländern; Afrika sei ein Kontinent mit boomenden Wirtschaftssektoren und schnell expandierenden Konsumentenklassen; Afrika sei ein Kontinent mit einer wachsenden Zahl von global agierenden und international wettbewerbsfähigen Unternehmen; Afrika sei ein Kontinent, der zunehmend die Vorteile der "demographischen Dividende" und der "digitalen Revolution" ausschöpfen könne; und Afrika sei ein Kontinent mit einer zunehmend entwicklungsförderlich agierenden afrikanischen Mittelklasse). Auch die methodischen Grundlagen der Berichte dieser internationalen Consultingunternehmen werden geprüft. Es wird auf die Hintergründe und die Motivationen bei der Erstellung dieser Berichte, auf die methodischen und analytischen Ansätze, auf die funktionale Bedeutung der Berichte für Investoren und Regierungen, und auf die Art der Verbreitung der Messages in Afrika und im globalen Kontext eingegangen.

Mit dieser Studie soll ein Rahmen für die kritische Auseinandersetzung mit den Afrikaberichten der internationalen Consultingunternehmen präsentiert werden. Dies ist wichtig, weil die Inhalte dieser Afrikaberichte sehr schnell von der Weltpresse aufgenommen und so die potentiellen Investoren und wichtige politische Entscheidungsträger gezielt beeinflusst werden.

Eine weitere Version dieser Studie wird demnächst vorgelegt; es wird darin stärker auf die methodischen Grundlagen in den Afrikaberichten der internationalen Consultingunternehmen eingegangen werden. Dieser erweiterte Beitrag wird dann in den  IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers veröffentlicht werden (vgl. IWIM Blue Series Discussion Papers).


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Jubiläum des "Jahrbuchs Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven": Pressemitteilung der Universität Bremen

Vor 25 Jahren erschien der erste Band des "African Development Perspectives Yearbook" mit dem Titel "Human Dimensions of Adjustment". Die Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven Bremen feiert ihr Jubiläum und arbeitet intensiv an den Projekten für die kommenden Jahre. Das "Jahrbuch Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven" erscheint seit 1989 als englischsprachige Publikation ("African Development  Perspectives Yearbook"). In diesen 25 Jahren ist das Jahrbuch zu einer international anerkannten Quelle für Information und Analyse zu Afrikas Entwicklungsperspektiven geworden. Beiträge in den Jahrbüchern finden immer wieder die Aufmerksamkeit von Experten in internationalen Organisationen wie auch in nationalen Entwicklungsinstitutionen. Im Jubiläumsjahr 2014 sind sogar zwei Bände des Jahrbuchs erschienen. Beide Bände haben das Thema "Makroökonomische Politikgestaltung in Afrika". Im ersten Band geht auf die allgemeinen Grundlagen der makroökonomischen Politikgestaltung in Afrika und auf die makroökonomische Politikgestaltung in den Ländern des "Arabischen Frühlings" in Nordafrika ein. Im zweiten Band werden vergleichende Länderstudien für einige Sub-Sahara-Länder Afrikas und Regionalstudien präsentiert. Im Rahmen dieser beiden Bände wird ein neuer makroökonomischer Strategieansatz für Afrika entwickelt, der auf fünf Säulen beruht.

Die neue makroökonomische Strategie für Afrika, die von den Experten in ihren Beiträgen vorgeschlagen wird, fordert erstens eine stärkere Nutzung der Spielräume von Geld-, Wechselkurs- und Fiskalpolitik für die Beschäftigungsschaffung. Zweitens soll die makroökonomische Politik die Bedingungen für inklusives und nachhaltiges Wachstum verbessern. Drittens gilt es, die länderspezifischen Faktoren der Verwundbarkeit bei Störungen im Wirtschaftskreislauf zu erkennen und bei der Stärkung der Abwehrkräfte durch makroökonomische Politikreformen und Strukturreformen zu berücksichtigen. Viertens sind der Grad der ökonomischen Globalisierung und der Stand der ökonomischen Governance von Bedeutung für die Wahl der makroökonomischen Ziele und Instrumente. Fünftens sind die zentralen makroökonomischen Institutionen (insbesondere Finanzministerium, Zentralbank, Planungsministerium) stärker als bisher zu vernetzen. In den Länderstudien zeigt sich, dass auf der Grundlage dieser Strategieelemente soziales und nachhaltiges Wachstum in Afrika gefördert werden kann.

Der erste Band des Jahrbuchs, der 1989 erschienen ist, hatte das Thema "Menschliche Dimensionen der Anpassung" ("Human Dimensions of Adjustment"). Das Thema ist bis heute relevant, da es immer wieder darum geht, wie ökonomische Stabilisierungspolitiken sozial verträglich abgefedert werden können. Seit dem ersten Band sind Struktur und Philosophie der Jahrbuchausgaben behutsam weiterentwickelt worden. Die Grundideen, die das Projekt tragen, sind aber beibehalten worden. Dies betrifft die Themenwahl, die inhaltliche Struktur, die Präsentation der Inhalte, die Lesbarkeit, aber auch die wirtschaftspolitische Relevanz der Bände. Die Bände sollen Akteure in Politik, Wirtschaft und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit zu Politikreformen in Afrika anregen. Alle Beiträge gehen daher auf den Handlungsbedarf in der Politik der afrikanischen Länder ein. In diesen 25 Jahren wurden daher viele zentrale Themen afrikanischer Entwicklung fokussiert, die im Mittelpunkt der Reformdiskussionen standen.

Jeder Band hat daher ein Schwerpunktthema, das auf aktuelle Fragen der afrikanischen Wirtschaftsentwicklung bezogen ist. Die Probleme, Möglichkeiten und Chancen Afrikas werden von der lokalen Ebene bis zur globalen Ebene betrachtet, und werden zudem von der Projektebene bis hin zur makroökonomischen Politikebene konkretisiert. Neben den analytischen Beiträgen finden sich Beiträge zur Politikreform und Dokumente (Deklarationen und Resolutionen) von Bedeutung für die Entwicklung des afrikanischen Kontinents. Die Bände sind nach Units (Teilen) organisiert, die von Unit-Herausgebern betreut und eingeführt werden. Dazu kommt, dass afrikanische Autoren und Herausgeber eine immer größere Rolle in der Forschungsgruppe spielen, was die Relevanz der Bände stark erhöht. In einem umfangreichen Review-Teil werden für das Schwerpunktthema relevante Bücher, Zeitschriften, Diskussionsbeiträge und Policy Documents besprochen.

Die Universität Bremen weist in einer Pressemitteilung auf die Bedeutung dieser Publikation hin (Link: und PDF ). Vgl. auch den Bericht in Kooperation international/Eine Initiative vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (Link: und PDF ). 


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Impact of Agricultural Foreign Aid on Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

Impact of Agricultural Foreign Aid on Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa– - An AGRODEP/IFPRI Study by Professor Reuben A. Alabi, Nigeria

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, IWIM's Alexander von Humboldt Research Scholar, has published an important study on the Impact of Agricultural Foreign Aid on Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. The study was facilitated by the international think tank IFPRI (working on agriculture and food security in developing countries and being located in Washington D. C.) and was published by AGRODEP (African Growth & Development Policy modelling consortium). The study investigates the impact of foreign agricultural aid on agricultural GDP and on productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Using secondary data regarding foreign agricultural aid, agricultural GDP and productivity indicators from 47 SSA countries, spanning the period 2002-2010 and employing a Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) framework, the study reveals that foreign agricultural aid has a positive and significant impact on agricultural GDP and on agricultural productivity. There is also an impact of disasters and conflicts in Africa on aid receipts, a finding which implies that foreign agricultural aid responds to disasters and conflicts in the SSA region. The paper is downloadable (online access at ; see also the PDF of the study).

Professor Alabi is also preparing a paper on foreign aid to Africa's agriculture for IWIM's Blue Series Discussion Papers (Link to ). Various of his former studies produced at IWIM in Bremen are available in the Blue Series Discussion Papers. Professor Alabi was recently invited to attend the high-level event German – African Cooperation in Education and Research/Africa Days of the BMBF (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung/Federal Ministry of Education and Research) which took place in Berlin in March 2014 (see the Programme of the event as a PDF). Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth and Agricultural Economics Professor Reuben A. Alabi prepare a research and development project on Solid Waste Management in Nigeria for environmental protection and production uses, with lessons derived from Germany's policies in this regard. Nigeria can learn a lot from the solid waste recycling policies in Germany and from the innovative recycling firms' activities in Germany.


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Twenty Five Years have gone since Volume One of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook was published in 1989: A Development Project with International Impacts
The Start of the Project: The African Development Perspectives Yearbook as an International Development Project

When in 1989 the first volume of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook appeared, nobody in the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen would have anticipated that the Yearbook is still on the market 25 years later, and that the Yearbook would gain international acceptance and recognition – as a source of information on African development perspectives, as a collection of analytical articles, of documentation, and of reviews and book notes. Over the years the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen became a network of researchers, cooperation partners, and development institutions, with increasing participation from Africa. Now, many international and regional organizations, donor agencies, governmental offices, universities, African studies centers, media, and many experts working on and in Africa look carefully at the new issues of the Yearbook. The African Development Perspectives Yearbook considers themes from the local space to the global space, and from the project level to the national policy level; also regional integration and global integration issues are discussed (see about the Research Group and the Yearbook volumes from 1989 to 2014: and the Wikipedia International entry about the importance of the Yearbook: ).


African Development Perspectives Yearbook for 1989              


African Development Perspectives Yearbook for 2014


The First Volume for the Year 1989: "Human Dimensions of Adjustment" as a theme of great Developmental Importance for Africa till now

The first volume for 1989 had the title "Human Dimensions Of Adjustment". At that time the major direction of discussions was how Africa could respond to the demands for effective economic stabilization. Mainstream economics had their recipes and proposed cures, but many critical observers of such strict economic stabilization policies and packages were skeptical. They emphasized a stabilization approach with social adjustment components associated to the economic stabilization package. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives joined the critical and skeptical voices. African critical and skeptical voices on the proposed mainstream stabilization packages were taken very serious by the members of the Research Group. In Volume One of the Yearbook the Khartoum Declaration Towards A Human-Focused Approach To Socio-Economic Recovery And Development In Africa was carefully analyzed and reprinted in full; it was considered as an expression of African voices. Experts from international organizations like UNICEF and ILO who were as well critical and skeptical towards mainstream adjustment packages for Africa as proposed from IMF and World Bank were invited to contribute to Volume One to present their alternative adjustment policies, but also other views on African Alternative Adjustment were presented.


The Structure of the Yearbook and the Philosophy Behind: Comprehensive Analyses towards the Identification of Successful Development Models

The structure of Volume One was more or less preserved over the years, sustained and improved. The Unit 1 (Part of the Yearbook) on the Khartoum Declaration was complemented by various supporting Units; major issues like the relevance of the UN Program for Africa, the upcoming ecological crisis in Africa and the perspectives of Africa's relations with the European Community, were discussed in Volume One. A further Unit was on Successful African Development Models; Botswana was already at that time considered as a successful development model but also Zimbabwe. Another Unit covered adjustment issues of Nigeria; already at that time there were demands on Nigeria to implement long-term development strategies and to manage the huge oil revenues properly. A Unit on African Non-Governmental Organizations and Local Development highlighted the critical role of NGOs and CSOs in Africa. There was also a Unit on Reviews and Book Notes and a Unit on Profiles, News and Information. Both Units brought the Research Group into contact with publishers, editors, universities and research institutions. So it was possible to find partners having similar ideas and beliefs – the network became strengthened.

This model (or philosophy) of the issues of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook was sustained over the 25 years. The Yearbook volumes have a major theme, are focused on issues debated hotly in Africa; more and more African experts, researchers and institutions are involved and do report on their research themes, their development projects and development programs. The Yearbook is organized in a manner that allows it to bring forth the core messages across various Units which are introduced by Unit Editors. The Yearbook contains documents of importance for the Africa region; declarations and statements by regional and international organizations, by NGOs and CSOs on Africa are reproduced. The Yearbook volumes contain a Unit on Reviews and Book Notes filled with specific studies by inviting those to send their material who have written on the particular Yearbook focus. A Network of Experts and Researchers and of Institutions and Organizations was built.


The Current Work and the Future of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook: Consolidating the International Network on Africa

Over the years the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen became involved in international research efforts. Donor agencies and international organizations became interested in the work of the Research Group. Consultancy, evaluation and research assignments to members of the Research Group followed. International research projects were awarded to the Research Group and its members The members of the Research Group who produced over these 25 years (from 1989 to 2014) the various Yearbook volumes are now working as professors at universities and colleges, as international consultants and advisers, and as experts in international, regional and national development organizations.

To celebrate the event, the year 2014 has seen the publication of two volumes with the titles – Macroeconomic Policy Formation – General Issues and Macroeconomic Policy Formation – Country Cases. The interest in these two volumes is great as a new macroeconomic strategy for Africa was elaborated and tested for various country cases. Currently there is intensive work on the volume for 2015 with the title "Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration" as the first drafts from the contributors are reviewed, corrected and revised. Many ideas for further issues are discussed among members of the Research Group. High on the Publication Agenda are issues of New Energy and Sustainable Development Policies in Africa after Fukushima and Science, Technology and Innovation Policies for Exploiting Leapfrogging Opportunities in Africa. The Scientific Coordinator of the Research Group is still Professor Emeritus Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, Professor of Comparative Economic Systems at Bremen University; the Managing Editor is Professor Dr. Tobias Knedlik, Professor of International Economics at Fulda University, and the Review Editor is Professor Dr. Achim Gutowski, Professor of Innovation and Change Management at the University Campus in Hamburg.


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