Publikationsprojekt Afrika-Jahrbuch

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20.10.2015
Das Europäische Parlament diskutiert über die EPAs (Economic Partnership Agreements) zwischen EU und Wirtschaftsregionen in Afrika

Im Europäischen Parlament wird jetzt sowohl im Handelsausschuss als auch im Entwicklungsausschuss über die vereinbarten Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) diskutiert (vgl. die Passagen zu den Rechtsgrundlagen einer Befassung des Europäischen Parlaments in den Europaverträgen: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/atyourservice/en/displayFtu.html?ftuId=FTU_6.2.3.html ). Diese Abkommen sollen das Verhältnis zwischen der EU und den AKP-Staaten neu bestimmen. Bereits seit dem Jahr 2000 (Cotonou-Abkommen) wird über diese neue Form der Wirtschaftsbeziehungen und der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit verhandelt. Aber auch im Jahr 2015 ist dieser Prozess noch nicht abgeschlossen. Einige Abkommen sind zwar seit dem Jahr 2014 ausverhandelt, aber noch nicht ratifiziert geschweige denn implementiert. Viele Fragen sind noch offen, sowohl auf afrikanischer Seite als auch auf europäischer Seite. Bis zuletzt versuchten die AKP-Länder, Alternativen zu den EPAs durchzusetzen, doch ohne Erfolg (vgl. dazu die Position der AKP-Länder vom April 2014: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/etudes/join/2014/433843/EXPO-DEVE_ET%282014%29433843_EN.pdf ). Zu diesem Thema wird nach wie überaus kontrovers diskutiert, auch in Bremen.

Professor Karl Wohlmuth bei seinem Vortrag über die Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) mit Afrika

Am 11. Juni 2015 fand im EuropaPunktBremen eine interessante und kontroverse Diskussion über Chancen und Risiken der „Economic Partnership Agreements“ (EPA) statt. Der Entwicklungsökonom Prof. Dr. Karl Wohlmuth (IWIM, Universität Bremen) stellte den historischen Hintergrund und den aktuellen Stand der Verhandlungen zwischen der Europäischen Union und fünf regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften in Afrika dar (vgl. die PDF von Prof. Karl Wohlmuth). Es handelt sich um die westafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft ECOWAS, die Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft SADC im südlichen Afrika, die Ostafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft EAC, die zentralafrikanische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft und den Gemeinsamen Markt für das östliche und südliche Afrika ESA. Aber nur in zwei Abkommen der EU mit regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften sind alle afrikanischen Mitgliedsländer vertreten (ECOWAS und EAC). Daher kann nur in diesen beiden regionalen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften die regionale Integration durch die EPAs unterstützt werden. Es ist den beiden afrikanischen Wirtschaftsgemeinschaften in den letzten Verhandlungsrunden aber gelungen, die vorgeschlagenen EPA-Vertragstexte deutlich zu verbessern (durch Ausnahmen von der geforderten Handelsliberalisierung, Schutzklauseln, Regionalfonds, Dialogforen, etc.). Professor Wohlmuth ging daher besonders auf die Beispiele des ECOWAS-EPA und des EAC-EPA ein, da diese Abkommen doch einige interessante innovative Elemente enthalten und wesentliche Kritikpunkte ausräumen, die zurecht moniert worden sind (vgl. als Beispiel den aktuellen Vertragstext des ECOWAS-EPA: http://twnafrica.org/ECOWAS%20WA%20&%20EU%20EPA%20draft%20text%20as%20at%20Feb%202014.pdf ). Aus einem reinen Freihandelsabkommen ist dadurch ein Handels- und Entwicklungsabkommen geworden.

Der Abgeordnete für Bremen im Europäischen Parlament, Dr. Joachim Schuster (SPD), ergänzte diese Darstellung um die Berichterstattung aus dem Handelsausschuss des Parlaments, dessen Mitglied er ist. Ein Schwerpunkt der Diskussion in Bremen war die Frage, wie es gelingen kann, die angestrebte Handelsliberalisierung (sofortige vollständige Liberalisierung auf Seiten der EU und mittel- bis langfristige Liberalisierung auf Seiten der afrikanischen Wirtschaftsregionen) an die Bedingungen der Einführung sozialer, humanitärer sowie demokratiestärkender Maßnahmen in den afrikanischen Ländern zu knüpfen. In der Diskussion verdeutlichte sich, dass schon diese Verhandlungsposition der EU bei der Ausgestaltung von Handels- und Entwicklungsabkommen mit Afrika alles andere als einfach ist. Hinzu kommt der globale Konkurrenzdruck von Ländern anderer Regionen, wie Indien oder China, die mitunter mit sehr attraktiven Angeboten anstreben, in den afrikanischen Markt zu drängen und die Länder in neue wirtschaftliche Abhängigkeiten zu bringen. Auch die Rolle der USA in Afrika wird gerade neu bestimmt. Auch darauf muss die EU eine Antwort finden. Die EPAs bieten nach Ansicht von Prof. Wohlmuth daher eine Chance, die Wirtschaftsbeziehungen mit Afrika grundlegend neu - und zudem vertraglich mit Bindungswirkung für beide Seiten - zu bestimmen. Dr. Joachim Schuster betonte besonders den erwarteten Beitrag zur nachhaltigen, demokratischen, friedensstiftenden und sozialen Entwicklung in Afrika.

In der Beurteilung von Chancen und Risiken der Bestimmungen der WTO als Basis für solche Abkommen zeigte sich dennoch eine unterschiedliche Einschätzung zwischen den Diskutanten. Während Professor Wohlmuth den Aspekt des Schutzes von Mindestnormen durch WTO-Bedingungen betonte, zeigte sich Dr. Joachim Schuster hier skeptischer und fordert eindeutige soziale und demokratische Verpflichtungen aller Verhandlungspartner, beispielsweise durch Einbindung auch zivilgesellschaftlicher Gruppen aus den beteiligten Ländern in die Verhandlungen. Dies wird auch und insbesondere in der Phase der Implementierung der EPAs wichtig werden. Die Veranstaltung war gut besucht und zeichnete sich durch eine lebhafte Diskussion aus (vgl. zu den Berichten über Inhalte und Ablauf der Diskussion die folgenden Mitteilungen der veranstaltenden Institutionen: http://www.europa.bremen.de/detail.php?gsid=bremen97.c.12254.de&asl=bremen97.c.3173.de und http://aia-bremen.de/ und http://joachim-schuster.eu/veranstaltung-zu-freihandelsabkommen-der-eu-mit-den-afrikanischen-staaten/#more-1724 ).

Professor Karl Wohlmuth in der Diskussion mit dem Publikum über die Folgen der EPAs

Von der Forschungsgruppe Afrikanische Entwicklungsperspektiven, die Professor Karl Wohlmuth am IWIM leitet, wird zu dem Thema demnächst der Band 18 des African Development Perspectives Yearbook herausgegeben, in dem es um die EPAs und um neue transformative Strategien der regionalen Integration in Afrika geht. Die Mitherausgeberin des Bandes 18 des Jahrbuchs, Isabelle Ramdoo vom European Centre for Development Policy Management/ECDPM in Maastricht, Niederlande, und ihr Kollege Dr. San Bilal haben kürzlich zum Verhandlungsstand bei den EPAs und zu den Perspektiven der EU-AKP-Kooperation eine informative Studie herausgegeben (vgl. dazu:  http://ecdpm.org/wp-content/uploads/Great_Insights_Vol3_Issue9_Oct-Nov_2014.pdf ). Der Dialog über die EPAs soll in Bremen fortgesetzt werden.

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20.10.2015
African Economic Research Consortium (AERC): IWIM Professor Reuben A. Alabi is an active collaborator at AERC International Research Conferences

Again Professor Alabi, Guest professor at IWIM, was invited to an AERC conference in Addis Ababa to report on ongoing researches about “Pro-poorness of fertilizer and agrochemical use and its implications on food security in Nigeria”. He has developed at IWIM a methodology to analyze the pro-poorness of fertilizer subsidies from the side of state and federal governments in Nigeria. He will participate at the AERC Biannual Research Workshop in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in November/December 2015 for a full week; he will give presentations and he will participate at discussions. AERC is a leading research foundation for the support of African scientists to become part of the international research community. The invitation was presented to him by the Executive Director of AERC in Nairobi, Kenya.

As an AGRODEP member, Professor Reuben A. Alabi was invited to attend a high level “Applied Panel Data Econometrics” training course. The AGRODEP/IFPRI Dakar Management Team has selected Professor Alabi from a long list of candidates. The training workshop took place in Dakar, Senegal, on September 7-11, 2015. AGRODEP (African Growth & Development Policy) Modelling Consortium, facilitated by IFPRI, is an institution to support African agricultural economists. The programme is supported by the prestigious IFPRI (International Food Policy Research Institute) in Washington D.C. (see the Link to AGRODEP: http://www.agrodep.org/ ). The aims of AGRODEP are self-described as follows: “The African Growth and Development Policy Modelling Consortium is an initiative aimed at positioning African experts to take a leadership role in the study of strategic development questions and the broader agricultural growth and policy debate facing African countries.” and “AGRODEP maintains repositories of economic models and data sets, related documentation and research output available to all Network Members.”

Professor Reuben Adeolu Alabi, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria and IWIM, University of Bremen, and Adams Oshobugie Ojor Adams, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma Edo State, Nigeria, presented a research report on “The Pro-Poorness of Fertilizer Subsidy and its Implications on Food Security in Nigeria” (see the Research Report and the Agenda of the Conference in Arusha, Tanzania) at the Biannual AERC Research Workshop. An AERC Plenary Session on “Sovereign Wealth Funds and Natural Resource Management in Africa” and five Research Groups Meetings were held from May 31-June 4, 2015 in Arusha, Tanzania.

Professor Reuben A. Alabi, IWIM and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, IWIM, presented the paper “The Case of Sustainable Management of Solid Waste in Germany: Practical Lessons for Nigeria based on the Country State of Bremen” at the 2nd International Summit: Waste Summit 2015, Financing Management In Developing Economies, 22nd - 24th April 2015, Lagos, Nigeria (see the Extended Abstract). The Waste Summit was organized by the Waste Management Society Of Nigeria (WAMASON) and the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). These are leading environmental organizations in Nigeria (see the two websites: http://www.environmental-expert.com/companies/waste-management-society-of-nigeria-wamason-24860 and http://www.iswa.org/ ). Professor Reuben A. Alabi is the Project Director of the Research Programme “Environment and Development Management Nigeria-Germany: Comparing Waste Management Value Chains” at IWIM, University of Bremen. At Lagos, the Paper and a Power Point Presentation were given. Professor Karl Wohlmuth is Consultant and Senior Advisor in the Project since January 2015. The duration of the Project is through end of 2017.

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Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration: Call for Papers for Volume 18

The Call for Papers for Volume 18 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook is still open (see PDF Call for Papers). The Editors welcome further proposals and suggestions.

Of great interest in the new volume are case studies on successful African exporters; case studies of successful partnerships between firms in Africa and in US, Europe and Asia; case studies of global value chains with increasing higher value added African participation in areas such as agro-industries, mining beneficiation and manufacturing; country reports on new trade and industry policies; and sector reports on value addition to exports of commodities. Also case studies on entrepreneurial networks of the African diaspora with a favourable impact on African exports are considered.

Also for the Book Review and Book Notes Section further contributions are welcomed: books, journals, documents, reports, working papers of relevance for the theme of volume 18.

 

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The African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 16 — The Flagship Publication of IWIM

The New Macroeconomic Strategy For Africa as developed in Volume 16 focusses on employment-targeting by considering the policy space for more facilitating fiscal, monetary and exchange rate policies. The New Strategy emphasizes also the vulnerability to (external and internal) shocks and the resilience factors so as to cope successfully with these shocks. As well the New Strategy considers those elements of macroeconomic policies which support inclusive and sustainable growth. Also, the New Strategy requests the adaptation of macroeconomic policies to the specific levels of economic governance and economic globalization of the country in question. Last, but not least, in the New Strategy institutional factors, such as a better cooperation of the three poles of macroeconomic policy-making (Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning, Central Bank), are taken into account.

Volume 16 also presents an analysis of the economics of the Arab Spring countries. How the political situation in the Arab Spring countries will develop in the years to come is unclear, but the need for sustainable macroeconomic policies and for inclusive growth policies is evident. The economics of the Arab Spring countries reveals that - despite of considerable economic growth prior to the Arab Spring events – inadequate employment growth, slow human capital accumulation, and a highly restricted and unequal access to economic opportunities are among the major causes of the “Arab Spring” uprisings. There is more need for employment targeting in macroeconomic policies, for macroeconomic policies emphasizing inclusive growth policies, and for considering vulnerability and resilience factors, economic governance and economic globalization trends, and institutional reforms regarding the key macroeconomic policy-making institutions.

Because of the great number of high-quality submissions of papers for Volume 18 on Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration the International Call for Papers for this volume was closed recently (but submissions of papers on successfully and competitively exporting African companies and on global and regional value chains led by African firms are still accepted).

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is released since 1989 by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen. The Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen celebrates in 2014 a quarter of a century of publication activity. Over the years the African Development Perspectives Yearbook became the major English-language Annual on African Development in Germany. Volumes 16 and 17 were supported with contributions and advice by staff from ILO/Geneva, UNESCWA/Beirut and UNDP/Cairo, by staff from research institutions in Egypt, Nigeria and Senegal, and by staff from ECOWAS/WAMZ/WAMI institutions in West Africa. The Managing Editor (Professor Dr. T. Knedlik, University of Fulda and IWH Halle), the Review Editor (Professor Dr. A. Gutowski, University Campus Hamburg) and the Volume Editor (Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth, University of Bremen) prepare now Volume 18 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook for the year 2015 with the title “Africa’s Progress towards Regional and Global Economic Integration”. See more about the Yearbook Project ( http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/about.htm ). See the complete list of Yearbook volumes since 1989 at http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/africa/africanyearbook.htm and the list of the Yearbook volumes being still available with the publisher at: http://www.lit-verlag.de/reihe/adpy.

 

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African Development Perspectives Yearbook Volume 17: International Call for Papers and Invitation to Guest Editors

Volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with the title "Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa" has been finalized and the manuscript is now with the publisher (see the Synopsis for Volume 16), and the work on Volume 17 with the title "Africa's Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration" is starting soon.

Contributors are invited to submit their proposals and abstracts (see the International Call for Papers for Volume 17) to the Editors. Also potential Guest Editors are invited to express their interest to edit one of the four Units of Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook - from the conceptual start to the final editorial work. Guest Editors can see the details about the four Units in the Call for Papers for Volume 17. Please contact the Managing Editor and the Volume Editor of Volume 17 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook in case of interest. For Unit 5 (Unit with Book Reviews and Book Notes) publishers and institutes are invited to send their books, research papers, issues of journals and documents to the Book Reviews/Book Notes Editor (see also the respective details in the International Call for Papers for Volume 17).

The African Development Perspectives Yearbook is published by the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen which has established since 1989 (the year of the publication of Volume 1 on Human Dimensions of Adjustment) an international network of scientific supporters and contributors (see details on the Research Group on African Development Perspectives). The African Development Perspectives Yearbook selects for each volume a specific theme of utmost importance for the building of new policy and governance frameworks in Africa (see the details about the already Published Volumes of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook). The main purpose of the edited volumes is it to inform the public about recent developments in Africa - by academic articles, analytical reports, specific country information and project reports. The aim is also to influence about inclusive and sustainable development strategies in Africa policy makers in governments, in the UN and related organizations, in the global donor community and in international NGOs, but also development experts at universities and media people.

 

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Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa: International Call for Papers for Volume 16 of the Africa Yearbook

Because of the great number of submissions for Volume 16 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook the International Call for Papers is closed for Unit 1 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa: Major Issues), Unit 2 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in North African "Arab Spring" Countries) and Unit 3 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Fragile and Post-Conflict African Countries).

Still open is the International Call for Papers for Unit 4 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Western and Central Africa), particularly for submissions on Central African countries, and for Unit 5 (Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Eastern and Southern Africa).

Also for Unit 6 (Book Reviews and Book Notes) further inputs (books, discussion papers, research papers, research documents) from publishers, development institutions and research institutes are welcomed.

Call for Papers Volume 16: Macroeconomic Policy Formation in Africa

 

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New UNIDO Report on Africa's Agroindustry and Agribusiness Released in Vienna:

Economics Professor Karl Wohlmuth and UNIDO Director for West Africa Patrick M. Kormawa have released the new report Agribusiness for Africa's Prosperity, Country Case Studies. The report contains eight case studies (Cameroon, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, and Zambia). Throughout these country case studies analyze the following issues: the case for agro-industrial development; the structure and dynamics of agro-industries; the policies for developing agro-industries; the key policy factors for promoting agribusiness; and the visions, plans, and way forward. 

Professor Karl Wohlmuth and UNIDO Director Kormawa highlight the issues and give an overview of the study in the first chapter on Context of Agro-industry in Africa. The country cases are reviewed and assessed. Interesting results for policymakers emerged from the case studies: the ranking of the eight countries according to the actual transformation stage of agro-industry and agribusiness reveals that landlocked and least developed countries can develop these branches of industry with positive effects on employment, poverty reduction, value addition and trade creation, and with sustainable effects on agricultural development and industrialization. 

In the final chapter Conclusions the two editors of the report give lessons of more general developmental importance that were derived from the study; as well recommendations for policymakers are presented so as to enable them to modify agro-industrial development policies. Also there are views presented in the report on necessary changes and refinements for UNIDO projects and programs in the eight countries. A New Industrial Policy Framework is proposed and outlined in some detail. 

The report gives evidence on the state of agribusiness in these eight countries and is intended to equip policymakers with new analysis, new facts, innovative solutions and comparative insights. The Report is part of the UNIDO project Value Addition to African Industry/Agribusiness for Africa's Prosperity that was guided by the UNIDO Director General Kandeh K. Yumkella and executed by Patirck M. Kormawa, UNIDO Director for West Africa. Professor Karl Wohlmuth has worked as an International Consultant in this Project (see details about the New Project Agro-industries: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/Agro-IndustrialDevelopment.htm and for bibliographic reference the Publications Karl Wohlmuth: http://www.iwim.uni-bremen.de/publikationen/pub-wohlmuth.htm)

 

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Agro-industrial Development in Nigeria: New Publications by IWIM's Guest Professor Reuben A. Alabi

This is to inform the public about new researches done by Professor Reuben A. Alabi who is now for three years in Bremen at the Excellence University to do researches on "Waste Management Value Chains in Nigeria. Lessons from Germany and the Country State of Bremen".

The most recent study on agro-industrial development in Nigeria is “Economic Analysis of Effect of Flood on Income Distribution among Farmers in Edo State, Nigeria”. Osasogie Daniel Izevbuwa from the Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria has contributed also to this study (see the PDF of the Journal Article and the Link to the study: http://ijraf.org/v2-i3.php ). What did the study reveal?:

The study estimated the effect of flood on the income distribution of the victims in Etsako East Local Government Area of Edo State. A multistage sampling technique was employed to sample respondents for the study. Questionnaire and interview schedule were used to obtain information from the farmers. The data obtained were analysed econometrically. The income inequality increased among the victims due to the lopsidedness of the distribution of the compensation. For example, the study indicates that the middle income group lost 18% of their income during the flood and they got only 13% of the total compensation, whereas the richest income group lost 33% of their income and received 44% of the total compensation. Corruption and nepotism/tribalism have been implicated for the skewed distribution of the compensation among the victims.

In the prestigious International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in Washington D.C. Professor Alabi and his research team have published the study: “Analysis of Agricultural Public Expenditures in Nigeria, Examination at the Federal, State, and local Government Levels”. The study was published as an IFPRI Discussion Paper 01395 in December 2014 by the Development Strategy and Governance Division (see the PDF of the IFPRI Study). The study comes out with important messages:

The level of public spending on agriculture in Nigeria remains low regardless of the indicator used. Agricultural spending as a share of total federal spending averaged 4.6 percent between 2008 and 2012 and has been trending downward precipitously. In contrast, Nigeria recorded an annual average agricultural growth rate of more than 6 percent between 2003 and 2010, and agricultural gross domestic product followed an increasing trend between 2008 and 2012. Budgetary allocation to agriculture compared with other key sectors is also low despite the sector's role in the fight against poverty, hunger, and unemployment and in the pursuit of economic development. To develop the agricultural sector, all tiers of government—federal, state, and local—should increase spending. The state and local governments should step up efforts to increase internally generated revenue so as to reduce overdependence on allocations from the federation account.

Professor Reuben A. Alabi is also contributing to Volume 19 of the African Development Perspectives Yearbook with an Essay on The Role Of International Organisations In Promoting Agricultural Export Trade In Sub-Sahara Africa. This study is done in cooperation with Professor Kehinde Omotola Adejuwon, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. This study examines the role of international organisations in promoting agricultural exports in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA), with particular emphasis on IFAD, WTO, and especially the Aid For Trade (AFT) programmes. The study concentrates on four major export crops in SSA, such as cocoa, coffee, cashew and cotton. Professor Alabi is now cooperating since 2004 with the African Development Perspectives Yearbook project.

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Die Entwicklungsperspektiven von Südafrika

Abgehängtes Schwellenland?

"Südafrika braucht dringend starke Reformen"

Interview mit Professor Dr. Karl Wohlmuth zu den wirtschaftlichen Perspektiven Südafrikas; vgl. Web Access:

http://www.econoafrica.com/wirtschaft-politik/suedafrika-braucht-dringend-starke-reformen/

 

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Towards Sustainable Science, Technology, Industry, and Innovation (STII) Policies in Tunisia - A Cooperation between the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen and Tunisian Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Institutions

Professor Jelel Ezzine, President of the Tunisian Association for the Advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation (TAASTI), Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Tunis (ENIT), University of Tunis El-Manar (UTM), has invited the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen to cooperate on the development of a Master Degree Programme in Engineering and Technology Policy (ETP) and on the establishment of an African Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Policy Institute as well as on the creation of a Pan-African Innovation Ecosystem (PAIES). Tunisia's success of its economic transformation process is dependent on progress in making STI a major force of growth and development.

A Fact Finding Mission to Tunisia will take place in November 2014. Participants are three members of the Research Group on African Development Perspectives Bremen (Professor Hans-Heinrich Bass, Bremen; Professor Achim Gutowski, Hamburg; and Professor Karl Wohlmuth, Bremen) and from the Cultural Sciences Professor Dr. Cordula Weisskoeppel, University of Bremen. Also two young scientists from the University of Applied Sciences Bremen (from a research working group of Professor Bass) will participate as members of the team. The Fact Finding Mission will give the opportunity to study Tunisia's National Innovation System, to discuss with representatives of Tunisian government institutions and of Higher Education and STI institutions. There will also be time to discuss about the future cooperation with Professor Ezzine and his team. This first phase of the cooperation is financed by the DAAD. Professor Bass, University of Applied Sciences Bremen,  was the main applicant.  Further already scheduled programme components for 2015 are a STII Summer School in Bremen and a STII Research Conference in Tunis.

 

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